Tag Archives: practice

Strengthening Theory and Practice Link in Higher Education: An Investigation into Lithography Printing Faults (Published)

This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of a six-week structured pre-press and press activities programme based on integrating theory and practice at the industrial level. The study consisted of twenty-four participants with minimal industrial skills and work experience in lithography printing faults, causes, and remedies. Purposive sampling was used. Qualitative research method and action research design were employed. Data was collected through interviews, observation, focus group discussion and tests. The study was analysed through Thematic and Descriptive analysis. Analysis of the data shows that, at the end of the six-week programme, all 12 participants who took part in the industrial training greatly improved in skill development and work experience in all aspects of the pre-press and press activities. However, the other 12 participants who did not participate in the training did not acquire any skills. This study suggests that integrating theory and practice at the industrial level could enhance graduates’ skill and work experience in lithography printing faults, causes and remedies to bridge the gap between theory and practice.

 Citation: Boakye-Amponsah A., Enninful E.K., and Lamptey B. (2023)   Strengthening Theory and Practice Link in Higher Education: An Investigation into Lithography Printing Faults, British Journal of Education, Vol.11, Issue 1, 54-77

Keywords: Integration, Theory, lithography, practice, printing faults

The Relevance of Accounting Information Practice on Small and Medium Scale Enterprise (SMEs) in Nigeria: A Theoretical Appraisal (Published)

This study theoretically reviewed the relevance of accounting information practice on SMEs in Nigeria. Accounting information is to provide high quality financial reporting. The qualitative characteristic of any accounting information system (AIS) can be maintained relative to ensuring the achievement of its operational goals and performance. This paper adopted library and theoretical literature survey approach and employed quotient research analysis with the use of secondary publications. The study identified SMEs as a catalysts instrument for economic growth and development. It noted that the ineffectiveness of AIS is the bane behind premature collapse of SMEs in Nigeria. The paper observed that proper AIS has enhanced SMEs success and provided requisite information support needed. The paper also noted that AIS has provided the basis for making strategic decision and understanding the accuracy of financial situation of SMEs in Nigeria. It therefore concludes that SMEs have the capacity to turning it fortune through AIS. Hence, studies have showed that financing options require information system that involves objectivity. However, those saddled with the responsibility of mentoring, nurturing as well as revamping SMEs in Nigeria should task them to adopt proper AIS and rescind from encouraging SMEs with credit facilities and other products alike if proper AIS is not maintained. 

Citation: Umanhonlen O.F., Umanhonlen I.R., Enofe, O. A. (2022) The Relevance of Accounting Information Practice on Small and Medium Scale Enterprise (SMEs) in Nigeria: A Theoretical Appraisal, European Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Finance Research, Vol.11, No. 1, pp.8-44

Keywords: Accounting information, SMEs, System, dynamism and flexibility, performance measure, practice, quality financial reporting

Effect of Health Education Intervention on Practice of Breast Self–Examination Among Women of Reproductive Age in Selected Primary Healthcare Facilities in Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

The study examined effect of health education intervention on practice of breast self–examination among women of reproductive age in selected primary healthcare facilities in Ogun State, Nigeria. The study specifically examined the pre- and post- intervention knowledge and practice of breast self-examination among women of reproductive age in selected primary healthcare facilities. This study adopted one group pretest-posttest quasi-experimental research design. The population for the study comprises of women of reproductive age in two selected primary healthcare facilities in Ogun State. The researcher adapted a well-structured test paper that was used to obtain information from respondents. The instrument was validated by experts consisting of nursing professionals as well as experienced professional researchers who ascertained face and content validity. The research was carried out in three phases namely pre-intervention, intervention and post-intervention. Descriptive statistics such as frequency counts and percentages were used to answer the research question while inferential statistics of t-test was used to test the hypotheses. The findings of this study show that majority of the respondents at the pre-intervention phase had average knowledge of breast self-examination while the knowledge level was high after intervention. The findings of this study however show that majority of the respondents at the pre-intervention phase had never practice breast self-examination while the practice level was high after intervention. The study concluded that the health education intervention program improved the practice of breast self-examination among women of reproductive age. It was recommended among others that health educational intervention regarding practice of breast self-examination should be done periodically by health workers during clinics for women of reproductive age.

