Determination of Depression, Anxiety and Stress among Retirees in Kogi State and Preventive Strategies (Published)
Retirees, especially in developing nations like Nigeria experience diverse health problems. Notable among them are depression, anxiety and stress. The present study aimed to determine the level of depression, anxiety, and stress among retirees, and formulated preventive strategies. The study was guided by four research questions and one null hypothesis. The survey research design was adopted for the study. A sample size of 1,250 respondents was drawn using multi- stage sampling procedure. Data were generated through researcher- structured questionnaires. The reliability was established through Cronbach Alpha statistic to determine the correlation coefficient index, which yielded 0 .97. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies, percentages, and standard deviation. The study revealed that retirees experienced extremely severe level of depression (DASS) score=19.3, anxiety (DASS) score = 21.1 and stress (DASS) score = 17.3. It was therefore recommended that public health awareness and education campaigns of health problems on depression, anxiety and stress should be carried out by the National Orientation Kogi State Chapter, social welfare workers, counselors, educators, health educators, NGOs, and mass media to prevent and mitigate depression, anxiety and stress among retirees in Kogi State.
The diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) continues to afflict patients with diabetes despite the knowledge of its precipitants. Given the high cost of managing DFU, we sought to determine whether the immediate precipitating factors for the development of foot ulcerations have changed, in order to suggest effective preventive strategies. Methods: This is a descriptive study. The case records of patients admitted for diabetic foot ulcer at Lagos University Teaching Hospital between 2003-2005 were retrospectively reviewed. Information extracted from the notes included age, sex, duration and type of diabetes, fasting and or random/casual plasma glucose at presentation, grade of foot ulcer, and the immediate precipitating factors. Results: Twenty seven case records of patients with DFU were available for analysis. There were 15 (55.6%) males. The age range was 43-83 years with a mean of 61.04years. Type 2 diabetes was present in 92.6% of the patients, while the mean duration of diabetes was 7.98 years (range, 0-27years). Diagnosis of DM was made for the first time in 2(7.4%) of the patients at presentation of the foot problem. The mean admitting fasting and random plasma glucose was 133.3mg% (7.4mmol/L) and 227.2 mg% (12.6mmol/L) respectively. Of the 27 patients, 13 (48.1%) had the lesion on the right foot while 6(22.2%) had bilateral DMFS. Majority (85.2%) of the patients had grades 2-4 ulcers. Trauma was the most frequent precipitant occurring in 33.3% of cases followed by tight/ inappropriate shoe or ill-fitting foot wear (18.5%). Tinea pedis alone and burns precipitated DMFS in 7.4% and 3.7% cases respectively, while both tinea pedis and inappropriate foot ware further contributed to DMFS in 3.7% of patients. In 29.6% of cases, the ulcers developed spontaneously. Conclusions/Recommendations: The immediate precipitating factors for diabetic foot ulcer remain unchanged, and can be prevented through patients’ adherence with diabetes treatment, and health education on proper foot care and foot ware practices.
Future Directions for Prevention and Safety within the Chemical and Processing Industries (Published)
It is essential to understand the current trends in regards to future-oriented prevention management within the chemical industry. Concepts that lead to the next generation of properly managing prevention within the industrial chemical areas are discussed in this article. The first concept concentrates on the concerns surrounding integrated design security and safety; the second concept analyzes the concerns associated with collaborating several chemical plants in an effort to increase sustainability of activities and the environment of the locale.