Background: Reports from various centres and studies in Nigeria show a high mortality rate for cases that present to the Accident and Emergency Department. Thus, the need for a realistic hospital and emergency service response program designed on the principle of equitable distribution of appropriate equipment and supplies and well-trained emergency medical personnel, cannot be overemphasized. The study investigated emergency preparedness for emergency situations in selected hospitals in Ondo state. Methodology: A descriptive design was adopted. Using a convenience sampling technique, a total of 248 respondents were selected from four hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data collection was done with the aid of an in-depth interview schedule; and a checklist designed by WHO for basic requirement of materials/equipments that should be possessed by each facility in readiness for emergency/disaster. Results: Results revealed varying level of emergency preparedness as regards resourcefulness among nurses. Nurses in hospital A scored 41%, B (47%), C (45%) while nurses in hospital D scored 27%. The use of contingency plans, networking, use of worldwide web as well as multimedia were identified as available solutions by 12.5%, 11.7%, 10.5% and 9.3% of the nurses respectively. The study further identified the current roles played by nurses in achieving disaster preparedness as follows: facilitating communication and coordination of care (22.5%), acquisition of skills to give psychological support (17.7%), provision of quality health care (15.7%), giving first aid treatment (14.9%), and learning to triage victims (13.5%). The barriers and solutions to emergency preparedness were also investigated through interview schedule. The study showed that all the selected hospitals scored below average in terms of emergency preparedness. Specifically, hospital B recorded the highest score (47.4%) while hospital D recorded the lowest score (28.8%). Conclusion: It was concluded that emergency preparedness among nurses and in selected hospitals in Ondo State was at low level and materials/equipments needed to rescue the victims were inadequate.
Background: The last few decades had witnessed a lot of natural disasters such as floods, Indian Ocean tsunamis in 2004, hurricanes, earthquakes, tornadoes etc. which were experienced by people in different countries across the globe. The study investigated nurses’ preparedness for disaster in selected hospitals in Ondo state. Methodology: A descriptive design was adopted. Using a convenience sampling technique, a total of 248 respondents were selected from four hospitals in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data collection was done with the aid of an adapted structured questionnaire and an in-depth interview schedule. Results: Results revealed that only 12.5% of the nurses had good knowledge of disaster preparedness. The use of contingency plans, networking, use of worldwide web as well as multimedia were identified as available solutions by 12.5%, 11.7%, 10.5% and 9.3% of the nurses respectively. The study further identified the current roles played by nurses in achieving disaster preparedness as follows: facilitating communication and coordination of care (22.5%), acquisition of skills to give psychological support (17.7%), provision of quality health care (15.7%), giving first aid treatment (14.9%), and learning to triage victims (13.5%). The study also showed that there is a significant relationship between the nurses’ level of knowledge on disaster preparedness and their years of experience (X2= 3.11, P = 0.0001) and their rank (X2= 2.46, P = 0.0001). Conclusion: It was concluded that disaster preparedness among nurses in selected hospitals in Ondo State was at low level and materials/equipments needed to rescue the victims were inadequate.
Teacher Preparedness for Implementation of E–Learning Programmes in Public Primary Schools in Kenya (Published)
The use of ICT in many countries has contributed to improvement of their economies through scientific knowledge and services. In Kenya the policy makers initiated Vision 2030 as a vehicle for industrial advancement and growth of economy. The purpose of this study was to assess teacher preparedness for the implementation of e – learning programmes in Emuhaya Sub-county in Kenya. Objectives that guided this study include: To establish teachers preparedness in terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills for implementation of e – learning in public primary school and to identify challenges which implementers of e – learning are likely to face in public primary schools in Emuhaya Sub-county. The target population of the study was 664 class teachers from 83 public primary schools, each school providing eight teachers. Simple random sampling method was used to select 25 public primary schools from 83 schools in the sub-county. The sample size comprised 200 class teachers as respondents selected from middle and upper primary. Questionnaires were administered to class teachers and their responses presented in frequencies and percentages for the purpose of data analysis. The findings of the study revealed that teachers are not well prepared to implement e-learning programme therefore a lot of resistance to the programme. Teachers require sufficient time to prepare for integration into the new system of instruction. To address the problem teachers need encouragement through pre-service and in-service training. The respondents encounters challenges such as computer illiteracy and phobia, lack of computers and e – learning classrooms, lack of electricity, financing of e – learning programmes, sensitization of stakeholders, accessibility and time for training, old age and attitude. The study recommends that the Ministry of Education should introduce clusters of e – learning centres with instructors to man a group of schools. These centres can be used for training teachers from nearby schools. It is easier and cheap in terms of transport costs and also it is convenient. The private sector which plays a significant role in the development and growth of economy should be encouraged to support the initiative by donating funds to equip schools with computers.
The Impact of Flooding On the Livelihood of People Living In the Luhonono Area in the Zambezi Region, Namibia (Published)
This study examined the impact of floods on the livelihoods of the community of the Luhonono area (formally called Schuckmansburg) in the Kabbe constituency in the Zambezi Region of Namibia. The problem identified is the persistent flooding in the Luhonono area, giving rise to the need to look at the impact of floods on the livelihoods of the local community. The study employed both qualitative and quantitative approaches, utilising both descriptive and exploratory designs. The target population for the study was all the heads of households, community leaders and a political councillor of government in Luhonono area. The study applied both purposive sampling and simple random sampling techniques. Structured questionnaires and an interview guide were used as research instruments to collect data from the sample. The data was used to measure the impact of floods on the livelihood of the people in the flood-prone area. The data collected were computed using the Excel computer program version 16.0 and the data were analysed by both qualitative and quantitative techniques. Chi Square tests were carried out to determine the association of villages and the severity of the flooding to the respondents. Hypotheses to test this association were examined using the Chi Square method. It was established that there is no association between the villages and the overall severity of the floods in the Luhonono area. This implies that all the villages were equally affected by the flood. There is a need for further studies to develop baseline data on the impact of flood that will help the Government of the Republic of Namibia in establishing strategies that will help the communities in flood prone areas to develop resilience against the impact of floods.
Preparedness of County Referral Health Facilities in Implementing Adolescent Friendly Health Services: A Case of Mama Lucy Kibaki County Refferal Hospital, Kenya (Published)
Background: Health service delivery is a key pillar of health system management. However, there is limited peer reviewed literature on health services to adolescents necessitating assessment of whether the existing health facilities were prepared to implement the adolescent friendly health services. Staff capacity, health resources and health system factors were assessed in regards to health service delivery to adolescent cohort study. Methods: Cross-sectional research design was adopted, census, stratified random sampling and simple random sampling were used to establish study participants. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and focused group discussions for adolescents. Analysis was done using Statistical package for the social science Version 17.0 programme for data analysis and results were presented in tables and graphs. Results: The study established that there is limited adolescent friendly health services implementation in the facility. Even though 107 (73.3%) of the healthcare providers referred to the adolescent health services offered at the facility as friendly. Health workers capacity was limited in regards to adolescent friendly health service delivery. On the other hand 212 (100%) adolescents recommended specific health resources to be incorporated within the health system to improve the services rendered to them. Conclusion: The link between health care resources and adolescent health is not well understood by health workers and managers leading to inadequacy of services specific to adolescents. Laborious awareness drives to sensitize county referral health facilities to make a significant investment in the health system that supports adolescent friendly health service implementation. Similar studies need to be done in other county referral health facilities to generate more supportive evidence.