Citation: Adamu-Adedipe, F.O.  (2022) Effect of Health Education Intervention on Practice of Breast Self–Examination Among Women of Reproductive Age in Selected Primary Healthcare Facilities in Ogun State, Nigeria, International Journal of Nursing, Midwife and Health Related Cases, Vol.8, No.4, pp.20-29,


Keywords: Health education, Knowledge, Women, breast self-examination, practice

Hybrid Learning Model in the Teaching and Learning Process Basic Accounting Practice (Published)

This research is aimed at designing an efficient hybrid learning model in learning Basic Accounting Practices. This learning model is expected to be used as a guide by lecturers who support courses in planning, implementing and evaluating their learning activities. The hardware used is a Laptop, Web Camera, Bluetooth Headset, LCD Projector, while the software is Google Meet. Research activities are carried out through 3 stages, namely: program planning, development and implementation, evaluation. The target subjects are students of the Bali State Polytechnic Accounting Department in semester 2, the target object is a learning device for the Basic Accounting Practice course. The results show that this simple hybrid learning model can be applied effectively in learning Basic Accounting Practices. This is indicated by the level of student satisfaction with the reliability of the learning model (material, design, media) using the 5 scale is an average of 4.0 (Satisfied) with an average learning outcome value of 81.01 (A). Suggestions from students are the need for reliable Wi-Fi and LCD projector facilities in every classroom.

Citation:  Sugiarta K.,  Ardina C., and  Ariana M. (2022)  Hybrid Learning Model in the Teaching and Learning Process Basic Accounting Practice, International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, Vol. 10, No.10, pp.48-56



Keywords: Accounting, Hybrid, Learning, Model, practice

Influence of Covid-19 on Advertising Practice in South East, Nigeria (Published)

This study investigated how Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic influenced advertising practice in South East, Nigeria. The study adopted survey research design and focus group discussion. A sample size of 287 was drawn from the entire population using the Taro Yamani formula. The study was anchored on the economic recovery theory and AIDA advertising model. Data were collected using structural questionnaire and focus group discussion, and were analyzed with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0. Findings show that COVID-19 negatively affected advertising practice in South-East Nigeria. It further recommends that advertising practitioners in South-East Nigeria should evolve more local contents approach in the packaging and dissemination of advertising messages in order to stimulate interest in advertising and overturn the negative impact of COVID-19 pandemic on advertising practice zone. Advertising practitioners and agencies in South East Nigeria should also adjust or reduce the cost of advertising to enable companies raise the level of adverting in the post-COVID-19 era.

Agbodo, J A (2022) Influence of Covid-19 on Advertising Practice in South East, Nigeria, British Journal of Marketing Studies, Vol. 10, Issue 5, pp.,11-27


Keywords: Advertising, COVID-19, Influence, South East Nigeria, practice

Corporate Social Responsibility in contemporary Ghana: A Literature Review (Published)

This paper critically reviews current conceptualisations of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Ghana to highlight trends and key developments in both research and practice. A systematic literature review (SLR) methodology was conducted to provide a synthesised analysis of sixty-one (61) academic papers published on CSR in Ghana from 2007 to 2020. The empirical-based review established that contemporary CSR in Ghana is framed within the context of development and reflects voluntary corporate self-regulation. Also, CSR has become increasingly integral to business due to corporate reforms, globalisation and greater awareness for sustainable business practices. The results further revealed that firm-related drivers serve as key determinants of responsibility practices. In addition, contributions to CSR in social spaces and academic scholarship have spearheaded the growth of CSR in Ghana. The growing interest in CSR as a management practice in Ghana requires a comprehensive literature study to highlight current status and future directions. This is the first study to systematically review CSR research in Ghana to provide an account of contemporary notions of the concept. The study adds value to the existing limited body of knowledge on literature reviews and also makes practical recommendations for the implementation of effective CSR programmes.

Citation: Mavis Amo-Mensah (2021) Corporate Social Responsibility in contemporary Ghana: A literature Review, International, Journal of Business and Management Review, Vol.9, No.5, pp.78-93



Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Ghana, Literature Review, Research, Trends, practice

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Toward’s Child Adoption Amongst Women in Calabar, Cross River State (Published)

