Tag Archives: Practices

Teachers’ Beliefs, the Concept of Face and Classroom Practices (Published)

Students who want to be English language teachers enter teacher preparation programs viewing, teaching and learning from their own experience as students as pointed out by many researchers (e.g., Curtner-Smith, Hastie, & Kinchin, 2008; Richardson, 1996; Russell, 2008, Schweisfurth 2015). They want to teach the way they were taught while they were at the universities. Often, they have a role model, a teacher who serves as a guide an inspiration for them. After they graduate and start working as English teachers, what they face, in reality, sometimes overlaps with the information they were given as students. So, their beliefs about teaching alter and change depending on their teaching contexts. Relating theory and practice enables pre-service teachers to transfer the necessary knowledge and skills gained at the university level on actual teaching practice (Bell & Robinson, 2004). Awareness and enhancing educational processes require an understanding of teachers’ views and actions. They are closely linked to teachers’ strategies for coping with challenges and difficulties in their daily teaching routines and at the same time they influence students’ motivation about the learning process. The purpose of this paper is to address the importance of teachers’ beliefs and actual classroom practices about the importance of teaching prepositions in their classes. Also, the concept of face, loosing or saving face be it of the teachers or students is introduced in this paper. Cases when teachers’ beliefs converge or diverge with real class practices are discussed pointing out the factors that influence teaching practices. Teachers’ beliefs and current practices are important for understanding and improving the educational processes. The authors will compare the teachers’ beliefs and their actual practices in English classes and how is the concept of face employed in EFL classes. For the purpose of this paper, three English teachers out of 20 were randomly selected during a training seminar provided By British Council, Albania. The concept of face is examined through three English teachers who teach at a primary school and are observed how they provide explanation, regarding prepositions, to their students. The findings show that the concept of face is not introduced to students in any class or subject. It is recommended that students should be taught about the concept of face, types of face, how they are related to individuals and the influence that the concept of face has on teachers’ daily teaching routines. Moreover, there is no study on the concept of face in the Albanian context and especially in the EFL classes. So, in the future other studies are needed to stress the importance of the concept of face in the Albanian culture.

Citation: Ogerta Koruti Stroka1 and  Etleva Kondi Koni (2022)Teachers’ Beliefs, the Concept of Face and Classroom Practices, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.10, No.1, pp.1-15


Keywords: EFL classrooms, Face, Practices, teachers’ beliefs, teaching process

Internal and External Quality Assurance Practices as Predictors of Institutional Effectiveness of Public Universities in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

This study assessed internal and external quality assurance practices as determinants of institutional effectiveness of public universities in Cross River State, Nigeria. The study was intended to address two objectives, from which two null hypotheses were developed. Based on the descriptive survey research design, the census approach was used to study the whole population of 157 administrators (Deans and head of departments) in the two public universities in the study area. Quality Assurance Practices and Institutional Effectiveness Questionnaire (QAPIEQ) was the instrument utilized to collect data. Five experts validated the instrument while an overall Cronbach reliability rating of. 853 was obtained. Data were gathered from 132 respondents due to restrictions that prevented data collection from the targeted 157 respondents. Multiple regression analysis with R studio software version 3.6.0 was used to test the two null hypotheses at the .05 alpha level. Internal quality assurance processes have a substantial influence on university institutional effectiveness (R=.924, R2=.846, F=120.851, p.05), according to the findings. External quality assurance measures were also shown to have a significant influence (R=.792, R2=.782, F=79.100, p.05) on university institutional effectiveness. Based on these findings, it was concluded that internal and external quality assurance processes are critical components that can increase university institutional performance. It was suggested, among other things, that the Nigerian Institutions Commission (NUC) should ensure that accreditation visits are made to universities at least twice, in each academic session to verify the quality of courses and programs.


