Use of Collaborative Small Group Strategy on Standard Seven Learners’ Achievement In English Composition Writing In Public Primary Schools In Kisumu County, Kenya, (Published)
Differeciated learning is what the current systems of education require in order to carter for all learners .Collaborative teaching offers value creation as learners work in their small groups. Everyone in the group has a responsibility to perform and the facilitator supervise to ensure all learners are inclusive in the group activities. While small group strategy is used a lot of ideas are shared, thus a big task achieved. Small group is enormously worthwhile, both for facilitator and learners. This methodology is vital in teaching and learning of composition writing skill. Communication and collaboration is instilled in the learners thus enhancement of the writing of English composition. A ‘cognitive’ approach to small group teaching, building on the theories of Piaget, would propose that learning interactively in small groups is useful to learners since the procedure of debating, decisions, dealing with conflict, and integration different perspectives is a necessary part of how cognitive development takes place. This thought about cognition also underpins the notion of ‘cognitive elaboration (Dansereau, 1988), which points out that cognitive development is based on reformulating or elaborating existing knowledge into new forms – a sort of unlearning and relearning of knowledge. The study objective is : To examine the influence of small groups’ technique on learners’ achievement in composition writing skills in public primary schools in Kisumu County. Drawn from Lev Vygotsky (1962; 1978) the vision of pedagogy is based on the idea of learning as an interactive, social process, within which the facilitator directs the transition of the learners into the Zone of proximal development in order to cultivate new knowledge in order to cultivate new knowledge. Pre-test Post-test nonequivalent groups research design was adopted, sample size of 292 was drawn from 6 teacher of English, 6 head teacher and standard seven pupils in public schools. Data were collected via questionnaire, observation schedule and check list. Analysis was done using descriptive statistics. The study found that for small group learning technique: revised strategy is moderately used (m= 3.80 with SD of 2.960) buzz strategy is moderately (m= 3.40 with SD of 2.106) used in teaching composition and three minutes strategy is highly used (M= 4.20 with SD of 2.269) in composition teaching. The computed z values for brainstorming technique elements revealed a z-statistic value higher than the z Critical value and P-value less than 0.05. Thus, the study rejected the entire five Null hypotheses as there was a statistically significant relationship between: individual group technique, whole class technique, small group technique, round robin technique and relay technique; and learners’ achievement in composition writing skills in public primary schools in Kisumu County. The study recommended that similar studies to be carried out using inferential statistics, especially multiple regression analysis to assess how the individual strategies of brainstorming teaching technique contribute to overall learners learning achievements. Other researches can use the Humanist child development theory to carter for the concerns of a paradigm shift to the thinking about holistic development of the learners., the policy makers and implementers ministry of Education and Kenya National Examination Council, to address the use of inquiring-based learning in order to provoke critical-thinking in learners as the new (CBC) get rooted to curb the negative attitude of embracing change of teaching for life and not for exams.
The Learning Organization According to Senge: Recording and Validation of the Park Research Tool in Primary Education Schools in the Prefecture Of Ilia (Published)
This paper comes to explore the perceptions of primary school teachers about whether or not schools feature elements of learning organization as they are defined by Senge’s five principles are presented at schools. The research tool used to capture their perceptions is the Joo Ho Park questionnaire. The results of the survey show that it is possible to apply the five Senge principles to educational environments and the questionnaire used can be a research tool for capturing and recording organizational data in school units.
The Impact of Communication Gap in the Management of Primary Schools in Anaocha L.G.A of Anambra State (Published)
The study investigates the impact of communication gap in the Management of primary schools in Anaocha local government area of Anambra state, with the purpose of finding out its causes, impact and strategies. The study employed descriptive survey research design. The population used for this study is 685 teachers from 50 public primary schools in Anaocha L.G.A of Anambra State. Using the simple random sampling technique, 150 teachers were drawn from the 50 public primary schools in Anaocha L.G.A. The instrument for data collection was a structured questionnaire validated by three experts, which contained 15 items based on the three research questions formulated for the study. Meanwhile, it was subjected to reliability testing using spearman’s formula, in which 0.82 was obtained as the reliability index (very high). Data collected was analysed using mean. Findings revealed the impact of communication gap in the management of public primary school as inaction, while misinterpretations, bad work relationship, lack of knowledge are identified as the causes. It was observed that when handbook of information for teachers is been provided, there will be an effective communication in the school as it will let them know the various activities in the school. To this end, the researchers recommended that head-teachers should use appropriate media for communication and manage barriers to effective communication adequately as it will help them in improving communication in school. Implications and suggestion for further studies were also made.
