Tag Archives: Poverty

Assessment of the Contribution of N-Power Programme to Youth Empowerment in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of N-Power programme to youth empowerment in Cross River State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives of the study were; to determine the contribution of N-Power programme to youth empowerment in Cross River, to identify challenges facing the programme in ensuring empowerment of youth in the study area and to suggest ways of improving the N-Power programme for more effective youth empowerment in Nigeria. The study adopted cross sectional survey design while cluster random sampling was used to select beneficiaries. Questionnaires were used to collect data as Key Informant Interview was also used to compliment Questionnaire. Furthermore, the study used percentages for analysis of data. The study discovered that the beneficiaries of N-Power programme were mostly composed of N-Teach strand of the programme, followed by N-Health strand, N-Agro and Voluntary Assets and Income Declaration Scheme (VAIDS) strands respectively. The study also found that N-Power contributed to empowerment of youth through poverty reduction, proficiency skills in ICT, financial empowerment, on the job experience and investment in small scale businesses. However, there were challenges faced by the programmme in empowerment of youth which included delay in payment of allowance, unpaid allowances, distance to working places and teacher training for most of N-Teach beneficiaries. The study therefore recommended for prompt and timely payment of the stipends to beneficiaries of the programme by Federal government, timely sorting of problems of unpaid allowances, posting nearest to place of residence and teacher education for N-Teach categories.

Keywords: Empowerment, N-Power, Poverty, Unemployment, social investment programme

Rethinking the effectiveness of fiscal allocation strategy: A focus on economic development in Nigeria (Published)

This paper developed and estimated two autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models to explore the empirical relationship between fiscal policy allocation strategies and economic development in Nigeria. Specifically, the impacts of public expenditures on social and community services, economic services and administration on poverty headcount and income inequality were examined between 1990 and 2017. The unit root test results show that the variables are mixed integrated.  The ARDL bounds test results revealed that long run relationship exists among the variables in each of the models. The ARDL estimates reveal that public capital expenditure on economic services in addition to expenditure on social and economic services have significant positive impact on poverty headcount in the short run. The result further indicates that expenditure on administration negatively influenced the poverty level. More so, expenditure on economic services and income inequality are relatively related in the short run while public expenditure on social and community services play significant in reducing income inequality in both short and long run. Therefore, it is recommended that fiscal policy allocation should made adequate provision for investments in social and economic services in order to create better opportunities for everyone in a view to reducing the income divide within the Nigerian economy.

Keywords: ARDL and Nigeria, Fiscal Policy, Income Inequality, Poverty, public investments

The role of Islamic lending institutions in the economic development in Palestine (Published)

The study aimed to identify the role of Islamic lending institutions in the economic development in Palestine. The study examined the most important fields of economic development in Palestine, namely GDP, poverty and unemployment. The researcher used the analytical descriptive method. The study society consisted of two groups. The first was the employees of the Islamic lending institutions, and the second consisted of the beneficiaries of the services of the Islamic lending institutions. The study found many results. the most important of which was that the contribution of the Islamic finance institutions to the increase in the Palestinian GDP was high from the point of view of the employees in the institutions. In addition, its role was high in reducing the rate of unemployment in Palestine from the point of view of both employees in institutions and beneficiaries of its services. However, its role was moderate in reducing the poverty rate from the point of view of employees in institutions, but from the point of view of beneficiaries was high role. The study recommended the need for attention in the Palestinian areas with a high poverty rate, especially the Palestinian camps and the Palestinian countryside. As well as work on building a unified database for the distribution of poverty and unemployment. Also the need to activate the role of the unified Sharia’s supervisory board for Islamic banks to include Islamic lending institutions.

Keywords: GDP, Islamic lending institutions, Poverty, Unemployment, economic development in Palestine

Major issue of Poverty in Pakistan (Published)

According to World Bank Report 2013, 60% population of Pakistan lives under poverty line which cannot earn 2$ a day, and the population which earn 1.25$ a day is 21%. So there are multiple others reasons of poverty in Pakistan also. Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) are not implemented in true spirit. Because the calories base reduction in poverty is not solution to overcome the poverty for development. Government should invest the skill labor force development and techniques of production will improve it can reduce the poverty line.   Good Governance is one of best solution of the problem. Empower the local government system which is very play effective role in poverty reduction.

