Field Experience of Agricultural Communication Methods and Attitudes toward the New Trends in Extension in Syria (Published)
The role of agricultural extension has always been a hot topic and under debate for all agricultural specialists, simply because of its vital role in implementing the agricultural policies and rural development, because it is the linkage between the rural community and the organizations involved in rural development and agricultural sector in both farming and non-farming perspectives.
This research is divided to two basic sections; each is divided to two sub-categories as follows:
- The first part is dedicated to communication methods
- The second part is dedicated to new trends in global economy in terms of its influence on agriculture and rural development.
The main findings of this research are: Extension staff lacks to sufficient training qualitatively and quantitatively with social and economic constraints, which makes a reform of the current system is a must to overcome insufficiencies in different areas.
Investment in education is treated as a factor contributing to the development of human resources. In effect, private initiative can help since the private sector is the beneficiary of the knowledge industry. Privatization implies induction of private ownership which education is not an exception. It is therefore the responsibility of both individual including the student, his family, his employers and the society which includes the community and the state. There are factors responsible for privatization of higher education which some of them are; need for competitive efficiency and growth in population. Not only that, there are major causes of privatization of higher education which some are; expansion and establishment of education institution and knowledge explosion. There are also merits of privatization of higher education which include; initiative in educational reforms and innovativeness in teaching and evaluation while demerits; job insecurity and lack of accountability. Programmes and policies of privatization of higher education are highlighted including its strategies. Conclusion was made and suggestions enumerated which some are; nations should have stricter rules and regulations in its privatization policies and illegal private higher institutions should be clamped down by relevant government regulatory agencies.
Globalisation is one of the most powerful facets by being witnessed in the world which would affect the education policy. Educational practices, structure, and policies across the globe have been affected as a result of globalization irrespective of the different experiences such as cultural, technological, political, and economic forces. The review and analysis conducted in regard to educational policy, aim of this paper determining how Hong Kong’s education policy has been affected as a result of globalisation. The reviews have documented effectiveness and efficiency of the pedagogy systems of various schools has also increased as a result of globalization, apart from playing a role in entirely transforming educational policy. It concluded that the marketization, privatization and commercialization may affect educational policy and planning in Hong Kong by drawing on education policy of pre-primary education voucher scheme. Due to globalisation, there is always a need for nation-states to reform the educational systems and services in response to globalisation.
In 2018, year of presidential elections, the Brazilian Federal Government prepared to privatize the biggest state owned company in Brazil, Eletrobras, first Latin American and world’s fourth power supply industry. It also represents the largest single privatization transaction in the entire Brazilian history, estimated in BRL 20 billion ($6 billion, approximately). What are the regulatory issues involving privatization? How does it work in Brazil? These are questions we addressed in this single case through content analysis of extensive Brazilian official documents, such as Laws, sectorial and government agencies’ norms and deliberations. We also investigated the offspring of privatization in Brazil, to provide a comprehensive understanding of the current transaction scenario. Finally, managerial recommendations and future research on the topic are presented.
Privatization of National Electric Company (Published)
Electricity is one branch of production that is important for the livelihood of the people and controlled by the state and used for the benefit and welfare of the people in accordance with the mandate of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. However, the emergence of problem of electricity in Indonesia related to privatization becomes controversial because it will affect the increase in electricity tariffs that will be a burden for the country and even the people. In this paper discuss about the privatization of national electricity companies in terms of elements of the law on electricity. Electrification privatization is caused by the influence of foreign parties who seek to profit from the national electricity that should be controlled by the state. Structure in electrification are parties having authority in making electricity policy at central and regional level. While the substance of the law in electricity is all regulations and policies that regulate the electricity. The legal culture in the electricity industry is matters related to the way officials or officials concerned implement the provisions and policies as regulated in the law of the electricity sector and how the businessmen in the electricity sector understand, obey and implement the provisions and policies in the field electrification.