Perception is arguably one of the most contentious issues in epistemology or the theory of knowledge. It is in fact considered a fulcrum of the discourse as it appears to encapsulate the different thought patterns as to the explanation of how epistemological agents encounter and extract basic bodies of knowledge from the world as it is. Different theories have however been put forward in the explanation of how perception translates to a true, justified belief of the external world, ourselves and extra sensory states. This paper is therefore a review of some of the prominent theories of perception. It also analyses some of the fundamental propositions of the theories in the process of knowing and justifying what is known. It concludes that the theories are rather, more complimentary than divergent since perception can either be sensory or introspective.
Problems of Insufficient Practical Equipment: A study through Technical and Vocational Education in Bangladesh (Published)
The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the most important problems of technical and vocational education with eager explanation due to insufficient practical apparatus in technical and vocational institution in Bangladesh. Technical and vocational education aims at implementing empirical and practical action in education and profession. But the problems in practical education are getting bigger day by day due to lack of adequate practical equipment in technical and vocational institutions in Bangladesh. This present study is a study of the problems of teaching in practical education at technical and vocational education in Bangladesh in order to find out some useful means with the help of which science teachers especially teachers of practical subjects can effectively teach about practical in the classroom and students can study superior technique. There have some problem of practical teachers, classroom, practical apparatus and textbook of practical. The researcher has identified the problems of teaching practical and recommended probable remedial measures about the problems. The Research work was done according to the method of qualitative and quantitative or somehow mixed. The study was conducted on a random sample of 270 respondents in technical and vocational institutes in Sirajganj district. Questionnaires were used to collect data from the students and teachers to assess the situation of practical equipment in technical and vocational education of Bangladesh. In this study, the researcher concludes that the problems identified here are more or less all over Bangladesh and tried to solve the respective problem. Finally, the researcher wants to conclude that the concerned authorities will take the necessary steps to solve the problems of practical matters of the technical and vocational institutes in Bangladesh.
Problems in Arabic-English translation of articles encountered by Saudi Students (Published)
The present study aimed at investigating the problems of translating articles from Arabic into English encountered by a sample of Saudi students. The study employed one data collection tool which was a translation test. The test was administered to 25 fresh students at the Community College of King Saud University in the first semester of the academic year 2019. The examination of the data showed that 57.2% of the students could not translate articles into English correctly. There were four main findings with regard to the type of error made by the students in the translation of articles into English. These were the overuse of ‘the’, the wrong use of ‘a or an’, the omission of ‘the’ and the omission of ‘a or an’. Based on these types of errors, the researcher offered some logical explanations. As this difficulty proved to be serious, the researcher suggested carrying out some large-scale studies to either confirm the findings of this study or add other insights into the topic of the present study.
The Impact of the Learning Strategy through Solving Problems in the Development of Academic Achievement for Jordanian Public School Students in Biology (Published)
: The objective of the present study was to identify the impact of problem solving strategy in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students in biology. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive approach in terms of applying the study tool, data collection and analysis, The study population may be from all 10th grade in the southern Ghor District, The sample of the study consisted of a group of students from the 10th grade of Al Safi Secondary School for Boys with (30) students. The study found that there is an impact of the problem solving strategy in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students. (65%) in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students in the biology sector. He recommended that the problem solving strategy be implemented in all areas of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan because of its many benefits in the development of academic achievement for Jordanian public schools students In biology
In strict theory, causation (called ‘cause in fact’) and remoteness (called ‘cause in law’) must be dealt with as two separate requirements in each case. Causation is a matter of fact and requires the claimant to prove that the negligent act caused the damage complained of. The rules concerning remoteness of damage are a matter of law and broadly require the claimant to establish that the damage was of a kind which was reasonably foreseeable. It is concerned with setting a limit on the extent of the harm for which the defendant should be held liable. However, it is not always a clear cut issue to establish where causation ends and remoteness begins, nor is it always a simple matter to separate some aspects of remoteness from issues which arise in relation to duty of care. Both causation and remoteness of damage frequently turn on issues of policy. Both are relevant throughout the law of tort and are dealt with in connection with negligence for the sake of completeness.
This study aims at investigating the basics factor and reasons that has relation with difficulties and problems. The study also aims at identifying these factors, showing the kind of factors, introducing reasons in details and suggest suitable solution. For these purpose, research questions are posed. The study focus on factors makes problems and difficulty. Translation is viewed as a number of problems of different kinds that require suitable and possible solutions. English and Arabic belong to two different language families Germanic and semitic, therefore difficulty will definitely arise. Some grammatical features of both languages pose problems in translation from Arabic into English or vice versa. Arab students should know that English grammar is not identical with Arabic grammar so we cannot translate each other in a straightforward way.
