Tag Archives: Principals

Limitations of Administrative Creativity among Principles of Public Schools in Amman Directorate of Education from their Point of View (Published)

This study aims at identifying the limitations of administrative creativity among the principals of public schools in Amman City from their point of view. It adopts the descriptive survey methodology. The sample of the study consisted of (91) male and female principals selected randomly. To achieve the objective of the study, a 30-items questionnaire distributed over (3) dimensions: Personal, organizational and Environmental limitations. The results showed a moderate degree of different limitations of administrative creativity among the principals of public schools in Amman directorate of education.  Results indicates that environmental limitations come first rank followed organizational limitations, and then by personal limitations. In addition, the results showed that there are statistically significant differences foe gender variable in favor of males; and for experience in favor of those with more than ten years of experience. Finally, the study recommends engaging social and cultural institutions in the community in order to unite efforts to contribute to raising awareness of the importance of creativity and innovation in schools. Moreover, it recommends organizing programs and training courses to develop creativity skills.

Keywords: Amman city., Principals, administrative creativity, limitations

The degree of the practice of human relations with the principals of government schools in the first Blue Education Directorate from the point of view of the teachers (Published)

The present study aimed at measuring the degree of human relations with the principals of government schools in the blue first education from the point of view of the parameters Directorate , and to achieve the main study goal of the researcher on the descriptive and analytical approach adopted , as the study sample consisted of ( 35 ) , a teacher, and the study found that the degree of exercise Humanitarian relations among school principals is high, and the study recommended the need to strengthen human relations within public schools by principals and principals, because of its importance in raising the level of education in Jordan.

Keywords: Human-Relations., Principals, Teachers, public schools

Administrative Networking Strategies and Principals’ Supervisory Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study assessed administrative networking strategies and principals’ supervisory effectiveness in assessing teachers’ notes of lesson, teachers’ instructional delivery, students’ records, and non-academic activities in Cross River State, Nigeria. Three null hypotheses were formulated accordingly to direct the study. The study adopted descriptive survey design. Census technique was adopted in selecting the entire population of 667 secondary school administrators in Cross River State. The instruments used for data collection were two set of questionnaires designed by the researchers including: Administrative Networking Strategies Questionnaire (ANSQ)”, and “Principals’ Supervisory Effectiveness Questionnaire (PSEQ)” respectively. The reliability of the instruments was established through Cronbach Alpha, and reliability estimates of .89 and .92 were obtained for the two instruments respectively. The null hypotheses were all tested at .05 level of significance using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis with the aid of SPSS v21. Findings from the study revealed that; there is a significant relationship between principals’ effective communication, school-community relationship, and teachers’ involvement in decision-making, with their supervisory effectiveness respectively. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended amongst others that; secondary school principals should endeavour to communicate relevant ideas, messages, and information to both teaching and non-academic staff of the school; and ensure that appropriate feedback mechanisms are provided based on such information.


Keywords: Administrative Networking, Networking, Networking Strategies, Principals, Supervision, Supervisory effectiveness

Teachers’ Perceptions about Effective School Administration. How Do They Correlate With The Level Of Teacher Education? (Published)

Over the last decades, scientific research has focused on the effective school leaders, their action and their role, as effective school leadership seems to influence decisively strategic planning, learning outcomes, school environment changes, school climate and culture. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the perceptions of 105 primary education teachers of the region of Lehena (Ileia Prefecture) on effective school administration in order to establish the correlation of a particular demographic factor, namely the level of education, with effective school administration. The survey conducted is quantitative, while the research tool used was the questionnaire, consisting of 9 axes (school climate, school leadership and direction, program development, personnel management, administration and financial management, student care, professional development and training, relationships with parents and the community, problem solving and decision making), which, according to the international literature, constitute effective school administration. A significant number of statistical findings were recorded.