Keywords: External quality assurance, Practices, Public Universities, Quality, Quality Assurance, institutional effectiveness, internal quality assurance

Farmers’ Organisations and Its Contribution to the Adoption of Soil Conservation Practices: A Case Study of Smallholder Farmers in Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

As part of the efforts to reduce land degradation and improve agricultural productivity, farmers in the study area were introduced to various soil conservation practices through farmers’ organisations. This study was however, conducted to determine the effect of farmers’ organisation on soil conservation practices adopted in the study area. Data collected, through a multistage sampling procedure, were analysed with the aid of descriptive statistics and double hurdle regression model. Findings revealed that three conservation practices were adopted in the study area namely; cover cropping (14%), vegetative fallow (35%) and mulching (46%) while 5% did not adopt any practice at all. Findings also revealed significant difference in some socio-economic characteristics among the categories of adopters in the study area such as age of the household head (P < 0.05), off-farm income (P < 0.01) and farm size (P < 0.01). Double hurdle model results revealed in the first hurdle that, while, gender, age, off-farm income, valley location, and extension contact significantly influenced the adoption of cover cropping practice, age, off-farm income, farm size, and extension contact significantly influenced adoption of vegetative fallow system practice. The adoption of mulching practice is significantly influenced by education, farming experience, farmers’ organization and household size. In the second hurdle, while, gender, age, off-farm income, valley location, and extension contact significantly influenced the adoption of cover cropping practice, gender, education, farm size, and farming experience significantly influenced the adoption of vegetative fallow system practice. The adoption of mulching practice is significantly influenced by gender, education, and farmers’ organization. The study concluded that farmers’ organization is one of the key factors influencing the three soil conservation practices (cover cropping, vegetative fallow system and mulching). Others were off-farm income, extension contact, farm size, and years of education. In line with the findings of the study, the study recommends that formation and strengthen of a farmers’ organisation for increased uptake of soil conservation practices should be encouraged. In addition, effective strategies, programmes and institutional structures that would enhance education of farmers, frequency of extension contact and off-farm income should be put in place.

Keywords: Conservation, Oyo State, Practices, Smallholder Farmers, Soil, farmers’ organisation

Effectiveness of in Service Teachers Training Programmes Offered by DSD at Primary Level in Punjab (Published)

The underlying purpose of the study is to investigate the effectiveness of in-service teacher training (ISTT) programmes conducted in Punjab by Directorate of Staff Development (DSD). It further evaluates the strength and weaknesses of the various executed training programmes by DSD within Punjab, Pakistan. The following Quantitative study intends to highlight the various variables which act as a comprehensive tool for the acquisition of expected or desired outcomes. It further states those variables involved which act as a catalyst to bring a significant change within the classroom premises, institutions or working places and the attitudes, methodology and teaching practices of teachers or professionals. For that purpose, surveys were conducted by using questionnaires in various areas of Punjab, Pakistan. The data was analyzed by using coding and SPSS-16. The conclusion drawn from the data analysis illustrates the positive influence of ISTT within the classroom as well as on individuals. It enables the teachers to identify their strengths and weaknesses as it has been proved as an efficient tool for self-evaluation, self learning and reflection. ISTT also bring change within in the classroom as it enables the teachers to understand the complexity of learning process more explicitly.

Keywords: DSD, Effectiveness, Evaluation, Knowledge, Practices, Skill, attitude, in-service teacher training (ISTT), professional development (PD)

Formative Assessment Practices, Attitude and Learning Outcome of Students in Mathematics in Selected Secondary Schools in South-South Nigeria (Published)

The study was conducted to examine the effect of formative assessment practices, and attitude on learning outcome of students in Mathematics in selected secondary schools in south-south Nigeria. Three research questions and hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The quasi-experimental design was used in the study with a population of all Senor Secondary school three (SS3) students in Mathematics in selected public secondary schools in south-south (Cross River, Rivers and Akwa Ibom States) of Nigeria numbering 21,657. The sample of the study consisted of 541 (2.5%), SS3 students in Mathematics. The proportionate stratified random sampling technique was employed in the study. The instruments for data collection are; the Formative Assessment Practice Questionnaire (FAPQ), Attitude Scale (AS) and Learning Outcome Test in Mathematics (LOTM) which were validated by experts in Mathematics and Measurement and Evaluation. Internal consistency was established with split half reliability method and the index ranged from .78 to .92 respectively.  The stated hypotheses formulated for the study were tested at 0.05 level of significance using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA).  Findings from the study revealed that there is a significant effect of formative assessment, attitude and gender on learning outcome of students in Mathematics.