Keywords: Lack of Resources, Low Income, Poverty

Class Discrimination under the Impact of Transgression in ‘The White Tiger’ By Aravind Adiga (Published)

This further study on Aravind Adiga’s “The White Tiger” pivots round the class discrimination that hints the transgression of the protagonist, Balram Halwai, as well as his corrupted masters. It robustly delineates on the protagonist who was brought up in a remote village of Bihar that is often called as the ‘Darkness’ -a place without the light of educations and modern privileges. Balram narrates the ‘ins and outs’ of his adventurous life through a letter to a foreign luminary- Wen Jiabao, the Chinese Prime-Minister, on his stopover to Bangalore as an official task that upholds the facts of poverty, the evil of the feudal landlords and the miseries of the subaltern people of India. Adiga’s approach to picture the 20th Century India, has successfully been put into practice by the paroxysms of social injuries in several corners.

Keywords: Cast, Discrimination, Entrepreneurship, Poverty, Transgression, Vicissitude

Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India (Published)

India is a fast developing country with the aim of becoming superpower, at the same time, our country has large number of people living below poverty line. Poverty is a situation that people are unable to fulfill their basic needs of life like food, clothing, employment, housing, education and other basic human needs, which is measured by committee of experts through data provided by National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) . Poverty alleviation programmes in India are for development of people in both Urban and Rural areas. Since percentage of poverty is high in rural areas, many programmes were launched by Government for betterment of rural people. Poverty alleviation programmes are grouped under different heads like self employment, food security, social security and wage employment. Planning commission also concentrated on poverty alleviation and given importance to development of agriculture in first five year plan, second and third five year plans focused on development of industries for economic development.Poverty alleviation programme plays a vital role in our country. Government launched many alleviation programmes like Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarentee Act, Aajevka, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana etc.., Government may launch more such schemes for eradication of poverty in our country. Many Government schemes are still not reaching end users, even many people are unaware of Government schemes. Government may take initiatives to make all people aware of all schemes. True spirit of all the schemes are in eradication of poverty and development of our country.

Keywords: Government, Poverty, Poverty alleviation programmes

Entrepreneurship Education for Poverty Reduction and Enhanced Citizen Participation in Community Development Activities (Published)

Poverty has been identified as a major set-back to any economy. Poverty had become endemic to many nations of the world especially the less developed. To treat the scourge of poverty, proactive actions and plans, such as equipping citizens with entrepreneurship skills and knowledge must be put in place. This paper therefore, presents entrepreneurship education as a cure to poverty and its curriculum, a frame work for poverty alleviation programmes. The concepts of entrepreneurship education, poverty and participation are fully discussed. The objects of entrepreneurship, goal and the curriculum context of effective entrepreneurship education were also discussed. The relationship between poverty, entrepreneurship and participation were highlighted. The paper concludes that given the immense benefits crewing from entrepreneurship education, and its role enhancing community development activities, the nation should channel its efforts to improve the economy and better the lives of the citizens.

Keywords: Citizen Participation, Community development, Entrepreneurship education, Poverty, Poverty Reduction

Education Inequality with Emphasis on Schools Drop-Out among Girls in Basic Schools: A Case Study Of Tamale Metropolis In Northern Ghana (Published)