Teachers Perception and Practice of Automatic Promotion in English Speaking Primary Schools in Cameroon (Published)
Differences in the perception and outcomes of automatic promotion may be due to discrepancies in its implementation. Automatic promotion was conceived in Cameroon to be accompanied by support mechanisms and it is necessary to find out teachers’ perceptions and practice of automatic promotion especially against a backdrop of the inability of many primary school pupils to read and write. Teachers have a firsthand experience about the outcomes of automatic promotion. Their perception and practice may provide a basis for improving quality. Thus the study was a survey that incorporated a 15-item closed ended questionnaire and an interview. 275 primary school teachers and examiners of the First School Leaving Certificate Examination took part. Data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies and means. Findings revealed a negative perception of automatic promotion and discrepancies between the conception and implementation of automatic promotion which may explain the drop in quality. Implications and recommendations are discussed.
ASSESSMENT OF COPING STRATEGIES BY ORPHANED LEARNERS AND THEIR ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN KENYA (Published)
Despite the vulnerable status of the orphaned learners, every child in Kenya has a right to quality education that should lead to good performance and achievement of Universal Primary Education (UPE). This study assessed coping strategies by exceptional orphaned learners and their academic achievement in Winam Division in Kisumu County. The theory underpinning the study was self- efficacy theory by Albert Bandura (1994). Descriptive survey design was used in the study. The study population consisted of 43 head teachers, 516 teachers and 3042 orphaned learners in 43 mixed public primary schools. Data was collected by questionnaire, interview schedule and document analysis. Quantitative data was analyzed using frequency counts, means, percentages and standard deviation. Data from the interviews were organized into themes and sub-themes as they emerged through the objective. The study established that; most orphaned learners stay with older siblings, lacked some basic needs and lacked guidance from adults. Hard work, personal ambition, role models from their schools and guidance from teachers were the most outstanding factors that enabled orphaned learners to perform well in their academics. The study recommends that grandparents who care for the orphans be supported financially by the government. The Ministry of Health in collaboration with other stake holders should launch health and nutrition program in schools where the program has not yet been started. Life skills education should be examined like any other subject in the curriculum. There should be a vote head under FPE to cater for orphaned learners’ school requirements. School administration should link orphaned learners who perform well with sponsors to ensure that they continue with their secondary education
THE USE OF MOTIVATIONAL TEACHING METHODS IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS MATHEMATICS IN ZIMBABWE: A CASE OF THE FIRST DECADE AFTER INDEPENDENCE (Published)
The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of motivational teaching methods in the teaching of mathematics in primary schools in Zimbabwe in the first decade after independence. Motivating students during their learning of mathematics has been viewed in literature as critical to successful learning of mathematics by students. Students find the learning of mathematics too abstract, mechanical and difficult (Mwamwenda, 1996). This problem has been compounded by teachers’ obsession with teacher-centered methods like drill and practice which inhibit students to be creative and to demonstrate problem solving skills. While a great deal of research has been carried out on how to teach mathematics as well as on how to incorporate psychological principles of motivation into the teaching of mathematics, no research appears to have been conducted in the Zimbabwean context, to examine teacher use of motivational teaching methods in the teaching of primary school mathematics. This study therefore was an attempt at investigating how motivational teaching methods are applied during the teaching of primary school mathematics. It has been shown in literature and in this research that there are a number of motivational teaching methods which teachers can use to motivate their students to successfully learn mathematics. Among such teaching methods identified in this study include the learner-centered, group-collaborative, discovery, problem-solving and self-activity methods. The main finding of this study was that primary school teachers in Zimbabwean schools mostly use teacher-centered teaching methods rather than learner-centered teaching methods in their teaching of primary school mathematics and this is negatively impacting their ability to motivate students to effectively learn mathematics. A survey questionnaire was used as the main data collection instrument. Units of data were the primary school mathematics teachers teaching standard three up to standard seven classes.
