The study is on demarketing of tobacco in Nigeria: the marketing mix perspectives. The study is a descriptive survey and it specifically examined the effect of product elaboration on consumers’ attitude toward smoking, and intention to quit smoking; the effect of price elaboration on consumers’ attitude toward smoking, and intention to quit smoking; the effect of place elaboration on consumers’ attitude toward smoking, and intention to quit smoking and effect of promotion elaboration on consumers’ attitude toward smoking, and intention to quit smoking. Primary data for this study was collected through questionnaires while secondary data was collected from the International tobacco Control (http://www.itcproject.org). Consumers of products of two tobacco companies operating in Nigeria constitute the population for the study. The two companies are: International Tobacco Company, Ilorin and Nigeria tobacco company, Ibadan. Since the population of smokers in Nigeria is unknown, convenience sampling technique was used to select 364 smokers from Ondo and Ekiti State. Inclusion criteria for this study defined smokers as those who have smoked atleast 100 sticks of cigarette in their life time and who still smoked at least once a day. Out of 364 questionnaires that were distributed, 355 (97.5%) were returned. Data analysis was done using Cronbach’s Alpha, frequency analysis, descriptive analysis, linear regression and one sample t-test. The linear regression tests show that elaboration of the 4Ps of marketing otherwise known as the marketing mix have significant effects on consumers’ attitude toward smoking and intention to quit smoking. It was therefore recommended among others that the government of Nigeria should develop a suitable legislature aim at further reducing the acceptability and appeal of smoking; increase smoke-free places and decrease accessibility of people to tobacco.
Perception Analysis and Consumer Behaviour on Purchasing Shell Helix Lubricate Oil Product by Pt. Tira Wira Usaha (Published)
At present most companies not only produce products and sell them, but switch to consumers to meet their needs and wants. Environmental factors, technological developments and corporate competition will affect the value and consumer satisfaction towards the products offered. Marketing is a social and managerial process whereby individuals and groups get their needs and wants by creating, offering and exchanging something of value to each other. Products are things that can be offered to the market to be noticed, obtained, used or consumed that can meet the wants or needs of consumers.Consumer’s age of Shell Helix lubricants varies in meaning that can be used by all ages and the most user of Shell Helix lubricants are aged 26 – 30 years. Consumer perceptions towards product attributes on consumer behaviour towards Shell Helix lubricant oil purchasing turns out to have a significant effect.
This study aims to identify the innovation practices and obstacles in a sample of small and medium enterprises at the province of “Batna”, Algeria. The researcher has distributed 88 questionnaires to the individuals of the study’s sample: managers and their assistants, heads of departments. Eighty-two (82) questionnaires were restored, and after sorting them, it was observed that they are all valid for analysis. The researcher relied on the statistical software (SPSS) for data processing using percentages, arithmetic averages, standard deviations, one-way analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and simple regression. After a descriptive analysis of the study and testing hypotheses, and based on the obtained results, a set of recommendations were provided including:
- There is an important statistically significant effect of the dimensions of the supporting factors for innovation (the entrepreneur’s personal characteristics, information technology, human resources management and financing source) in the innovation types (product and production process).
- There is a statistically significant positive relationship between innovation obstacles and the types of achieved innovation.
- The respondents’ perceptions of the innovation outputs level moderately
- There is a low correlation between chronological age, the number of the products of the enterprises under study and the types of innovation, while the correlation was high with the industrial sector.
Evaluation of Product and Service E-Procurement Policy within the Environment of Tangerang Municipal Government (Published)
The core of the problem in this research is about Evaluation of Products and Service e-Procurement Policy within the Environment of Tangerang Municipal Government. This research was conducted using qualitative descriptive method. Informants for this research was nine evaluators consisting of five persons of Municipal Secretary, one person from the inspectorate, one person from Information and Communication Service/UPTD LPSE and two persons from product/service providers. Results of this research show that evaluation of the product and service e-procurement policy based on the effectiveness criterion was not effective yet, because in the auction target there were several activity packages that should be re-auction – that are 163 packages in 2012 and 580 packages in 2013. In addition, E-Procurement System (Sistem Pengadaan Secara Electronic, SPSE) had not been capable of detecting erroneous or mistaken administrative bundles. For efficiency criterion, it was shown that the target of efficiency has been achieved, as suggested by budget efficiency from the HPS (self-estimated price) ratio with the work contract at 12.27 percents in 2012 and 10.62 percents in 2013. For the adequacy criterion, it was revealed that the result has been adequate, in respect of authority given to the task force (Pokja) to conduct auction process as stipulated in either Perpres (Presidential Decree) No. 70 year 2012 which is the second amendment of the Perpres (Presidential Decree) No. 54 year 2010 or the Decree of Product and/or Service Procurement Department. For the criterion of even distribution, the result was not good yet, because information obtained by from evaluation conducted by evaluators were not reported to the policy maker (the city mayor), and were also not delivered to head of SKPD. Likewise, for the criterion of responsiveness, the result was not good yet, because local businessmen or entrepreneurs still asked assistance and guidelines, in the form of two-monthly meetings, from the Tangerang local government. Until now, such meeting was conducted only once in the form of construction service technical training conducted by the Urban Planning Service. Whereas for the criterion of accuracy, it was known that the result was accurate or feasible for the community needs, because of the existing generality, consistence, clarity and fairness and efficiency.
Service Delivery at Fuel Service Stations: An Evaluation of Consumer Satisfaction in Gaborone, Botswana (Published)
The study sought to evaluate consumer satisfaction with regard to fuelling services in Gaborone, Botswana. The importance of four of the five operations performance objectives (Quality, Speed, Dependability and Flexibility) to the motorists was determined. The performance rating of various fuel service stations (FSSs) on the four operations objectives was determined. The aim was to establish if the FSSs were excelling in those operations objectives considered important by the consumer. Results showed that the order of importance of the four operations performance objectives was: Speed (71.9%), Quality (70.2%), Flexibility (59.6%), and Dependability (56.1%). The most important objective for FSSs to excel in is speed. However, FSSs still need to perform reasonably well in the other objectives as their ratings (all over 50%) indicate that they are also important to the customers. The performance ranking for the FSSs was Quality (93.0%), Dependability (91.2%), Speed (87.7%), and Flexibility (57.9%). The FSSs performed better in the Quality and Dependability objectives yet the Speed objective was the most important to the consumers. Significance testing using the Chi Square Test indicate that the strongest relationship between importance and performance exists for the Flexibility objective (Pearsons correlation-Asymp.Sig = .025) and is weakest for the Speed objective (Pearsons correlation-Asymp.Sig = .105). This indicates that FSSs were not excelling in the objective that is most important to the consumer- Speed. FSSs in Gaborone need to improve service delivery by increasing the speed of serving customers.