Over the years, Government of Ghana and Non-Governmental Organizations has implemented a number of policies and interventions aimed at achieving access and quality education which is gender inclusive in basic schools across the country. Some of these policies include School Feeding Programme, Capitation Grant, Free Exercise Books and recently the Free School Uniforms for pupils in Basic Schools among others. Despite these interventions, drop out from school especially among girls at the basic level it still a problem in Ghana. This paper specifically focused on school dropout among girls in basic schools in Ghana; A case study of Tamale Metropolis. The Metropolis was selected for the study because of the demographic characteristics that pose challenges to girls schooling and its accessibility with regards to location. Qualitative method was used to gain an insight into the perceptions and feelings of teachers, parents, out of school girls and girl learners on causes of dropouts among girls. The case study design was used because the researchers wanted to have a clear understanding of why and how girl child school dropout happens. The population of the study comprised of head teachers, teachers, parents, school girls and out of school girls. Purposive sampling was used to select 20 Primary Schools and 10 Junior High Schools from the district whose total enrolment of boys out number girls. Data was collected using interview as main instrument. The study also used secondary data from published dissertations, textbooks, journals and the internet. Several strategies were used to ensure data quality. The findings reveals that parental ignorance on value of girls education, poor parental care, teenage pregnancy, early marriage, poverty, child prostitution, migration of girls to major cities in the south to work as head potters and peer group influence are some of the major reasons why girls drop out of school in Tamale Metropolis. Based on the findings, it has been recommended that Government should roll out programmes to reduce poverty in the country. Scholarships and other incentives should be provided to needy but brilliant girls to enable them stay in school to learn for a brighter future. Sex education and career counselling should be given to girls to help reduce teenage pregnancies. Basic schools should also be encouraged to set up girls clubs to monitor and motivate girls to take their education seriously. Disable and girl friendly infrastructure should be provided in schools to make them safe for girls. Corporal punishment especially canning should be abolished entirely to make schools safer places for girls. Punitive actions should be given to those who marry school girls to serve as deterrent to others. Finally, parents within the metropolis should be sensitized on the value of girls education to enable them support their school girls to stay and learn in school for a brighter future.

Keywords: Basic Education, Dropout among girls, Poverty, Teenage Pregnancy and Girls Education.

MDGS and Its Impact on Poverty Reduction in Pakistan (Published)

According to World Bank Report 2013, 60% population of Pakistan lives under poverty line which cannot earn 2$ a day, and the population which earn 1.25$ a day is 21%. So there are multiple others reasons of poverty in Pakistan also. MDGS are not implemented in true spirit. Because the calories base reduction in poverty is not solution to overcome the poverty for development. Government should invest the skill labor force development and techniques of production will improve it can reduce the poverty line.   Good Governance is one of best solution of the problem. Empower the local government system which is very play effective role in poverty reduction.

Keywords: Lack of Resources, Low Income, Poverty

Do Social Safety Net Policies Reduce Poverty In Bangladesh? Understanding Perception of State Philosophy in Swimming across the Tide (Published)

Bangladesh is a populated country and most of the people live below the poverty line. After the independence of Bangladesh in 1980s safety net programmes has been adopted to reduce poverty from Bangladesh. At present 30 social safety net programmes are now operation in Bangladesh. The objective of the study is to find challenges ahead to implement Social Safety Net (SSN) programmes that initiated to reduce poverty at rural areas specially. The article is based on content analysis method and secondary data has been used to conduct the study. The study found that there is various weakness in social safety net policies. There is lack of integration and coordination among different safety net programmes and providers. Political stability is one of the great obstacle to fulfill the ultimate goal of safety net programmes. The extent, nature and mechanism of safety net programs change with the change of government. Besides this, corruption, shortage of budget etc hinder the implementation of safety net programmes. However, high political commitment, increase allocation, better targeting beneficiary, involvement of NGOs, civil society, monitoring and overseeing, reduction of corruption should be ensured. 

Keywords: Poverty, Poverty Politics Nexus, Social Safety Net, State Philosophy, Swimming Across the Tide

Socio-Economic Security and Democratic Participation in Nigeria (Published)

Democracy has been an acceptable platform of interaction in the committee of nations. It is also the most widely acceptable system of governance. Essentially, the birth of democracy in Nigeria has endured for over a decade, but the democratization process in Nigeria suffers from several security issues, given that the citizens have been exposed to high levels of insurgency, poverty and unemployment. Social and economic insecurity has being a major setback to democratic governance in Nigeria and this has impaired the participation of the citizens in democratic governance, thereby leaving governance for a privilege few. This paper examines the linkage between social and economic insecurity and the participation of Nigeria citizens in democratic governance. The researchers adopted a public opinion questionnaire based on experts’ judgment; and using the Cronbach alpha formulae; internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.87 was obtained. The data collected was analyzed using the one sample t-test, with hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings indicate that social and economic insecurity negatively impact on democratic participation; given that the fear of violent attack, poverty, absence of the dividend and unequal distribution wealth reduce democratic participation. Recommendations are made that politicians should be obliged by law to fulfill the promises made during campaigns or before elected into offices. Government should create an enabling environment to address issues of poverty, unemployment, corruption among governing class and insurgency, so that security for life and property will be assured.