Keywords: Effective School Leadership, Level Of Education, Principals, Teachers

Challenges Encountered by Principals in Enforcing Students’ Discipline in Secondary Schools in Edo North Senatorial District, Nigeria (Published)

This study was carried out to investigate challenges encountered by principals in enforcing students discipline among secondary schools in Edo North Senatorial District. Five (5) research questions were raised while three (3) hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The descriptive method based on survey research design was adopted. A population of 286 principals of public and private secondary schools in Edo North Senatorial District was used while 172 principals constituted the sample size using a simple random sampling technique. The sample comprised 60% of the entire population. The questionnaire was used to gather relevant data and was titled: Challenges of Principals in Enforcement of Students’ Discipline Questionnaire (CPESDQ). The data collected were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. It was found among others that principals in secondary schools in Edo North Senatorial District encountered 10 different challenges in the enforcement of students’ discipline. Some of these challenges included school owners’ interference and students’ fear of assault which were ranked highest, while restriction by law was ranked least in secondary schools in Edo North Senatorial District. Further, principals of public secondary schools encountered more challenges in the enforcement of students’ discipline than their counterparts in private secondary schools in Edo North Senatorial District. It was recommended based on the findings that principals of secondary schools should develop coping strategies in solving challenges encountered in enforcing students’ discipline. The strategies were Reality Therapy (RT) and Discipline with Dignity (DD).

Keywords: Challenges, Discipline with Dignity, Enforcing, Principals, Reality Therapy, Students’ Discipline

Principals’ Transformational Leadership Practices as Determinants of Organizational Commitment and Value Re-Orientation among Secondary School Teachers (Published)

This paper examined the transformational leadership practices of secondary school principals and the extent to which they predict organizational commitment and value re-orientation of teachers in Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Survey design was adopted for the study. Seven hundred and ninety-nine respondents were drawn using stratified random sampling technique from a population of 5,339 teachers for the study. One research question and two hypotheses guided the study. An instrument with 48 items titled “Principals’ Transformational Leadership Practices, Organizational Commitment and Value Re-orientation Questionnaire” was utilized for data gathering. Cronbach Alpha reliability index of the instrument was 0.88. Multiple statistical procedures such as means, standard deviation and regression analysis were employed in data analysis. The two hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. From the findings it was revealed that principals’ transformational leadership practices were high, while there was a significant effect of principals’ transformational leadership practices on organizational commitment and value re-orientation of teachers. Premised on the findings of the study, it was recommended that managers of secondary education should encourage principals to adopt transformational leadership style since this has been found to positively affect organizational commitment and value re-orientation of teachers. 

Keywords: Organizational Commitment, Principals, Teachers, Transformational Leadership, Value Re-orientation.

Principals’ Administrative Skills and Proper Conduct Of Examination among Students in Uyo Education Zone of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)

The study was carried out to examine principals’ administrative skills and proper conduct of examination in Uyo Education Zone of Akwa Ibom State.  In order to achieve this purpose, three research questions and three hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto research design was used for the study. The population of the study comprised 86 principals and 2838 teachers in secondary schools in Uyo Education Zone of Akwa Ibom State.  The sample of this study comprised 878 respondents   comprising 26 principals and 852 teachers representing 30% of the population of principals and teachers. Multi-stage sampling technique was used for this selection. The two instruments namely “Principals’ Administrative Skills Questionnaire for Teachers (PASQT)”and “Examination Misconduct Questionnaire for Principals (EMQP)” were used for data collection.  R-value and R2 value of simple linear regression were used for answering the research question while the F-ratio was used for testing the hypotheses. Each of the hypotheses was tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis revealed that principals’ communication skills, school plant management skills as well as supervisory skills relate to proper conduct of examination among senior secondary school students. Based on the findings, it was recommended that Principals should be exposed to effective communication through seminars, workshops and conferences such that they can communicate to both staff and students in a way that they will understand what is expected of them, as well as the consequences of their involvement in examination misconduct among others.

