Tag Archives: Poverty

Effect of Parental Unemployment on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines the effect of parental unemployment on academic performance of secondary school students. Thus, the efficacy of parental unemployment   is perilous social problem which contributed to the inability of many parents to caring for their children   education. However, the challenges of unemployed parents contributed to the high rate of step—down many students in secondary education. Consequently, there some factors which contributes to unemployed parents in country such as shortage of industries, inexperience of people, unskilled labour and unavailable of firms. Moreover, thousands of embody men and women are unemployed in Nigeria. However they are seeking for employment opportunities, but the job is not available for them that was the reason    many parents are jobless and they cannot provide   their  childern education pre-requisite, while some parents  are not ready to work that is reason they are jobless and find it cumbersome to care for their  children education. Presently, thousands of secondary school students involved various bad activities such prostitution, Yahoo, kidnapping, stealing, and other relevant offences in our country, because of inability of their   parents to  send them  to   secondary  education . Yet, unemployment cause high rate of poverty which affected many patents in thirty- six states of federation includes Abuja  the federal  capital of Nigeria. However, the rate of drop out increasing daily basis because their parents could not perform their responsibility as parenting who have devoted to caring for their children education.  Moreover, the population of unemployed parents is too high in Nigeria .

Keywords: Academic, Education, Parenting, Performance, Poverty, School, Secondary, Unemployed, Unemployment, parent

Volunteerism as a Strategy for Community Development in Nigeria (Published)

Community development remains a key concern in Nigeria. Despite frantic efforts of the government and non-government organizations to improve the socio-economic wellbeing of rural communities in Nigeria, there are indicators of under development in the areas. This study examines volunteerism as an effective strategy for developing rural communities in Nigeria. It adopts qualitative research method. The study relied on the secondary sources of information, such as journals, textbooks, the internet, and newspaper. Concerned with the challenges of prevalence poverty in the country and success stories of volunteerism as a viable strategy, the study advocates for the involvement of more Nigerian in delivering selfless services for the benefit of others and their immediate communities.

Keywords: Community, Poverty, Socio-economic development., Volunteerism

Globalization, prostitution and African tradition (Published)

The purpose of this study is to establish how modern globalization encourages an unprecedented escalation of prostitution in Africa, how that affects the African traditions, and how their consequences extend to hamper development in the African continent. The paper sees the unbridled export of Western goods and values into Africa as responsible for the total negation of African traditions. This in turn, encourages the crazy quests to satisfy the demands of modern globalization. Africans of all classes are now engaged in a mad race to acquire Western goods to qualify for Western life styles. And the rule seems to be: “If it is not a Western style in a Western good, it cannot be a Western value.” The deluge of goods from the West makes their acquisition easy for Africans against locally made goods with both short and long term effects on local industries and manufactures. The result is that African traditional ways of life, including all traditional industries and manufactures, are totally avoided for Western goods and values. This has brought about a strange culture that disregards the African moral rectitude for a high level immorality as an easy way of accessing the Western goods. This paper is a qualitative study which uses the analytic and narrative methods of history to underscore the African experiences under modern globalization. The paper attributes the wide escalation of prostitution and its scourge in contemporary Africa to modern globalization and its immoral strategies. The major consequence of this is the stagnation of the socio-economic growth and development of the African continent.

Keywords: African traditions, Poverty, Prostitution, Underdevelopment, modern globalization

Housing Poverty amid Abundance in Urbanizing Abuja Metropolis, Nigeria (Published)

Despite the abundance of housing estates within the Federal Capital Territory Abuja, it is particularly disturbing and ironical that the city is still rated as one of the most expensive place for housing accommodation. This has contributed in domestic poverty, lack of good homes, in which; majority of public servants and private employees does not have decent accommodations. In addition, many families are separated between States, therefore aiding corruption in their respective offices to meet up with their respective needs. The purpose of this paper is to identify the causes of un-occupied buildings amid inadequacy of housing for the poor and its effects on the city and to establish the possible data of empty flats within the city in other to aid policy directions concerning empty houses and flats in the Abuja metropolis. Data were gathered from assessment of scantly occupied and completely un-occupied housing flats within Abuja metropolis through a case study research approach which is appropriate when you are to learn the why and how a particular situation occurs according to Yin (2003). From the tabulation and percentage analysis it shows that a total of 21,239 empty flats are available un-occupied in Abuja metropolis. This study advocate a regulatory control on empty buildings in Abuja Metropolis in form of the following recommendations; that all empty houses should be converted to social housing development, Government should place heavy tax on empty houses; Government should establish an ACT for rental control and occupancy in Abuja Metropolis.