The focus of this study is to determine the proportion of Nigerian Primary School teachers that use the various assessment instruments in the assessment of pupils in mathematics; the sources from which teachers generate their mathematics test items; the levels of questions set by the teachers on the Bloom’s taxonomy of cognitive domains; the extent to which Primary School teachers validate their test instruments; how the teachers utilise the outcomes of the formative tests in schools; and problems faced by the teachers in the assessment processes in primary schools. The research design for this study was the survey research design. One hundred and Fifty primary school teachers were sampled from Ebonyi State of Nigeria through purposive sampling technique. There were made up of 108 females and 42 males. The main instrument used for the data collection was a Mathematics Assessment Construction Scale (MACS) questionnaire designed to elicit responses from the subjects in the areas of assessment instruments, source of test items, levels of cognitive domain covered by the questions, validation and item analyses. Other areas covered are the use of formative tests and problems of assessing pupils in primary school mathematics. The questionnaire consists of 23 questions on a four point likert scale using never, not often, often and very often. The split half method was used to establish a reliability coefficient of 0.79. Simple frequency counts and percentages were used to analyse the data and answer the research questions. Results of the study showed that most of the teachers often written tests(100%) and assignments(88%).Group work(76%) very few of them use observation(30%), oral examination(6%) and peer group assessment(8%); 74% of the teachers source their assessment questions from textbook publisher’s questions, 76% construct their questions and very few of them source their questions from past questions(32%) and question and answer books(30%); most of the teachers set questions covering knowledge(100%), comprehension and application(88%) while only 38% of them set questions on real life problems; 82% of the teachers often carry out content validity of the test instruments and very few teachers carry out reliability test(4%), item difficulties(10%) and item discrimination power(24%); most of the teachers give formative test and feedback to pupils while only 52% of the teachers often give remediation lessons to the pupils. Some of the problems identified include absenteeism, lateness and truancy of pupils, lack of interest by pupils, lack of materials, lack of knowledge about assessment by teachers etc. It was recommended that teachers should be encouraged to use variety of assessment instruments; teachers should be retrained on the techniques of test construction, and be encouraged to set questions on real life problems.
This paper reviews some available literature on school violence in African context and illustrates results of an original cross sectional descriptive research conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan. A total of 240 respondents were randomly selected from fifteen primary schools for girls from the main three localities of Khartoum State. The objective of the study were to explore different forms of violence that girls face in schools and at home; to find out the psychological consequences experienced by the girl-child after facing violence; how the girl seeks help; and finally to draw recommendations for educational policy makers. It was found that girls face many forms of violence as they are in young age. The main causes are related to many inter-connected factors. Most common factor is due to socialization and rigid treatment that girls face at home. Girls who experienced extreme violence at home reflect their emotions passively in form of violated behaviour against their peer students at school. Also, the study highlighted the negative physical and psychological impact of violence on young girls, which affect and reduce their educational achievements and normal life. Moreover, the socioeconomic level of girl’s parents has not contributed as a significant factor to violence. It is clear from this research that violence against young girls is a reality and it occurs at all class levels and at different settings (home, schools and streets). The first person the girls seek help from is her school friend. However, communication with mother was limited due to educational gap and that mothers in some cases are the actor of harassment. Finally the research recommends to encourage and support men and boys to take an active part in the prevention and elimination of all forms of violence and especially gender based violence and increase awareness of men and boys responsibility in ending the cycle of violence; policy makers should play a great role to promote gender equality especially during the process of socialization.
School-gender-based violence in Africa: Prevalence and consequences (Review Completed - Accepted)
This paper reviews some available literature on school violence in African context and illustrates results of an original cross sectional descriptive research conducted in Khartoum State, Sudan. A total of 240 respondents were randomly selected from fifteen primary schools for girls from the main three localities of Khartoum State.
The objective of the study were to explore different forms of violence that girls face in schools and at home; to find out the psychological consequences experienced by the girl-child after facing violence; how the girl seeks help; and finally to draw recommendations for educational policy makers. It was found that girls face many forms of violence as they are in young age. The main causes are related to many inter-connected factors. Most common factor is due to socialization and rigid treatment that girls face at home. Girls who experienced extreme violence at home reflect their emotions passively in form of violated behaviour against their peer students at school. Also, the study highlighted the negative physical and psychological impact of violence on young girls, which affect and reduce their educational achievements and normal life. Moreover, the socioeconomic level of girl’s parents has not contributed as a significant factor to violence. It is clear from this research that violence against young girls is a reality and it occurs at all class levels and at different settings (home, schools and streets). The first person the girls seek help from is her school friend. However, communication with mother was limited due to educational gap and that mothers in some cases are the actor of harassment. Finally the research recommends to encourage and support men and boys to take an active part in the prevention and elimination of all forms of violence and especially gender based violence and increase awareness of men and boys responsibility in ending the cycle of violence; policy makers should play a great role to promote gender equality especially during the process of socialization.