Keywords: Administrative Skills, Education, Examinations, Principals, Students

Constraints Principals Face in Enhancing Democratic School Governance in Kenyan Public Secondary Schools (Published)

In Kenya, democratic school leadership is becoming increasingly important as elsewhere in the world as one way of fostering democracy in the society. The Ministry of Education has come up with policies on how to enhance democracy at the school level but school principals still face major challenges in fostering democracy in the daily running of their schools. This study set out to establish the challenges principals face in enhancing democratic school governance in Kenyan Public Secondary schools. The study utilized cross-sectional descriptive survey strategy that employed mixed methods approach. The target population of the study was all principals and senior teachers, of all the 122 public secondary school in Baringo County, Kenya. The study sample was selected using stratified sampling, simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. Data was collected by use of questionnaire and interview schedule and were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively

Keywords: Constrains, Democratic School Governance, Principals, Secondary Schools

Principals’ Instructional Supervision and Teachers’ Effectiveness (Published)

The study examined the differences in teachers’ effectiveness based on principals’ instructional supervision in public secondary schools in Uyo Local Education Committee in Akwa Ibom State. Four objectives and their corresponding research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto design was used in carrying out this study. Two hundred and one teachers and 14 principals were drawn from the population of 1,105 teachers and 14 principals respectively to participate in the study. Two researchers-developed instruments, “Principals’ Instructional Supervision Interview (PIS1)” and “Teachers’ Teaching Effectiveness Questionnaire (TTEQ)” were used to gather data. Data collected were analyzed using the mean and independent t-test statistics was used. The findings were that there is a significant difference in teachers’ effectiveness based on classroom observation, analysis/strategy, post-conference analysis and post-analysis conference. Teachers in schools where instructional supervision was adequate were more effective than those that had inadequate instructional supervision. It is, therefore, recommended among others that, the principals should carry out an adequate instructional supervision of teachers so as to enhance their teaching effectiveness.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Instruction, Principals, Supervision, Teachers

The Challenges Facing Secondary School Principals as Human Resource Managers (HRMS) In Line of Duty: A Case of Nandi County, Kenya (Published)

UNESCO (1996) notes that education systems nearly everywhere are managed poorly and administered inefficiently. Despite the enormous expectations of school principals, many are not fully prepared for the task. The headship of secondary schools in Kenya is usually a product of the teaching force. Teachers, who have spent a minimum of ten years in service, are usually appointed as principals and deputy principals of secondary schools. Thus years of experience remain the major yardstick for appointment into the position of principal as opposed to relevant skills and qualifications. This paper seeks to identify the many challenges faced by Principals as HRMs in performing their roles. The target population was 140 secondary school principals drawn from Nandi County. Census sampling was used to select the study sample. Data collection was done using self-administered questionnaire. Coding of responses was done using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The paper points out that: empowerment of the staff, team management and career development among others, as challenges resulting from inadequate training. The study recommends introduction of HRM courses in Teacher Training Colleges.

Keywords: Challenge, Human Resource Managers, Principals, Roles, Secondary School

Principals’ Supervisory Techniques and Teachers’ Job Performance in Secondary Schools in Ikom Education Zone, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated the relationship between principals’ supervisory techniques and teachers’ job performance in Ikom Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. The sample was 86 principals, 344 teachers and 1,376 students drawn from a population of 86 principals, 1829 teachers and 35,359 students in public secondary schools in the study area. To achieve the purpose of the study, two null hypotheses were formulated. Data collection was carried out with the use of two research instruments titled “Principals’ Supervisory Technique Questionnaire (PSTQ)” and “Teachers’ Job Performance Questionnaire (TJPQ)”. The instruments were subjected to face validity and Cronbach Alpha reliability estimate. The reliability value obtained ranged between 0.73 and 0.78. These figures confirmed that the instruments were reliable in achieving the objective of the study. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Analysis (r) was used for data analysis at .05 level of significance. Results obtained revealed that a significant relationship exist between principals’ supervisory techniques in terms of classroom visitation, workshop techniques and teachers’ job performance. Based on the findings, it was concluded that job performances of teachers would be enhanced when they are properly supervised by principals using the various supervisory techniques.

