Understanding the Macroeconomic Implications of the Dynamics of Monetary Policy Measures: Lesson from the Nigerian Economy (Published)
In this paper, econometrics evidence linking monetary policy measures to key macroeconomic goals with emphasis on price stability and unemployment is provided using error correction mechanism (ECM), unit root and cointegration tests in addition to basic descriptive statistics. The unit root test results showed that the variables are mixed integrated. The outcomes of the cointegration test reveal that the variables in each of the models have long run relationship and as such can be represented as an ECM. The estimated parsimonious ECM show that the current values of cash reserve ratio and exchange rate as well as lagged values of credit to the private sector are positively and significantly related to inflation. On the contrary, the short run effect of contemporaneous and lagged values of interest rate on inflation is negative. Additionally, money supply exerts significant negative effect on inflation during the study period. The result of the estimated unemployment model reveals that the current and first lag of interest rate has significant positive effect on unemployment. The result also shows that the current and third lag of money supply has significant positive impact on unemployment rate. The short run impact of credit to the private sector and third lag of exchange rate on unemployment is negative. The error correction coefficients in each of the models are associated with the expected negative sign and are statistically significant at 5 percent level. Owing to the findings, the paper recommends that the Central Bank of Nigeria should adequately monitor the implementation of monetary policy in order to prevent or reduce bottlenecks that may impair its effectiveness in achieving goals of price stability and employment generation.
The study determines the effect of government policies in both monetary and fiscal policies on price stability in Nigeria. Secondary data were sourced from CBN statistical bulletin for GR, GE, CRR, MPR & CPI. The study using OLS technique discovered that the combination of both monetary and fiscal instruments impacted on consumer price index in Nigeria within the period of review and concludes that regardless of the mixed individual impacts of the variables; government policies were able to manage consumer price index to a considerable extent. Thus, recommends enhanced fiscal procedures and monetary policies to facilitate desired price stability.