Keywords: Abuja, Abundance, Housing, Poverty, Urban

Conceptualizing Rural Development in the Twenty-First Century (Published)

The need to more accurately conceptualize the concept of rural development has increased during recent decades. This is largely the result of the absence of a universally accepted definition of rural development, the absence of universally accepted theories of rural development and the growing interest to theorize it, the persistent increase of rural poverty, and the growing need to formulate effective rural development policies that could address poverty in rural areas, but also because of the multifaceted ways in which rural development could be realized. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to offer a new definition or concept of rural development in the twenty-first century. To achieve this objective the study purely used secondary data. Thus, both theoretical and empirical literature deemed necessary to better understand the concept of rural development was rigorously reviewed. The review result shows that there is no universally accepted definition of rural development. As a result, the concept of rural development is widely recognized in the literature as a disputed notion both in practice, policy, and theory. Thus, this study approaches the task of conceptualizing rural development by providing a conceptual definition that serves both academics and practitioners. Moreover, the study also proposed different mechanisms through which rural development can be realized.  Generally, the study concludes that emphasizing the need to supplement the theory behind the new rural development hypothesis with new definitions that help us to more precisely understand what is meant by rural development, this study offers a new definition of rural development as a necessary step in that direction.

Keywords: Poverty, Rural, Rural Development, concept, theories of rural development

A Nexus between Poverty and Resource Dependency (Published)

Natural resources are essential for economic growth of a region by providing ecosystem services to the rich and poor equally. Natural resources are limited in nature which raise a question on their sustainability. The paper explicit that rich and poor both are dependent on resources but their purpose is different, rich people who are already financially strong even then they consume more resources in order to get more profits while due to the large size of family, poor directly depend on ecosystem services just for the sake of survival of livelihood. Finally, Paper concluded that the deteriorating relation of poverty and resource dependency reached out at imbalanced stage and became an inexplicable question of natural resource management. Some recommendation offered regrading nexus between poverty and resource dependency and asserts that a greater involvement of formal institutions can play an important role in bridging the gap between poverty and resources.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Natural resources, Poverty, Sustainability, formal institutions, resource dependency

Traumatic Experiences of Asian Child Labour Victims in Boys without Names (Published)

Child labour though an age long social phenomenon, has claimed the lives of many Asian children and continues to exist in various forms even in contemporary times. As such, that phenomenon needs continuous interrogation. This paper therefore examines the traumatic experiences of child labour victims in Kashmira Sheth’s Boys without Names (2010). Using psychoanalytic theory, the study examined the travails, pains, trauma and emotional struggles of six child labour victims in the selected text. Findings revealed that poverty is the major cause of child labour and until poverty is curbed, child labour will continue to persist. The study also discovered that education is imperative as it is a great tool that can help to combat child labour, hence, every child deserves good and quality education. The study therefore recommended that children and parents should be sensitized on the advantages of education.

Keywords: Asia, Child Labour, Poverty, Victims, emotional struggles

Assessment of the Contribution of N-Power Programme to Youth Empowerment in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The purpose of the study was to assess the contribution of N-Power programme to youth empowerment in Cross River State, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives of the study were; to determine the contribution of N-Power programme to youth empowerment in Cross River, to identify challenges facing the programme in ensuring empowerment of youth in the study area and to suggest ways of improving the N-Power programme for more effective youth empowerment in Nigeria. The study adopted cross sectional survey design while cluster random sampling was used to select beneficiaries. Questionnaires were used to collect data as Key Informant Interview was also used to compliment Questionnaire. Furthermore, the study used percentages for analysis of data. The study discovered that the beneficiaries of N-Power programme were mostly composed of N-Teach strand of the programme, followed by N-Health strand, N-Agro and Voluntary Assets and Income Declaration Scheme (VAIDS) strands respectively. The study also found that N-Power contributed to empowerment of youth through poverty reduction, proficiency skills in ICT, financial empowerment, on the job experience and investment in small scale businesses. However, there were challenges faced by the programmme in empowerment of youth which included delay in payment of allowance, unpaid allowances, distance to working places and teacher training for most of N-Teach beneficiaries. The study therefore recommended for prompt and timely payment of the stipends to beneficiaries of the programme by Federal government, timely sorting of problems of unpaid allowances, posting nearest to place of residence and teacher education for N-Teach categories.