Keywords: Job Performance, Principals, Secondary Schools, Teachers, supervisory techniques


The authors of this article promise of establishing a constructive conversation with the secondary schools board on issues of principal leadership position. This study investigated challenges to secondary school principals’ leadership in government own secondary schools in the areas of instructional supervision and provision of funds. The sample for the study was 133 principals of government own secondary schools, selected on the basis of 7 principals from each state of the 19 states that constitute northern region of Nigeria. The instrument for data collection was a 20 items questionnaire title: Challenges to Secondary School Principals Leadership Challenges Questionnaires (CSSPLQ). Two research questions were formulated, data collected were converted to mean, standard deviation and used to answer the research questions. It was recommended that, principals of government secondary schools should be re-train through attending conference and seminars for improvement in instructional supervision. The government should provide adequate fund directly to the state schools bank account for principals to execute their school activities effectively.

Keywords: Challenges, Leadership, Management, Principals


Across the world, globalization has elevated the importance of human resource management development in organizations. These changes have led to the notion of the human resource system as a strategic asset. Many of the arguments about processes of globalization within the HR function rest on the assumption that there has and continues to be longitudinal change in the conduct of human resource. In order to effectively deal with all these changes, human resource professionals must develop competencies that will allow them to carry out their roles effectively, such competences like: flexibility, team work, communication, strategic planning, network building, client service, orientation, organizational awareness, self confidence, sharing of expertise, global and cultural understanding among others. This paper sought to identify the role played by school principals as Human Resource Managers in Secondary schools. The study was modeled on Burns and Stalk Contingency theory which focuses on how management systems might change in response to demands of rapidly changing environment. Survey research design was used. The target population was 140 secondary school principals drawn from Nandi County. Census sampling was used to select the study sample. Data collection was done using self-administered questionnaire. Coding of responses was done using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) for windows Version 16. Analysis of the data was done through descriptive statistics. Data was presented in form of frequency tables and charts. The study findings clearly indicated that the primary roles identified included recruitment of staff in schools, encouraging team work among staff, empowering staff and encouraging them in developing their career. Therefore the principals should have a knowhow on, how to carry out the above roles to boost the performance and development of the institution.

Keywords: Human Resource Managers (HRMs), Principals, Role, Secondary Schools

Time Flies: A Statement that Best Applies to School Principals (Published)

The purpose of this study was to investigate how do principals of a sample of private schools (N= 60) utilize and manage their time on daily-basis. A survey consisting of three sections attempted to collect data pertaining to demographic characteristics of participants, how they spend time on organizational/management tasks versus time expenditure on instructional tasks. SPSS 18.0 was used to analyze data. Results indicate that principals lacked basic time management skills and that the time they spent on organizational/management was far more than that they consumed on instructional tasks. Implications and recommendations are provided at the end of the stud

Keywords: Instructional Leadership, Principals, School Management, Time Management

Transformational leadership in colleges of education in Ghana: teachers’ perspectives (Review Completed - Accepted)

Leadership plays an important role in the success of schools and this success directly depends on the effectiveness of their heads. Over the past decades, debate over the most suitable leadership styles for heads of institutions and organizations has dominated the argument. This study looked at the leadership attributes of principals of the colleges of education in Ghana from the teachers or tutors (the terms are used hereafter interchangeably) perspective measured through a descriptive survey collected from teachers in selected public colleges of education in Ghana. The target population was made up of teachers and vice principals in the colleges of education.

The accessible population was made up of all the 1,528 teachers and vice principals in the colleges. Data on the principals’ leadership styles and effectiveness were composed from Avolio and Bass’ (2004) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (MLQ) which were completed by teachers in 15 public colleges of education. Simple random sampling techniques were used in selecting the single and mixed sex schools.

The study showed that generally principals in colleges of education demonstrated transformational leadership style. However, on the attribute of ‘idealized influence’ respondents indicated that their principals sometimes exhibited that attribute. It is recommended that responsible bodies(if any) in charge of training principals in Ghana should include in their training course an aspect on the ‘idealized influence’ attribute of transformational leadership


Keywords: Attributes, Colleges Of Education, Job Satisfaction, Principals, Teaching Efficacy, Transformational Leadership