Keywords: Insecurity, Poverty, Security, Socio-Economic, democratic participation

The Effect of the Provincial Government Public Expenditures on the Autonomy Regional Era in Indonesia (Published)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of economic spending (BEK) and education spending (BPD) by province on poverty in the era of regional autonomy in Indonesia. Data were collected through the publication of the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics and the Director General of Fiscal Balance of the Indonesian Ministry of Finance for the period of 2012 to 2015. The analysis in this study was conducted with panel data analysis model, using fixed effect model. Based on the estimation result, it is found that the variables of economic expenditure and education expenditure are significant together with poverty, while the partial variable of economic expenditure by province has significant and significant effect to poverty in the era of regional autonomy in Indonesia, and the variable of education expenditure by province is not significant. However, the ability of independent variables in to have an update dependent variable of 34.71% and the rest of 65.29% influenced by other variables not included in this research

Keywords: Economic Expenditure, Education Shopping, Poverty, and era of autonomy Area

Impact of Comprehensive Village Development Programme (Cvdp) On Poverty Reduction: A Case Study of Two Villages in Comilla Adarsha Sadar Upazila (Published)

The present study highlights the impact of Comprehensive Village Development Programme (CVDP) on Poverty Reduction in two villages of Comilla District. It was found that the programme has contributed much to human resources development through imparting training, organizing capital through share-savings, harnessing local resources through participative planning, enriching entrepreneurial skills by implementing different Income- Generating Activities (IGA) through micro-credit, and on the whole, creating social capital for village development. This research used head count method for poverty measurement and found that CVDP played vital role in reducing poverty in the two researched villages. It was found that poverty in the researched villages is now less than 23% in 2013 compare to 67% in 2003.

Keywords: Poverty, Poverty measurement, Village Development

Reducing Poverty through Fertilizer Subsidy Programe “Evidence from Rwanda (Published)

Farm input subsidies are assumed to improve agricultural production and productivity for small  resource poor farmers in developing countries by promoting the use of improved farm inputs,  mainly inorganic fertilizers and hybrid seeds. This is expected to contribute to increased income from produce sales, improved food security at household and national levels, and consequently, contributing to poverty alleviation. However, little insights exist on the impacts of this program. The overall objective of the study was to determine the effect of the fertilizer subsidy program on reducing poverty among small holder farmers in Gatsibo district, Eastern province of Rwanda. Multi stage sampling techniques were employed to select respondents. Structured questionnaires was employed to collect data from 200 smallholders maize farmers including (86 farmers with fertilizer subsidy and 114 without subsidies in the period 2015B, 2016A and 2016B agricultural seasons in the selected sectors of  Kabarole, Rwimbogo and Rugarama). Propensity score matching using a “with” and “without” the fertilizer subsidy project evaluation approach was used to estimate the effect of fertilizer subsidy and  descriptive statistics using t-test was used compare effects of fertilizer subsidies across respondents. Based on the study objectives, results from propensity score matching indicated an effect on yield between fertilizer subsidy users and non-users.

Keywords: Agriculture, Agriculture input subsidies, Fertilizer Subsidies, Poverty, propensity score matching

Interfaces between Road Infrastructure and Poverty in Africa: The Case of Malawi, 1994-2013 (Published)

