A large number of people have wondered how a language could absolutely exist without grammar. Most of them thought that people might communicate with each other by a language without grammar rules or forms. Even after communicative methodology appeared in the 1970s, researchers of grammar had indicated that the grammar should be ignored in teaching language. However, recent studies showed that grammar instruction within communicative contexts could let learners gain high proficiency level, both in accuracy and fluency. Ellis & Celce-Murcia (2002) claimed that learners should be provided authentic discourse samples of the contextually dependent grammatical rules. Florez (1999) emphasized that learners could not speak accurately and fluently without any grammar instruction. Clearly, grammar plays an important role in the progress of language acquisition. In this paper, a report on the application of some ways to teach English grammar for communicative purposes will be fully described. Moreover, the role of grammar instruction in language classroom should be discussed in this paper.
CHALLENGES FOR HIGHER EDUCATION POLICY IN INDIA (Published)
There has been a significant growth in enrolment in higher education in recent years; which has been substantially contributed by the private sector in technical education. However, despite various initiatives, a New Education Policy after 1992 is yet to be promulgated which is in sync with India’s liberalization policy to foster quality & improve Human Development Index (HDI). Research and excellence remain a serious challenge, compounded by policy prevarication. Public funding arrangement is grossly inadequate and largely to elitist institutions. The paper argues that our obsession with improving enrolment has to give way to credible quality improvement measures. Specifically there is a need to upscale public spending, treat private sector as a partner, improve industry academia interface, encourage research, Public Private Partnership (PPP), improve infrastructure and encourage FDI into higher education sector through MoUs with reputed foreign universities. The paper also cautions against recent ambivalence towards Open Distance Learning (ODL).