Yearning for Freedom in a Prison without Bars in Two Novels: Ṣamt al-Farāshāt/ Silence of the Butterflies by Laylā al-ʿUthmān and Lam ʾAʿud ʾAbkī / I Do not Cry Anymore by Zaynab Ḥifnī (Published)
The crisis of freedom that the Gulf woman lives in under a patriarchal male culture that is biased against her and against the Arab woman in general, turns her into a prisoner who lives behind moral bars. Under these circumstances, the Gulf woman’s writing becomes a conflict with the man’s concepts and the patriarchal male mentality of her society. However, by writing, she reveals the issues of her scandalous oppression, and emancipates herself from her shackles. Writing is one of the forms of freedom, through which she regains her voice that has been stolen from her as a woman and a creative artist. This study seeks to reveal the manifestations of oppression that the woman is exposed to in the feminist Gulf literature in two novels: Ṣamt al-Farāshāt by Laylā al-ʿUthmān, and Lam ʾAʿud ʾAbkī by Zaynab Ḥifnī as samples. The study will reveal the woman’s figurative ‘prison’ and ‘jailor’: the prison of society with its norms and traditions, and the prison of the Man and his domination as images of her oppression by marriage, and by the siege of social norms, the culture of silence, her prevention from choosing her job and her creative freedom. In return, the study will observe the features of her revolution and rebellion against all these figurative “prisons” such as her refusal of the traditional marriage, her resistance by writing, her search for love, and breakage of the sex taboo. The woman manifests herself between the character of the ‘prisoner’ and the ‘rebellious’ woman, between her ‘yearning for freedom’ and her ‘revolt’ against the ‘bars’ in order to realize herself and break the taboos.
The Prison Rehabilitation Programmes and Their Effects on Inmates in Benin City Prisons, Nigeria (Published)
Not only does the prison help to keep offenders from the society, it ensures the path to their reformation by improving on their potentials and subsequent change unto better social functioning. This study therefore, assesses the effects of rehabilitation programmes on prison inmates in Benin City. The descriptive survey design is adopted for this study. The data for this study was collected using the structured questionnaire with a four point Likert type scale consisting of 24 items. The population of this study consists of all inmates, males and females, both awaiting trial and convicted in Benin-Sapele road and Oko maximum security prisons in Benin City, Edo State. A sample size of 140 inmates was selected using the non-purposive stratified random sampling method, selecting 70 inmates from each of the prisons. The data collected are subjected to descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation. Findings reveal that the rehabilitation programmes in Benin City Prisons are social intervention services with highest mean value of 2.92 (70%), skills acquisition programmes account for 2.76 (69%); recreational activities account for 2.66 (66.5%) and educational services account for 2.51 (62.8%). It was also found that these rehabilitation programmes are worthwhile, as they influenced inmates’ behaviours and inventiveness at 2.69 (67.3).
Influence of Sex and Years of Incarceration on the Well Being of Prison Inmates in Nigeria (Published)
This paper investigated the influence of sex and years of incarceration on the well-being of prison inmates in Nigeria. The study was carried out in Port Harcourt prison with a sample of 250 inmates who were composed through stratified sampling technique from a population of 2,997 inmates. Five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and relevant data for their analysis were collected through an indirect administration of copies of ‘influence of incarceration on prison inmates” questionnaire which was administered by the researchers on the respondents. The reliability coefficient for the five-sub-sections of this instrument and the overall were 0.79; 0.80; 0.80, 0.80, 0.80 and 0.80 respectively. The hypotheses were tested with two-way analysis of variance. The results among other things show that years of incarceration do not significantly influence the psychological, social vocational and educational well-being of inmates. It however influences significantly their physical well being. The results also show that sex does not significantly influence the physical, psychological and social well-being of inmates. Sex however significantly influences the vocational and educational well-being of inmates. These results were discussed and some recommendations were also made. One of the recommendations is that professional guidance counselors and other psychological care givers in prison service should render similar types of assistance/services to all inmates of the prison irrespective of their years of incarceration and sex.
This study investigated the influence of incarceration on the well-being of prison inmates in Nigeria. The study was carried out in Port Harcourt Prison in Rivers State, Nigeria. The population of inmates in this prison at the time of study was 2,997 while the sample of study was 250 inmates. The design of study was ex-post facto design. Five null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and data for their investigation were collected through the administration of copies of a questionnaire tagged “influence of incarceration on prison inmates (ICPI) the reliability co-efficient of the five sub-sections of the instrument were 0.79; 0.80; 0.80; 0.80 and 0.80 while the overall reliability co-efficient was 0.80. The hypotheses were tested with t-test of independent means and the results show that nature of incarceration does not influence the physical and vocational well-being of prison inmates however, it influences their psychological, social and educational well-being. These results were discussed and some recommendations were also made. One of the recommendations is that psychological and counselling services designed for inmates who are depressed, filled with anxiety, fear and hopelessness should be improved and intensified.