Critical assessment on the correlation between public investment on road infrastructure and poverty was carried out, and therefore this research paper provides an in depth analyses of the linkage between road infrastructure and poverty, as well as, other relevant macro economic variables used in the Malawi Growth and Development Strategy (MGDS) as target indicators. Using primary and secondary data from 1994-2013, dynamic time series models were applied in elaborating the various factors with thrust on road infrastructure that may influence poverty in Malawi. Noting poverty reduction as priority of Malawi Government’s development agenda since the early 1990s, MGDS provides the country’s socioeconomic growth and development platforms. According to the latest 2010 Integrated Household Survey (IHS3), the majority of Malawians (50.7 percent) are languishing in abysmal poverty; this level is remotely far from the MDGS target of 27 percent by end 2015.  The country has a high inequality index (Gini 0.38) reflecting profound inequalities in access to assets, services and opportunities across the population. The distribution of the benefits of economic growth is also important for the alleviation of poverty. However, the distribution of income and wealth are highly skewed, with a majority of the population living in a state of absolute poverty. Based on NSO surveys (1998-2010), the poorest 20 percent of the population control only around 10 percent of national consumption implying inequality is not decreasing at all for long time. Hosts of factors explaining why poverty level continues to be rampant are: share of agricultural as a percent of GDP (proxy to agricultural production) and export as percent of GDP (proxy to exports). However, this paper findings show that there is significant (p=0.000<0.05) relationship between road network and poverty levels. Estimates from Granger Causality analysis indicate that for one percent increase in road network, a reduction of 7.2 percent in poverty level is perhaps achievable. Average inflation rate over the last 20 years stands at 22.41 percent, and this has an immense impact on poverty level since it dramatically reduces the purchasing power of the majority of the population. For a one percent increase in the inflation rate, there is a consequence of about 3.7 percent increase in the average poverty level. Average Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate is 4.7 percent annually with a minimum of -4.9 percent and a maximum of 10.2 percent in the last 20 years. Poverty level appears to significantly respond to (GDP). There is a 4.27 percent reduction in poverty level if a one percent GDP increment takes place as shown in the dynamic time series analysis. In fact, the declining of agricultural production for export and the growing gap in balance of payment (average Malawi Kwacha -498.92 billions or approximately US$1.1 billion) would immensely influence GDP negatively and therefore poverty becomes abysmal as GDP growth plummets. In a nutshell, the findings confirm that in the long run economic growth is the key to alleviation of extreme poverty since it creates the resources to raise incomes. Given the importance of agriculture in contributing towards GDP in Malawi, the positive impact that this sector has on poverty is evident. For agriculture to meaningfully impact economic growth, road infrastructure plays a great role. Other pro-poor variables such as development roads and other investment on infrastructure are vital for economic growth and hence poverty alleviation. 

Keywords: Granger Causality, Infrastructure, Malawi, Poverty, Public Investment, Vector Autoregression

Economics of Domestic Violence against Women: The Nigerian Evidence (Published)

Domestic violence essentially denies women’s equality before the law and reinforces their subordinate social status. The fight against domestic violence against women has existed for centuries yet persists all over the world. This study therefore investigates domestic violence against women as a form of poverty and uses the principal component analysis and the Foster Greer and Theorberke (FGT) decomposition methods to analyse this. The study further uses bar charts to show the perception of Nigerians towards domestic violence and relates it to different poverty levels. The findings suggest that the Southern regions are more involved in domestic violence than the Northern region of Nigeria. Also when examined across poverty levels, the results shows that the poorer an individual is in Nigeria, the more likely he is to think that it is justified if he beats the wife for one reason or another. The study therefore recommends more sensitization campaigns to target the poor

Keywords: Domestic Violence, Nigeria, Poverty, Women

Poverty Decomposition For High And Low Users of Climate Smart Agricultural Techniques in Northwest Nigeria (Published)

Climate change projections estimate that developing countries who are least prepared for the changes in climate will be the most affected. Meanwhile, the already existing poverty in Nigeria is alarming and climate change threatens food security and poverty to a large extent. It was on this note that the study measured poverty levels for high and low users of climate smart agricultural practices of small holder farming households in North-West Nigeria. The study employed primary data using questionnaire instruments and focus group discussion in the North West region of Nigeria. The FGT Index model, Equally Distributed Equivalent (EDE) FGT, watts index, Sen, Shorrocks and Thon index were employed to decompose the monetary dimensions of poverty while Chakravarty et al (1998) technique, extended watts, extended FGT and Alkire and Foster were employed to decompose the non-monetary dimension. The findings show that poverty rate was higher for low-users of climate smart agricultural practices than for high-users for all dimensions under consideration and for all the decomposition techniques. This implies that farmers should make conscious efforts to practice climate smart agriculture regardless of their poverty status due to the fact that poverty resides more with low-users. It could be as a result of the fact that high-users make their production sustainable by practicing CSA and consequently high yields that might in turn reduce their poverty status. There is need for significant empowerment of the farmers, given that some of the climate smart agricultural practices have cost implications and require extra money to fund.