Keywords: Formative assessment, Learning Outcome, Mathematics, Practices, South-south Nigeria., attitude

Adopting Alternative Methodologies and Practices in Educational Research in Higher Education in Nigeria (Published)

Alternative methodologies and practices have gained prominence in educational research in the 21st century. The application of other research methodologies and practices challenges the one-fit-all approach associated with a single research methodology in educational research. The current practice is one that has developed to re-position the subsisting culture of research to rather assume a multidirectional trajectory in educational research in higher institutions of learning. While this is the case in the educational systems of other contexts, it raises concern about whether alternative methodologies and practices also apply in educational research in higher education in Nigeria. This literature examines what obtains in the Nigerian context, and where there seems to be gaps, strives to inspire a rethink of the existing research methodology and practices in educational research for better research in higher education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Higher Education, Nigeria, Practices, educational research, methodologies

The Implementation of Hygiene Practices in Early Childhood Education Centers in Londiani Sub-County, Kericho County (Published)

Hygiene practices in Early Childhood Education are very essential. It helps the child to be strong, active, responsible, confident and perform well on the day to day activities. The study sought to investigate the implementation of hygiene practices in Early Childhood Education Centres. The study adopted the active learning instructional theory. The study used descriptive survey research design to investigate hygiene practices. The study was conducted in Londiani Sub-County, Kericho County. The target population comprised of eighty (80) early childhood educational centres out of which twenty four (24) were sampled for the study. The random sampling technique was used to sample twenty four (24) headteachers and forty eight (48. Research instruments included Questionnaires, Interviews and Observation schedules. Data was collected, then analyzed using descriptive statistics.  The output was presented by the use of frequency tables, bar graphs and pie charts. The findings established that schools in Londiani have hygiene practices, but they are not fully implemented due to lack of proper facilities. The study concluded that toilets were dirty in majority of the centres which may affect the health status of the children causing absenteeism due to frequent sicknesses.  The study recommended that County government be involved in supporting ECD centres to ensure that funding and purchase of proper facilities are made available in the schools.

Keywords: Hygiene, Implementation, Practices

Principles of Organic Agriculture and Its Social Implication In Reference to the Nepalese Practices (Published)

The conventional practice of agriculture system of Nepal was very similar to the Organic agriculture; only difference was there was no rule in conventional farming whereas there is standard rule in organic agriculture. The study aims to analyze the principles of organic agriculture and its social implication in reference to the Nepalese practices. The study was based on the mixed design. Data was collected from the 586 organic farmers and 28 key persons related to the organic agriculture. Purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the respondent from four districts; Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktpur and Dhading. The result found that all farmers had working knowledge on importance and benefit of organic agriculture. They were aware on the principles of organic agriculture and found the significant implication of four principles of organic agriculture. Mostly, people were conscious about the caring of health and ecology from the practice of organic agriculture. Principle of ecology, farmers were conscious on the effect of OA to make the environment clean; clean air and water. As a principle of fairness, people reported that OA had supported to reduce the youth migration and could create the job opportunity. For the care of all human being and ecology, the study recommended to sustain the OA from the active contribution of all stakeholders in the initiation of Government.

Keywords: Organic agriculture, Practices, Principles, Social implication

Assessment Of Supply Chain Management Practices And It Effects On The Performance Of Kasapreko Company Limited In Ghana (Published)

This thesis is based on one manufacturing company in Ghana. The study sought to examine supply chain management practice and it effect on the performance of Kasapreko Company Limited (KCL). The objectives of the study were to examine supply chain management (SCM) practice in KCL, ascertain the influence of SCM practice on KCL performance, and to describe the trend in sale of KCL. A sample size of two-hundred (200) out of the numerous customers of KCL was administered with questionnaires in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. The researchers also interviewed key employees of KCL using a semi-structured interview guide. A descriptive analysis with the aid of SPSS was used to quantify the relationship between the application of supply chain management practice and the performance of KCL. The result of the study indicated that KCL is applying supply chain management practice to its business activities. The study also indicated that supply chain management practice has significantly influence KCL business performance and was evidence in the sales performance of KCL over the years (2004-2010).

Keywords: Performance and Supply Chain Management, Practices, Supply Chain