Tag Archives: Prevalence

Sedentary Lifestyle Prevalence among Workers in Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization in Kenya (Published)

People who spend too much time being sedentary are more likely to develop musculoskeletal disorders and other non- communicable diseases (NCDs). This health risk is likely to increase with increasing sedentary office setting and lifestyle. In Kenya, the sedentary lifestyle is on the increase while its baseline data has not been documented appropriately. This study investigated sedentary lifestyle prevalence among workers in seven selected institutes within Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organisation (KALRO). The study concentrated on a population of 820 office and laboratory workers in seven KALRO institutes located in the Nairobi Metropolitan. The sample size (n= 96), was calculated using Daniel’s formula for prevalence studies. A Cross-sectional survey was employed on respondents and objective questionnaires administered. Waist to height ratio (WHtR) and waist circumference (WC) was measured using a stretch resistant tape in accordance with WHO, 2008 guidelines. The WHtR (> 0.5) revealed that prevalence of overweight and central obesity was high in females, (92.6%) than in males (88%) while (90.38%) was for combined gender. The WHtR increased with income, (p = 0.516) and had an influence on ailments such as fatigue and muscle soreness after a day’s work (p=0.657). Factors influencing sedentary lifestyle most of which were outside the workplace setting were: use of motorized transport (73%) which increased with earnings and social economic status p<0.05 with no output for respondents earning less than Kenya shillings 15,000; screen time (64.7%); reliance on house help for domestic chores (56.5%) and occupational (78.4%) with p>0.5 for sitting for office and laboratory workers. The study concluded that there was a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle among KALRO employees in the selected institutes. These findings provide a basis for management in KALRO to encourage physical activity among its workers by intervening at individual, environmental and policy level. 

Keywords: KALRO, Obesity, Prevalence, musculosketal, policies, sedentary

Prevalence and Outcome of Cardiovascular Disease among Admitted Patients in State Tertiary Health Facility, Southwest, Nigeria (Published)

Cardiovascular Diseases (CVDs) are major causes of morbidity and disabilities globally with high prevalence in developing countries including Nigeria. Therefore, this study employed a retrospective research survey to determine the prevalence and outcome of cardiovascular diseases among admitted patients in medical wards, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Southwest, Nigeria. The objectives of this study are to: determine the prevalence of CVD among admitted patients; find out the outcome of CVD among admitted patients. This study was a 5years retrospective descriptive study of consecutive adult patient with diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases admitted into male and female medical wards, LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, a tertiary health facility in Osun state Nigeria, between January 2014 and December 2019. Data that were extracted from admission and discharge register include age, sex, date of admission, diagnosis, and date of discharge or death, outcome of management and complications. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The result revealed 23.1% prevalent rate of cardiovascular disease which was found to be high among males than females. Cardiovascular diseases discovered in the study area were hypertensive heart disease, congestive cardiac failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, ischeamic and hemorrhagic stroke. The study further revealed that majority of the patients improved and discharged home. In conclusion, cardiovascular diseases were observed to be high in the study area with high prevalence among male patients aged 60 – 69 years. It is therefore recommended that early detection, prompt management should be ensured, appropriate preventive measure such as regular exercise, diet regulation and regular check-up should be encouraged to reduce complications, need for hospital admission and improve outcome of cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords: Nigeria, Prevalence, Southwest, admitted patients, cardiovascular disease, state tertiary health facility

Prevalence and Covid-19 Testing (Published)

An outbreak of pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China was initially reported to the World Health Organization in December 2019.  Global health authorities purportedly identified a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) which continues to effect most of the world.  Diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2 continues to advance and interpreting test results is paramount.  The most commonly used diagnostic test has been the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction amplification.  Determining test precision not only depends on operating characteristics, sensitivity and specificity, but more importantly on prevalence of the infectious in the population tested.  This paper develops a numerical optimizer (model) to explore the effect of prevalence on surveillance testing accuracy.  Findings herein suggest that large scale COVID-19 surveillance testing should be curbed or eliminated.  Results advocate a more flexible and narrowly targeted approach to testing strategies.

Keywords: COVID-19, Prevalence, SARS-CoV-2 testing

The prevalence of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM): The Prospective form of Angacha district Kembata Community; SNNPRS, Ethiopia (Published)

Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is recognized internationally as a violation of human rights of girls and women constituting an extreme form of gender discrimination with documented health consequences. The study aimed to assess the prevalence of FGM practice in the study area. A community based cross-sectional study design was applied. Both quantitative and qualitative study methods are employed. A total of 278 women at reproductive age (15-49) are sampled for the study from six randomly selected kebeles of Angacha woreda. The survey data was analyzed by SPSS software version 20. Descriptive statistics such as mean, percentage, and frequency are used for analyzing data. Qualitative data is analyzed thematically and the result is presented in narration. From study participants, 92.4% are practiced FGM, and 77.7% of are undergone themselves. The practice is undergone by health professionals at night time. Traditions, reproductive and community roles, norms, and values regarding gender equality are the major push factors for the continuation of the FGM. Mothers are the primary supporters of the practice in the family. Based on the findings, it was concluded that, the prevalence of FGM is high in the study area. Attitudinal transformation is needed through a cooperative and collaborative campaign of all stakeholders in the entire community by arranging trainings, workshops, and media to minimize the prevalence of female genital mutilation.