Keywords: Empowerment, N-Power, Poverty, Unemployment, social investment programme

Rethinking the effectiveness of fiscal allocation strategy: A focus on economic development in Nigeria (Published)

This paper developed and estimated two autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models to explore the empirical relationship between fiscal policy allocation strategies and economic development in Nigeria. Specifically, the impacts of public expenditures on social and community services, economic services and administration on poverty headcount and income inequality were examined between 1990 and 2017. The unit root test results show that the variables are mixed integrated.  The ARDL bounds test results revealed that long run relationship exists among the variables in each of the models. The ARDL estimates reveal that public capital expenditure on economic services in addition to expenditure on social and economic services have significant positive impact on poverty headcount in the short run. The result further indicates that expenditure on administration negatively influenced the poverty level. More so, expenditure on economic services and income inequality are relatively related in the short run while public expenditure on social and community services play significant in reducing income inequality in both short and long run. Therefore, it is recommended that fiscal policy allocation should made adequate provision for investments in social and economic services in order to create better opportunities for everyone in a view to reducing the income divide within the Nigerian economy.

Keywords: ARDL and Nigeria, Fiscal Policy, Income Inequality, Poverty, public investments

The role of Islamic lending institutions in the economic development in Palestine (Published)

The study aimed to identify the role of Islamic lending institutions in the economic development in Palestine. The study examined the most important fields of economic development in Palestine, namely GDP, poverty and unemployment. The researcher used the analytical descriptive method. The study society consisted of two groups. The first was the employees of the Islamic lending institutions, and the second consisted of the beneficiaries of the services of the Islamic lending institutions. The study found many results. the most important of which was that the contribution of the Islamic finance institutions to the increase in the Palestinian GDP was high from the point of view of the employees in the institutions. In addition, its role was high in reducing the rate of unemployment in Palestine from the point of view of both employees in institutions and beneficiaries of its services. However, its role was moderate in reducing the poverty rate from the point of view of employees in institutions, but from the point of view of beneficiaries was high role. The study recommended the need for attention in the Palestinian areas with a high poverty rate, especially the Palestinian camps and the Palestinian countryside. As well as work on building a unified database for the distribution of poverty and unemployment. Also the need to activate the role of the unified Sharia’s supervisory board for Islamic banks to include Islamic lending institutions.

Keywords: GDP, Islamic lending institutions, Poverty, Unemployment, economic development in Palestine

Major issue of Poverty in Pakistan (Published)

According to World Bank Report 2013, 60% population of Pakistan lives under poverty line which cannot earn 2$ a day, and the population which earn 1.25$ a day is 21%. So there are multiple others reasons of poverty in Pakistan also. Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) are not implemented in true spirit. Because the calories base reduction in poverty is not solution to overcome the poverty for development. Government should invest the skill labor force development and techniques of production will improve it can reduce the poverty line.   Good Governance is one of best solution of the problem. Empower the local government system which is very play effective role in poverty reduction.

Keywords: Lack of Resources, Low Income, Poverty

Class Discrimination under the Impact of Transgression in ‘The White Tiger’ By Aravind Adiga (Published)

This further study on Aravind Adiga’s “The White Tiger” pivots round the class discrimination that hints the transgression of the protagonist, Balram Halwai, as well as his corrupted masters. It robustly delineates on the protagonist who was brought up in a remote village of Bihar that is often called as the ‘Darkness’ -a place without the light of educations and modern privileges. Balram narrates the ‘ins and outs’ of his adventurous life through a letter to a foreign luminary- Wen Jiabao, the Chinese Prime-Minister, on his stopover to Bangalore as an official task that upholds the facts of poverty, the evil of the feudal landlords and the miseries of the subaltern people of India. Adiga’s approach to picture the 20th Century India, has successfully been put into practice by the paroxysms of social injuries in several corners.

