Traditional Justice System and Conflict Resolution: Exploring the Pre-Colonial Institutional Frameworks in Mamfe and Bakweri Lands of Cameroon (Published)
The current paper is geared at establishing the historicity of the traditional justice system in Cameroon using the Mamfe and Bakweri experiences. It centers on how traditional justice was dispensed in certain specific areas in Cameroon. Before the introduction of Formal Justice Instruments, it is important to mention that different societies applied different instruments of justice. Justice systems were modeled based on cultural belief patterns. Every society in pre-colonial Cameroon had its unique instruments of dictating and punishing crime. These instruments were enshrined in the people’s culture and handed down from generation to generation. The recognition of these traditional instruments of justice was born out of the ever increasing acceptance of the validity and legitimacy of the adjudicative powers of traditional leadership. In some instances a word from majesty was law. To realize this study, an interdisciplinary approach is adopted to prop into traditional instruments of justice using the Bakweri and Mamfe areas as typical examples. A qualitative design was adopted to look at the various crimes that were committed in these societies and the punishments that were mated out depending on the nature and magnitude of the crime. From all indications the traditional society in the Mamfe and Bakweri areas were not lawless societies. The people upheld human right values through their traditional belief patterns and could dictate and punish crime accordingly. The spirit of fair hearing was accorded criminals before punishment was mated out and this was enshrined in the doctrine of the traditional councils and customary courts that were charged with the resolution of land disputes, marital conflicts and other crimes like theft. Colonialism came with its own judicial system but some of the customary legal practices have continued to survive like customary marriages that are still recognized even in the presence of modern patterns of marriage
The Eclipse of the Institution of Slavery and its Impact on the pre-colonial state of Ibadan, 1873-1900 (Published)
The concept of progress among individuals, communities and organisations globally implies positive changes. The process of change itself is a normal occurrence and this is why it has been regarded as the most permanent phenomenon in human history. However, it must be noted that despite its permanent nature, societies view the concept of change as less desirable than status quo because of the fear of the unknown. This is applicable to development in the pre-colonial state of Ibadan. The Ibadan of our period introduced quite a lot of dynamism into statecraft. The changes swept through governance, agro-allied and local industrial production; marketing and diplomacy, both at home and in the vassal states. However, decision makers in Ibadan were reluctant when it was their turn to experience similar changes. This is not surprising because the wind of change that confronted the status quo in Ibadan was massive, such that the existing arrangement in which slaves were practically made the mainstay of the political economy of the state, collapsed under the new arrangement that was introduced by the British. This paper therefore, discusses the prelude to the sweeping changes and their effects on the society.
IQBAL’S VIEWS ON GLORIOUS NATIONAL HISTORY OF THE MUSLIMS IN PRE-COLONIAL SUBCONTINENT BEING “COLONIZED INTELLEGENTIA” IN MUSLIM: AN ANALYSIS IN COLONIAL PERSPECTIVE (Published)
In this paper I have analyzed the practices of colonized intelligentsia that how they contribute in liberal movements by contest the colonial legacies in the mindset of their nation. Strategies of colonized intellectuals are also focused on in what way they invest their passions to make conscious their nation. In this regard it will also analyze that how intellectuals of colonized nation revive their glorified and dignified past. I will use the framework of post colonialism. Frantz fanon’s assumptions will be used as a theoretical background. These assumptions will be applied on Iqbal’s poetry regarding nationalism.