Having a child is important among married women in Calabar. Among married women, infertility is the main factor causing childlessness. Child adoption provides an alternative for married women to have children. Thus, the purpose of the study was to explore the perceived barriers of child adoption among women with infertility. The objective is to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of women of reproductive age towards child adoption in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. The study used an exploratory qualitative and quantitative approach to understand the knowledge, attitude and practices towards possible child adoption in the study area. The study was conducted among 200 women attending fertility clinic in General hospital, Calabar in Cross River state. Semi structured interview questionnaire was administeredto 200 consecutive infertile female patients (between February and September,2018) at the General Hospital Calabar who agreed to participate in the study after counseling. Participants were purposively recruited and data collected by individual face-to-face in-depth interviews. The data generated was analyzed by simple percentages, descriptive statistics and simple correlation analysis at 5% probability level. Knowledge of child adoption was relatively very high (92.6%) but out of which only 2.0% of the respondents had adopted a child while 34.5% were willing to adopt in the near future if their condition of childlessness persist.T he correlation coefficient for child adoption was significantly higher, positive and strong in patients are childless and who had suffered infertility for more than 6 years (r=0.92, P<0.001), those with secondary/ tertiary education (r=0.90, P<0.001) and in those with no living child (r=0.89, P<0.001) compared to the non-significant correlation coefficient of those whose aim of adoption was to satisfy their need for domestic chores (r – 0.21;P>0.001) and those whose need a child for errand (r –0.32; P>0.001).Majority of the respondents(77.3%) were not willing to adopt a child and their main reason was that child adoption would not allow them fulfill their conception role as women in addition to the long procedures involve in child adoption. Knowledge of child adoption was high among the respondents but the willingness to adopt a child was low due to the fact that it would not allow them fulfill their conception role as women. There is need to educate and encourageour infertile patients to utilize this cheaper and available option of managinginfertility.There is also the need for public education and special counselling session for husbands and other family members on child adoption as an alternative solution for infertility and childlessness. The success of marriages has largely been premeditated on child bearing in most African society and oftentimes women are at the receiving end of childlessness with possible psychological and physical trauma.


Keywords: Calabar, Cross River State, Knowledge, Women, attitude, child adoption, practice

Land Tenure System and Farming Management Practices: A Case of Ilaroin Ogun State (Published)

This paper examined the implications of land tenure system on farm layout and management practices in a rural economy. In addition to the synthesis of the existing literature, key informant interview (KII), Focus Group Discussions (FGD), personal observations and questionnaire administrationwere used in data collection.Simple statistical tools wereused to analyze theland tenure features, farm layout and farm management practices. The results revealed that 58% of farmers have use rightto land, 25% have right to trade offtheir land, 17% use family land and 50% have right to lease their land. Sun shade and storage barn were observed farm facilities with foot part used for layout. About 70% practice mixed cropping while 30% practice mono-cropping with no significant long term investment on farming due to existing tenure system. The paper recommends a review of the existing land tenure to accommodate land right to encourage long term investment to ensure sustainable agriculture.

Keywords: Land, Management, Tenure system, farm, layout, practice

The Attitude of Married Men and Women towards Family Planning Practices in Ekiti State, Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated attitude of married men and women towards family planning practices and the relationship between attitude and family planning practices in Ekiti State. Descriptive research of the survey design was used. The population for the study included all the married men and women in the 16 local Government Areas of Ekiti State. With the use of multistage sample procedure, a total of 1200 respondents were selected from the 16 local Government Areas of Ekiti State. A self-designed instrument was used for the study. The instrument was titled “Knowledge, Attitude and Family Planning Practices Questionnaire” (KAFPPQ). The instrument was validated by the researcher’s supervisor and experts in the field of English Language, Guidance and Counselling and Tests, Measurement and Evaluation. Split-half reliability method was used to ascertain the reliability of the instrument. A reliability coefficient of 0.82 was obtained and this is high enough to judge the instrument reliable. The instrument was administered by the researcher and trained research assistants in the Local Government Areas selected. The data generated were analysed using frequency counts, percentages and correlation analysis. It was discovered from the study that the attitude of married men and women towards family planning practices in Ekiti state is positive. The result further shows no significant relationship between attitude and family planning practices among married men and women in Ekiti State. The result showed significant relationship between religion and attitude towards family planning practice among married men and women in Ekiti State. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that the attitude of married men and women towards family planning practices in Ekiti state is positive. It was recommended that Nigeria government should encourage the establishment of daycare centres within public and private service areas so that married men and women will have the convenience of going to get contraceptives.

Keywords: Family Planning, Married Men, Women, attitude, practice

From Theory to Practice: Pre-Service Teachers’ Experience (Published)

The aim of the study was to investigate pre-service teachers’ perspectives of their training programme based on the off-campus teaching practice they engaged in as well as challenges faced. The study adopted the mixed method approach.  The sample for the study was 196 students who were final year students of the Catholic University College of Ghana, Fiapre. Questionnaire was developed to elicit responses for the participants. The study revealed positive perspectives of the participants on the preparatory programme. They were also able to apply the professional knowledge and skills gained in the classroom indicating a smooth transition of theory to practice. However, the study participants reported some challenges encountered, which need to be addressed by the schools where the pre-teachers go for internship to enhance such future exercises.