Keywords: Agriculture, Climate, Nigeria, Northwest, Poverty

Education Inequality with Emphasis on Schools Drop Out Among Girls in Basic Schools: A Case Study of Tamale Metropolis in Northern Ghana (Published)

Over the years, Government of Ghana and Non-Governmental Organizations have implemented a number of policies and interventions aimed at achieving access and quality education which is gender inclusive in basic schools across the country. Some of these policies from Government of Ghana include School Feeding Programme, Capitation Grant, Free Exercise Books and recently the Free School Uniforms for pupils in Basic Schools among others. Despite these interventions, drop out from school especially among girls at the basic level it still a problem in Ghana. This paper specifically focused on school dropout among girls in basic schools in Ghana; A case study of Tamale Metropolis. The Metropolis was selected for the study because of the demographic characteristics that pose challenges to girls schooling and its accessibility with regards to location. Qualitative method was used to gain an insight into the perceptions and feelings of teachers, parents, out of school girls and girl learners on causes of dropouts among girls. The case study design was used because the researchers wanted to have a clear understanding of why and how girl child school dropout happens. The population of the study comprised of head teachers, teachers, District Girls Education Officer, parents, school girls and out of school girls. Purposive sampling was used to select 20 Primary Schools and 10 Junior High Schools from the district whose total enrolment of boys out number girls. Data was collected using interview as main instrument. The study also used secondary data from published dissertations, textbooks, journals and the internet. Several strategies were used to ensure data quality. The findings reveals that parental ignorance on value of girls education, poor parental care, teenage pregnancy, early marriage, poverty, child prostitution, migration of girls to major cities in the south to work as head potters and peer group influence are some of the major reasons why girls drop out of school in Tamale Metropolis. Based on the findings, it has been recommended that Government should roll out programmes to reduce poverty in the country. Scholarships and other incentives should be provided to needy but brilliant girls to enable them stay in school to learn for a brighter future. Sex education and career counselling should be given to girls to help reduce teenage pregnancies. Basic schools should also be encouraged to set up girls clubs to monitor and motivate girls to take their education seriously. Disable and girl friendly infrastructure should be provided in schools to make them safe for girls. Corporal punishment especially canning should be abolished entirely to make schools safer places for girls. Punitive actions should be given to those who marry school girls to serve as deterrent to others. Finally, parents within the metropolis should be sensitized on the value of girls education to enable them support their school girls to stay and learn in school for a brighter future.

Keywords: Basic Education, Dropout among girls, Poverty, Teenage Pregnancy and Girls Education.

The Palestinian Short Story between 1944 and 1967: Themes and Motifs (Published)

The Palestinian short story was typified with its inclination to be a historical manuscript, ruled by a sense of unease, muddle and dread of the future. The continuous depiction of painful confrontations with the authorities, including their various mechanisms, generated a large collection of motifs and themes colored with intense suffering and extreme pain and shaded with a permanent endeavor to detect a better and bright future. As a result, the stories functioned like real photographs of what was actually happening on the ground. Of these themes and motifs, one can read about the Nakba (calamity) and family reunion, land confiscation and Judaization, military rule, military courts, the role of Arab states, the role of the Israeli Communist Party and finding work, poverty, imposed marriages and other social topics.

Keywords: Finding Work, Military Courts, Military Rule, Nakba and family reunion, Poverty, imposed marriages and other social topics, land confiscation and Judaization, the Palestinian short story, the role of Arab states, the role of the Communist Party

Impact of Comprehensive Village Development Programme (CVDP) on Poverty Reduction: A Case of two Villages in Comilla Adarsha sadar Upazila (Published)

The present study highlights the impact of Comprehensive Village Development Programme (CVDP) on Poverty Reduction in two villages of Comilla District. It was found that the programme has contributed much to human resources development through imparting training, organizing capital through share-savings, harnessing local resources through participative planning, enriching entrepreneurial skills by implementing different Income- Generating Activities (IGA) through micro-credit, and on the whole, creating social capital for village development. This research used head count method for poverty measurement and found that CVDP played vital role in reducing poverty in the two researched villages. It was found that poverty in the researched villages is now less than 23% in 2013 compare to 67% in 2003.

Keywords: Poverty, Poverty measurement, Village Development