Tag Archives: Pragmatics

Pragma-Stylistic Manifestations in Sport Discourse from Selected Radio Stations in Ibadan Metropolis (Published)

Language is a complex human-specific system of communication. It is the only means by which people in a speech community communicate among themselves. Pragma-stylistic is one of the types of context-oriented stylistics that has to do with speech act stylistics. Its contributions to the field of stylistics have made the study of language an interesting one. The need to ascertain whether sport presenters on the radio employ speech acts in their conversation motivates this study. A pragma-stylistic model of literary analysis is presented and applied to analyse the sport discourse from selected radio stations in Ibadan metropolis. The conversations are analysed as a cohesive chunk so as to examine the direct and indirect illocutionary acts, the perlocutionary effects, the various contexts and competencies that are inherent in the sport discourse. The major results of the analyses indicate that the participants engage in conversation so as to do things with words.

Keywords: Language, Pragmatics, Stylistics, Utterance, pragma-stylistics

A Cross-Linguistic Study of the English Prepositions up and down and Their Russian Counterparts (Published)

During the recent decades an increasing interest has been observed in pragmatic studies, particularly in the field of comparative linguistics. The object of our study is space prepositions up and down in English and their counterparts in Russian. We have chosen these prepositions because they present a certain difficulty for foreign learners, especially Russian students of English. Firstly, the prepositions up and down do not have direct equivalents in Russian. Secondly, their usage on the syntagmatic level is overloaded with deixis, which makes their understanding and interpretation still more complicated. We have examined these linguistic units in the framework of theory of oppositions and pragmatics, particularly deixis.  The analysis shows that on the syntagmatic level the prepositions up and down display various pragmatic meanings triggered by the reference of motion to the location of the speaker or other subject in space. Both these prepositions are rendered into Russian by means of the preposition po (along) which is deictically-neutral and therefore special means are required to express the meanings of the English prepositions both on the paradigmatic and syntagmatic level.

Keywords: Deixis, Paradigmatic, Pragmatics, Syntagmatic, prepositions up and down, theory of oppositions

An Analysis of Jordanian Jokes: A Pragmatic Study of Humour (Published)

The present study is a pragmatic analysis of Jordanian jokes within the framework of Grice’s conversational implicature. The study aims at identifying the violation of Grice’s Maxims that occur in Jordanian jokes, knowing the implied meaning of the violated Gricean Maxims in these jokes, and recognising the factors that influence the interpretation of these jokes. The sample of the study consists of 6 jokes elicited from WhatsApp and Facebook. The researcher categorised the data based on their type of violation by applying Grice’s theory. Then, he analysed the implied meaning by using the theory of conversational implicature which was proposed by Grice. The findings of the study revealed that Jordanians violate the maxims to create laughter and to communicate social and economic meanings. Jordanians use humour created by the violation of the maxims to soften criticism or satire. In addition, the study showed that cultural and background knowledge plays a significant role in interpreting these jokes.

Keywords: Grice’s Maxims, Implicature, Pragmatics, humour, jokes

An Analysis of Jordanian Jokes (Published)

The present study is a pragmatic analysis of Jordanian jokes within the framework of Grice’s conversational implicature. The study aims at identifying the violation of Grice’s Maxims that occur in Jordanian jokes, knowing the implied meaning of the violated Gricean Maxims in these jokes, and recognising the factors that influence the interpretation of these jokes. The sample of the study consists of 6 jokes elicited from WhatsApp and Facebook. The researcher categorised the data based on their type of violation by applying Grice’s theory. Then, he analysed the implied meaning by using the theory of conversational implicature which was proposed by Grice. The findings of the study revealed that Jordanians violate the maxims to create laughter and to communicate social and economic meanings. Jordanians use humour created by the violation of the maxims to soften criticism or satire. In addition, the study showed that cultural and background knowledge plays a significant role in interpreting these jokes.