Keywords: Female Genital Mutilation, Kembata Community, Prevalence

The Societal Variables and Prevalence of Substances Abuse among the Youth in Calabar Cross River States Nigeria. (Published)

The main purpose of this study was to determine societal variable influencing substances abuse among the youth of Calabar South Local Government Area of   Cross River State, Nigeria. To achieve the aim of this study, two objectives and two research questions were formulated to guide the study. Literature related to the variables under study was reviewed. The descriptive research design was adopted for the study. The essence of this design was to allow the researchers make inference and generalization of the population by selecting and studying the sample chosen for the study. A total sample of one hundred and seventy-five (175) respondents was randomly selected for the study. The selection was done through the simple random sampling technique. This was to give every member of the population equal and independent opportunity to be selected for the study. The main instrument used for the collection of data was the questionnaire. The questionnaire was subjected to face validation by experts in Measurement and Evaluation/Research and Statistics in the Faculty of Education who vetted the Items developed. The reliability estimate of the instrument was established through the test-retest reliability method. Data were collected personally by the researchers with the help of some research assistants. To analyze the data for the study, simple percentage and chi-square (x2) analysis was adopted. The results in Table 4.1 shows that 30 (17.14%) of the total respondents were between 12-18 years, 85 (48.57%) were between 19-25 years, while 60 (34.29%) were 26 and above. For sex, 165 (94.29%) of the total respondents were male, 10 (5.71%) were female. Similarly, for educational level, the result in shows that 70 (40.00%) respondents had no formal education, 50 (28.57%) had their primary education, 45 (25.71%) had their secondary education and 10 (5.71%) had their tertiary education. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that the Ministry of Education (Federal and State) should as a matter of urgency add to their curriculum drug education for both the primary and post primary schools in the country and they should always organize lectures, rallies, seminars and film shows for the Nigeria youths on the adverse effects of substance abuse.

Keywords: Prevalence, and youths., societal variables, substances abuse

A Comparative Study of the Prevalence of Moonlighting in the Private and Public Sectors of Ekiti State, Nigeria (Published)

Moonlighting has become a toning issue in the management of private and public sectors as there is a growing concern over its implication on efficiency. In this respect, this work investigated the relationship between workers main job and secondary job; and also compared the rate of moonlighting in the private and public sectors of Ekiti State, Nigeria. Primary method of data collection was utilized. Purposive sampling method of non-probabilistic type was adopted. Collected data were analysed using probit method. Results showed that people in managerial and professional cadre held jobs in different professions in the public sector, unlike the private sector. Above all, moonlighting is prevalent in the public sector than private sector. Based on the findings, the study concluded that prevalence of moonlighting in the public sector of Ekiti State may breed disloyal and discontented work force; promote lezzer fair attitude to job and encouraged undue bureaucracy; accommodate inefficient leadership and uncoordinated organizational policy, among others. The study recommended that government and professional bodies should come up with moonlighting policies to checkmate the growing rate of moonlighting among public officers for efficient service delivery and value for money.

Keywords: Prevalence, Public and Private Sectors, moonlighting, primary and secondary job

Addressing Prevalence of Prostitution in Nigeria through Non-Formal Education Provisions (Published)

The prevalence of prostitution in Nigeria has called for concern of governments, NGOs, scholars and professionals including adult educators. This paper examined the prevalence of prostitution in Nigeria, its causes, as well as its effects on the prostitutes, their patrons and the lager society with a view to exploring how adult and non-formal education provisions can be used to address the menace. The paper concludes that non-formal education provisions such as vocational skill acquisition, moral education, literacy education, public enlightenment, anti-trafficking campaign and rehabilitation education can go a long way in addressing the prevalence of prostitution in Nigeria.

Keywords: Non-formal education, Prevalence, Prostitution, Provisions

Prevalence of Mentoring among Graduate Students of Sport Management in Southern Nigerian Universities (Published)

The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of mentoring among graduate students of sport management in southern Nigerian universities. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. The population as well as sample for the study was 196 graduate students of sport management. Data were collected using a structured and validated questionnaire titled “Sport Management Mentoring Questionnaire (SMMQ)”. It had reliability coefficient of 0.983 which was established using Cronbach alpha. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. It was found that graduate students of sport management rarely experienced formal and informal mentoring, traditional/face-to-face mentoring, e-mentoring, multiple mentoring, and team mentoring, career and psychosocial mentoring functions, mentoring activities, initiation, cultivation, separation and redefinition phase of mentoring. It was recommended among others that mentoring seminars and conferences should be organized for graduate students by the Department in collaboration with the University. Students should be assigned to or made to choose mentors for mentoring at the point of admission into sport management. Favourable report or result on mentoring should be part of requirements for successful completion of graduate programmes in sport management. A “Centre for Mentoring” especially for sport management should be established by the universities