Keywords: Internship, Micro-Teaching, Theory, practice

Teachers Perception and Practice of Automatic Promotion in English Speaking Primary Schools in Cameroon (Published)

Differences in the perception and outcomes of automatic promotion may be due to discrepancies in its implementation. Automatic promotion was conceived in Cameroon to be accompanied by support mechanisms and it is necessary to find out teachers’ perceptions and practice of automatic promotion especially against a backdrop of the inability of many primary school pupils to read and write. Teachers have a firsthand experience about the outcomes of automatic promotion. Their perception and practice may provide a basis for improving quality. Thus the study was a survey that incorporated a 15-item closed ended questionnaire and an interview. 275 primary school teachers and examiners of the First School Leaving Certificate Examination took part. Data were analyzed descriptively using frequencies and means. Findings revealed a negative perception of automatic promotion and discrepancies between the conception and implementation of automatic promotion which may explain the drop in quality. Implications and recommendations are discussed.

Keywords: Automatic promotion, Implementation, Primary schools., Teacher perception, practice

Extent of Hand Washing Practice among Secondary School Students in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)

High incidence of diarrhoeal diseases has been noted among secondary school students in Nigeria. The place of contaminated hands in the transmission of these diseases especially living quarter with close proximity like schools has been observed. These diseases can be prevented if students wash their hands with running water and soap. This cross-sectional survey was designed to determine to what extent secondary school students in Ebonyi State practice proper handwashing. The sample comprised 420 male and female students in both junior and senior classes selected through a multi-sampling method from government schools, located in both urban and rural area of the Ebonyi State were used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a 3-point scaled, 18-item self-structured questionnaire eliciting responses on extent of handwashing with soap and running water in 15 situations requiring handwashing. Face validation of the instrument was obtained by the judgement of 5 experts. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha, which yielded 0.862 reliability coefficient. The copies of the questionnaire were distributed among the students at an agreed upon time with the school by trained research assistance. The extent of handwashing practice was determined using the criterion means of 2.01-3.0 as high extent, 1.01-2.0 as low extent and 0.1-1.0 as very low extent. T-test statistic was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The extent of handwashing was found to be low among secondary school students with a mean score of 1.31. It was found that male students practice handwashing significantly higher than their female counterparts and that there was no significant difference in handwashing practice of student by level of study of students and by location of residence of the students. The findings of the study have implications for the handwashing campaign in Nigeria, the health of the students, method of health education and hygiene education curriculum development. Recommendations were made which included that handwashing be promoted using the mass media, improvement on hygiene education curriculum and its delivery and provision of handwashing facilities for schools to concretize learning.

Keywords: Gender, Handwashing, Hygiene, Location, Secondary School, Students, practice

Perception and Practice of Midwife-Led Model of Care among Skilled Birth Attendants in Selected Health Facilities in a Southern State in Nigeria (Published)

Globally, there is noticeable threat to midwifery practice because of limited autonomy of midwives in some settings. The situation is not different in Nigeria, despite the evidence that access to midwife-led care is the most important factor in achieving improved outcomes in maternal and newborn health. It is, therefore, imperative to determine the perception and practice of midwife-led care among skilled birth attendants in selected health facilities in a southern State in Nigeria. Following ethical approval, a mixed method design was undertaken to study a convenience sample of 125 skilled birth attendants from health facilities in four randomly-selected local government areas of the State. Quantitative and qualitative data were obtained through questionnaire and focus group discussions respectively. Quantitative data were analysed using SPSS version 18 and qualitative data were manually analysed. Results showed that 79.2% had knowledge; 56% exhibited poor practice of midwife-led care. There was statistically significant association between knowledge and practice of midwife-led care at 0.05 level of significance with 1 degree of freedom. Also there was a statistically significant relationship between knowledge and acceptance of midwife-led care at 0.05 level of significance with 123 degrees of freedom. Qualitative data corroborated the quantitative data. Gaps were revealed in the knowledge/perception and practice of midwife-led care in this setting. These have implications for continuing education for midwives and policy formulation towards strengthening midwifery for enhanced maternal and newborn outcomes.

Keywords: Midwife-led model, Perception, Skilled birth attendants, practice


In the majority of EFL curricula, students are required to give presentations in the target language. Although fluency might cause difficulty in presenting in English, other factors have shown to affect the students’ performances. This study investigates the effect of confidence on the students’ daily use of English generally, and during presentations more precisely. The study analyses questionnaires distributed to 156 students that aim at motivation, confidence and the amount of FL use. In addition, 36 students participated in group interviews to discuss the problems they face during presentations and the issues that they fear. After analyzing the findings and comments provided by interviews and questionnaires, the researchers found that the lack of confidence causes an enhancement in language mistakes. It was also found that the main reason behind the lack of confidence in presenting in English, among other reasons, was the lack of experience and practice. Hence, this paper recommends practice and constant encouragement by the teacher to improve EFL students’ presentations.

Keywords: Conversation, EFL, English language teaching, Fluency, confidence, practice