Keywords: Grice’s Maxims, Implicature, Pragmatics, humour, jokes

Pragmatics in the Classroom (Published)

Structured and systematic study of pragmatics in linguistics has assumed a central dimension since the middle of the century to meet the new vistas opened up for investigation in the field. Pragmatics as language in use views its study from the context-based perspective by real people in real situations, whether spoken or written within a political, social, cultural or religious melieu. But poor pragmatic knowledge, as often observed in ESL learners in discursive events has been unequivocally been devastating as, for example, when such errors are seen as insult on the participant, not grammatical resulting from the learning process. This paper aims at lucidly elucidating the need for pragmatic instructions in the classroom. It also examines pragmatics in actual language use by exemplifying with scalar implicature and the cooperative principles whose firm knowledge all over the world has enhanced communicative events as reality.

 

Keywords: Conversation, Cooperative Principles, Pragmatics, scalar implicature

Pragmatic Analysis of Nigeria’s President Muhammadu Buhari’s Maiden Coup Address of January 1, 1984 And His Inaugural Address of May 29, 2015: A Comparative Appraisal (Published)

The quest for and exercise of power is characterized by ingenious use of language. Persuading and convincing the masses to obtain their support and acceptance, legitimizing political authority and policies, manipulating the citizenry towards accepting a particular ideology, etc, depends to a large extent, on the kind of language a political protagonist employs and its appropriateness to the context of use. The study is a comparative analysis of President Muhammadu Buhari’s Maiden Coup Address of January 1, 1984 and his Inaugural Address of May 29, 2015 from a general pragmatic perspective. Adopting the Speech Act theory of Austin (1962) as revised by Searle (1962, 1999 , the study was aimed at unveiling the ilucutionary forces of the speech acts employed in both speeches to manipulate and galvanize the populace into making the intended and desired inferences in the pragmatic contexts in which the speeches were made. The result showed that the speech acts used in each of the speeches, though used by the same protagonist, depend on the socio- political context in which the speeches were made. In a general term , our analysis revealed that President Buhari’s use of language in his maiden coup speech reflects his military disposition as  his utterances were seen to be authoritative, forceful, preemptory, and direct as he needed to exercise a solid control through commands, orders, firm request, and threats. In contrast to the above, his use of language in his inaugural address which was made in the context of popular democracy, was relatively  informative and persuasive ,and reflects ingredients of social relations and interactions.

Keywords: Comparative Appraisal., Inaugural Address, Maiden Coup Address, Pragmatics

A Pragmatic Survey of Nigerian Expression of Politeness (Published)

This paper investigates politeness as a pragmatic principle in the conversation venture. The paper explores the scholarly views on politeness and concluded in view of those submissions that Nigeria as a country has adopted English for use to meet it local needs. As a result, Nigerians pragmatically have developed unique and consistent ways of expressing politeness. So, the paper draws examples from actual speech situations of some Nigerians who speak popular Nigerian English in places of social interactions , uses them to show some of the strategies adopted by Nigerians to express politeness. The results of the survey shows that Nigerian ways of expressing politeness are in tandem with politeness strategies as generally postulated by scholars on the subject, thus, reconfirming politeness as a reality in most conversational discourse.

Keywords: Nigerian Expression And Politeness, Pragmatics, Survey

A USEFUL GUIDE TO THE TEACHING AND TESTING OF PRAGMATICS IN THE EFL/ESL CLASSROOM (Published)

This thorough analysis of the literature reviewed on pragmatics provides a practical and knowledge-based guide to EFL/ ESL teachers with the aim to assist them when they deal with the teaching and testing of pragmatics in the classroom. It also considers itself as an informational profile that might be of help whenever teacher-education and teacher-training are thought of as it reflects on an important aspect of language that seems to be overlooked in foreign language teaching/learning process and detached from real communicative language use. At first, an overview of how pragmatics is taught in the foreign/second language classroom is critically previewed so as to unfold the reality of the traditional pragmatics instruction in EFL/ESL contexts. Within this instructional perspective, an integration of the most up-to-date theoretical orientations to pragmatics instruction is shed lighted in order to better equip EFL/ESL teachers with the necessary knowledge, skills and instructional techniques and raise their awareness of pragmatics issues such as politeness, impoliteness, socio-pragmatic and pragma-linguistic failures. How to test pragmatics learning has been regarded in the second part as it deals with testing learner’s pragmatic proficiency and addresses some important practices in testing this aspect in EFL/ESL classroom as well as in examinations.