Keywords: Graduate Students, Mentoring, Prevalence, Universities, sport management

Socio-Economic and Political Context of Domestic Violence in Ghana (Published)

This study examined the prevalence of domestic violence in the socio-economic and political context in Ghana. The study conveniently sampled 200 women within Kumasi metropolis as participants. Data for the study came from both primary and secondary sources. Structured questionnaires were face-to-face administered to the respondents. The data were analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows. The study revealed that the prevalence of Cultural factors had been agreed by respondents as scourge of domestic violence. Acceptability of violence as means to resolve conflict (M=4.7), bride price and dowry (M=4.2), Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles (M=4.25), Belief in the inherent superiority of males (M=4.3). Prevalence of economic factors were agreed by respondents as follows: Women’s economic dependence on men (M=5.0) limited access to employment in formal and informal sectors (4.26) discriminatory laws regarding inheritance, property rights, use of communal lands (4.2). Prevalence of Political factors were agreed by respondents as follows: Under-representation of women in power, politics, media and in the legal and medical profession (M=4.17), Risk of challenge to status-quo/religious laws (M=4.35). Legal factors included: laws regarding divorce, child custody, maintenance and inheritance (M=4.31) insensitive treatment of women and girls by police and judiciary (M=4.91). More than halve of the respondents indicated that they have even been assaulted by men. The study revealed a significant association between ever been assaulted and employment status (X2=76.9, p-value<0.05, df =6). Again there is a significant relationship between ever been assaulted and education attainment (X2=35.25, p-value<0.05, df =8). There are relationship between females ever been assaulted and age X2=21.13, p-value<0.05, df =8). Policy intervention and reinforcement of the existing legislation is imperative in the civility of these findings.

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Ghana, Political, Prevalence, Socio-Economic, Women

Plagiarism Is A Crime: Towards Academic Integrity in Higher Educational Institutions in Ghana (Published)

Admittedly, students’ academic plagiarism comes in different forms. Surprisingly, little is known   about the most common form of student’s plagiarism due to inadequate research. This study was aimed to fill this knowledge gap by empirically examined the most common forms of students’ academic plagiarism in the Wa municipality of Ghana. The choice of the study sitting was influenced by the increasing educational activities in the area. The population of the study comprised of all tertiary students in the municipality. The positivist (quantitative) research design was deployed. Convenience sampling technique was used to select 200 respondents. Data for the study were elicited from both primary and secondary sources. Questionnaires were the main interment used in gathering primary data. The constructs for the questionnaires were adopted from Sentleng and King (2012) which was modified to address the objectives of the study. The data were analyzed with the aid of Predictive Analytics Software (PASW). The results were presented using Means (M), Standard Deviations (SD), Relative Important Index (RII) and Chi-square Test. The study revealed the most frequent forms of students plagiarism as follows: Invented or altered data (M=4.16, SD= 0.9), Writing an assignment for your friend (M=4.10, SD=0.9),Copy a text without acknowledgement (M=4.05, SD=1.3), Submitted someone’s work without their permission (M=3.41, SD=1.4), Paraphrased without acknowledging the source (M=2.41, SD=1.7), Summarizing a text without acknowledgement (M=2.73, SD=1.4).Chi-square Test revealed that there is a significant difference between Gender and age of students (χ2 -value = 17.98, df =3, p-value<0.05). Moreover, there is significant difference between religion and age (χ2 -value = 6.55, df =3, p-value=0.05). It is concluded that the most common forms of plagiarism among the students were paraphrased without acknowledging the source (Patchworks), Copy a text without acknowledgement, Invented or altered data (Sham),imitating friends work (Pastiches) and. Training on academic writings need to be intensified.

Keywords: Forms, Ghana, Plagiarism, Prevalence, Students, Wa-municipality


The current status of intestinal helminthes was assessed among schools children in Ifedore Local Government of Ondo State, Nigeria. A total of 180 faecal samples were collected randomly from each of the primary schools sampled. Detection and identification were by direct microscopy. Questionnaires were administered to identify the major activities and behaviour of pupils, their knowledge about the aetiology and control of intestinal helminthes.

Chi- square was used to determine if there was any relationship between age and sex on the occurrence of the helminthes. Of the 180 pupils examined, 88 (48.9%l) were infected. Three parasite species observed were Ascaris lumbricoides (22.2%), Strongyloides stercoralis (12.8%), Hookworm (10.6%) and for multiple infection (3.3%). Females had higher prevalence (25.6%) than males (23.3%). No significant association was observed among worm infectivity, age and sex in the population studied. The study revealed that poor hygienic practices and unsanitary condition were responsible for the high prevalence of these helminthes. Health Education through primary health care could be used as a control measure


Keywords: Helminthes, Hookworm, Infection, Prevalence, Soil