Gas Flaring In Nigeria: Problems and Prospects (Published)
The issue of gas flaring in Nigeria has become a topical one in view of the devastating effect gas flaring has in the socio-economic lives of the people in the affected areas. Historically, it is said that gas flaring is as old as oil production in Nigeria. Oil exploratory activities of oil companies in Nigeria have caused gas flaring resulting in loss of lives and properties in the affected communities where gas is flared. There is no specific legal framework that prohibits gas flaring in Nigeria inspite of the environmental problems associated with it. The existing law that appears to regulate gas flaring in Nigeria is not effective as it does not completely prohibit gas flaring but only provide monetary penalties for continued flaring of gas by oil companies in Nigeria. The Judiciary therefore appeared to have championed the cause for the abolition of gas flaring in Nigeria. This paper examines the legal framework for gas flaring in Nigeria and further identifies the problems and prospects associated with the flaring of gas in Nigeria and makes useful recommendations
Corporate Social Responsibility and Its Implementation in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects. (Published)
Businesses generally are created or established to maximize profit through effective and efficient management of human and material resources in line with their predetermined vision, mission, policy and goal(s). In the course of maximising profits companies annex natural resources- foreign and local, as a result impacting positively and negatively in the environment where it exists. In other to remedy the problems brought about by the operations of these companies to the people and environment where they operate, the management of these businesses through rendering of some social services in turn pay back to the community, hence the concept corporate social responsibility (CSR). It is in line with the above statement that this paper aims at studying the commitment of foreign as well as local businesses in achievement of corporate social responsibility in Nigeria. The research adopted the qualitative research, as it reviews the literature relating to the problems of implementing CSR in Nigeria. After critical x-ray of related write-ups on the topic under study, we found out that some factors such as inability of Nigeria Government to enforce CSR into Law, corruption and selfishness, lack of interest in implementing CSR, political and social insecurity poses as a serious obstacle to companies to implement CSR effectively and efficiently in Nigeria. Finally the study recommended among other things that the Government of Nigeria should put into law, which is providing a legal framework for companies on Corporate Social Responsibility. This will make CSR to be taken seriously and seen as obligatory as against non-obligatory.
The recent increase in random approaches to translating Arabic proper names into English has led to serious discrepancies in their transliterations as well as difficulties and problems in identifying one’s identity. This paper is an attempt to shed light on this phenomenon and to investigate the many problems and difficulties encountered in transliterating Arabic proper names in birth, marriage, passport and other personal documents. Venuti’s Foreignisation Approach, a theoretical framework for standardisation of the transliteration of Arabic proper names, was used for analysis and discussion. Results of the analysis and discussion of samples in this paper have indicated that there is an urgent need for a mechanism in order to help use a standardised profile for transliterating Arabic proper names all around the Arab world. To achieve this objective, a list of suggestions was made for use by those in authority and those interested in carrying out further research in this field.
Restorative justice represents a new paradigm against the criminality, born and developed in the ground of the failure of punitive justice. As such, it brings a new ideology in the fight against crime, revealing a new perception for the offense, upon which takes life the restorative philosophy. The latter brings a very complex mechanism of action, whose ideals are manifested in the restorative programmes. Thus, the restorative justice satisfies its framework, in the theoretical viewpoint, as well as in the practical one, prompting its way to success. However, it remains a new ideology, still not affirmed and therefore it needs more promotion. In this regard, this paper aims to realize a framework of restorative justice, in the theoretical point of view, as well as in the practical one, to further highlight its problems and needs in the future.
Micro and small scale enterprises have been accepted worldwide as instrument of economic growth and development. No wonder that government, particularly in the developing countries has made tremendous efforts and establish policies to enhance the capacity of micro and small scale enterprises (MSEs). However, despite government institutional and policies support to enhancing the capacity of small and medium scale enterprises, small and medium scale enterprises has fallen short of expectations. This, then, generated serious concern and skepticism on whether SMEs can bring about economic growth and national developments in Ghana. SMEs are faced with significant challenges that compromise their ability to function and to contribute optimally to the economy. Most business enterprises in Ghana by classification are grouped under micro and small scale enterprises, hence, the scope of study. The phenomenal growth of small and medium enterprise in Ghana is mainly due to the people’s quest to be self-employed and not because it is easy to establish or manage. Financial constraints and lack of management skill hamper the efficient performance of micro and small scale enterprises in Ghana. In view of this, we recommend that government and other non-governmental organization should regularly organize seminars for potential and actual small and medium enterprise operators on how to plan, organize, direct and control their businesses, and that micro, small and medium enterprises operators’ should device effective marketing strategies and good management customers relations at all times.
ASSESSMENT OF PROBLEMS AFFECTING THE STRUCTURE, CONDUCT AND PERFORMANCE OF COWPEA MARKETING IN YOLA NORTH AND YOLA SOUTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREAS IN ADAMAWA STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)
The study assesses the socio-economic and problems affecting the structure, conduct and performance of cowpea marketing in Yola South and Yola North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The data used for the study was mainly from primary source. These were obtained through the administration of structured questionnaire to a sample of 75 cowpea marketers in the two local government areas. The data generated was from marketers in 2011/2012 marketing season. Descriptive statistics were employed for the study to examine the socio-economic characteristics of marketers and the constraint faced in their marketing activities. The study concludes that, several problems were associated with cowpea marketing in the study area namely; inadequate capital, pest infestation, and low profit, high cost of transportation, bad road network, storage, high taxes, inadequate market information and lack of standard measure are some of the problem militating against cowpea marketing in the study area. Amongst all the problems inadequate capital, pest infestation and low profit ranks the first three most serious problems. The study therefore recommends that, Government and the private sector should facilitate the marketers in accessing a timely and affordable credit facility so as to sustain and expand their marketing activities. Government should open up and rehabilitate the road network in the hinterland to facilitate easy evacuation of agricultural inputs and commodities in and out of the market.
Problems of Beggars: A Case Study (Review Completed - Accepted)
The present research paper is an attempt to analyse the socio-economic problems faced by beggars and governmental helps received by them as well as recommended by the authors for upliftment of the socio-economic standard of their life in Aligarh district of Uttar Pradesh. The study is based on primary source of data, collected through the field survey in the Aligarh district carried out during 2009. The analysis reveals that poverty, unemployment, lack of electricity, sanitation, potable water and proper housing, non availability of ration card, lack of money for marriage of their daughters, various diseases, etc. are the main problems faced by the beggars. The help received from the government by the beggars merely are voter identity cards and ration cards. This study demonstrates that this section of population is the most poor among the poorest who are still thriving for one of the traditional basic need, that is food, what may be predicted about the status of the other remaining needs (Clothing and shelter). The new additive modern needs (health, education and recreation) are the heavenly dreams to them