Keywords: EFL/ESL Contexts, Pragmatic Proficiency, Pragmatics, Teaching and Testing

A USEFUL GUIDE TO THE TEACHING AND TESTING OF PRAGMATICS IN THE EFL/ESL CLASSROOM (Published)

This thorough analysis of the literature reviewed on pragmatics provides a practical and knowledge-based guide to EFL/ ESL teachers with the aim to assist them when they deal with the teaching and testing of pragmatics in the classroom. It also considers itself as an informational profile that might be of help whenever teacher-education and teacher-training are thought of as it reflects on an important aspect of language that seems to be overlooked in foreign language teaching/learning process and detached from real communicative language use. At first, an overview of how pragmatics is taught in the foreign/second language classroom is critically previewed so as to unfold the reality of the traditional pragmatics instruction in EFL/ESL contexts. Within this instructional perspective, an integration of the most up-to-date theoretical orientations to pragmatics instruction is shed lighted in order to better equip EFL/ESL teachers with the necessary knowledge, skills and instructional techniques and raise their awareness of pragmatics issues such as politeness, impoliteness, socio-pragmatic and pragma-linguistic failures. How to test pragmatics learning has been regarded in the second part as it deals with testing learner’s pragmatic proficiency and addresses some important practices in testing this aspect in EFL/ESL classroom as well as in examinations.

Keywords: EFL/ESL Contexts, Pragmatic Proficiency, Pragmatics, Teaching and Testing

ETHNOGRAPHY OF COMMUNICATION IN OLA ROTIMI’S THE GODS ARE NOT TO BLAME: A PRAGMATIC STUDY (Published)

Ola Rotimi’s The god’s are not to blame has been subjected to various forms of criticisms. However, none, to the best of our knowledge, has delved into analysing the text using Dell Hymes’ Ethnography of Communication. It is this gap that this research intends to fill. The study takes a look at eleven selected exchanges in Ola Rotimi’s The gods are not to blame from a pragmatic point of view. It also applies Dell Hymes’ theory on utterance meaning i.e. the “ethnography of communication” otherwise known as the SPEAKING Acronym, to the text. The study reveals that the dominant setting in the play is the king’s palace. The act with the highest number of manifestation is the informative act, while the preponderant key in the text is the melancholic key. These, therefore, relate to the themes of death and royalty, praised in the work, among others.

Keywords: Odewale, Pragmatics, Rotimi, ethnography

The Pragmatics of General Ibrahim Babangida’s Independence Day Broadcasts, 1985-1993 (Review Completed - Accepted)

This article examines the pragmatics of General Ibrahim Babangida’s Independence Day Broadcasts with particular attention to the speech acts that the speeches are used to perform. It is motivated by the paucity of work on independence day speeches most especially in Nigeria and the need to identify the categories of illocutionary acts performed with the broadcasts in order to enhance a better understanding of the broadcasts. Data were collected via the national archives. The data collected were analysed, using insights from the theory of speech acts. Considering the context in which the broadcasts were given and the communicative intention of the speaker, five categories of illocutionary acts namely; representatives, directives, comissives, expressive and declaration were found to characterize the data. Among these, only the representative and commissive acts were found to be predominant. These could be described as institutional acts associated with independence day broadcasts as a genre of political discourse. The article concludes that reading independence day broadcasts from the speech acts lenses has potency of enhancing a better understanding of the broadcasts.

Keywords: Context, Independence Day Broadcasts Ibrahim Babangida, Pragmatics