Keywords: Cast, Discrimination, Entrepreneurship, Poverty, Transgression, Vicissitude

Poverty Alleviation Programmes in India (Published)

India is a fast developing country with the aim of becoming superpower, at the same time, our country has large number of people living below poverty line. Poverty is a situation that people are unable to fulfill their basic needs of life like food, clothing, employment, housing, education and other basic human needs, which is measured by committee of experts through data provided by National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) . Poverty alleviation programmes in India are for development of people in both Urban and Rural areas. Since percentage of poverty is high in rural areas, many programmes were launched by Government for betterment of rural people. Poverty alleviation programmes are grouped under different heads like self employment, food security, social security and wage employment. Planning commission also concentrated on poverty alleviation and given importance to development of agriculture in first five year plan, second and third five year plans focused on development of industries for economic development.Poverty alleviation programme plays a vital role in our country. Government launched many alleviation programmes like Mahatma Gandhi Rural Employment Guarentee Act, Aajevka, Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana etc.., Government may launch more such schemes for eradication of poverty in our country. Many Government schemes are still not reaching end users, even many people are unaware of Government schemes. Government may take initiatives to make all people aware of all schemes. True spirit of all the schemes are in eradication of poverty and development of our country.

Keywords: Government, Poverty, Poverty alleviation programmes

Entrepreneurship Education for Poverty Reduction and Enhanced Citizen Participation in Community Development Activities (Published)

Poverty has been identified as a major set-back to any economy. Poverty had become endemic to many nations of the world especially the less developed. To treat the scourge of poverty, proactive actions and plans, such as equipping citizens with entrepreneurship skills and knowledge must be put in place. This paper therefore, presents entrepreneurship education as a cure to poverty and its curriculum, a frame work for poverty alleviation programmes. The concepts of entrepreneurship education, poverty and participation are fully discussed. The objects of entrepreneurship, goal and the curriculum context of effective entrepreneurship education were also discussed. The relationship between poverty, entrepreneurship and participation were highlighted. The paper concludes that given the immense benefits crewing from entrepreneurship education, and its role enhancing community development activities, the nation should channel its efforts to improve the economy and better the lives of the citizens.

Keywords: Citizen Participation, Community development, Entrepreneurship education, Poverty, Poverty Reduction

Education Inequality with Emphasis on Schools Drop-Out among Girls in Basic Schools: A Case Study Of Tamale Metropolis In Northern Ghana (Published)

Over the years, Government of Ghana and Non-Governmental Organizations has implemented a number of policies and interventions aimed at achieving access and quality education which is gender inclusive in basic schools across the country. Some of these policies include School Feeding Programme, Capitation Grant, Free Exercise Books and recently the Free School Uniforms for pupils in Basic Schools among others. Despite these interventions, drop out from school especially among girls at the basic level it still a problem in Ghana. This paper specifically focused on school dropout among girls in basic schools in Ghana; A case study of Tamale Metropolis. The Metropolis was selected for the study because of the demographic characteristics that pose challenges to girls schooling and its accessibility with regards to location. Qualitative method was used to gain an insight into the perceptions and feelings of teachers, parents, out of school girls and girl learners on causes of dropouts among girls. The case study design was used because the researchers wanted to have a clear understanding of why and how girl child school dropout happens. The population of the study comprised of head teachers, teachers, parents, school girls and out of school girls. Purposive sampling was used to select 20 Primary Schools and 10 Junior High Schools from the district whose total enrolment of boys out number girls. Data was collected using interview as main instrument. The study also used secondary data from published dissertations, textbooks, journals and the internet. Several strategies were used to ensure data quality. The findings reveals that parental ignorance on value of girls education, poor parental care, teenage pregnancy, early marriage, poverty, child prostitution, migration of girls to major cities in the south to work as head potters and peer group influence are some of the major reasons why girls drop out of school in Tamale Metropolis. Based on the findings, it has been recommended that Government should roll out programmes to reduce poverty in the country. Scholarships and other incentives should be provided to needy but brilliant girls to enable them stay in school to learn for a brighter future. Sex education and career counselling should be given to girls to help reduce teenage pregnancies. Basic schools should also be encouraged to set up girls clubs to monitor and motivate girls to take their education seriously. Disable and girl friendly infrastructure should be provided in schools to make them safe for girls. Corporal punishment especially canning should be abolished entirely to make schools safer places for girls. Punitive actions should be given to those who marry school girls to serve as deterrent to others. Finally, parents within the metropolis should be sensitized on the value of girls education to enable them support their school girls to stay and learn in school for a brighter future.

Keywords: Basic Education, Dropout among girls, Poverty, Teenage Pregnancy and Girls Education.

MDGS and Its Impact on Poverty Reduction in Pakistan (Published)

According to World Bank Report 2013, 60% population of Pakistan lives under poverty line which cannot earn 2$ a day, and the population which earn 1.25$ a day is 21%. So there are multiple others reasons of poverty in Pakistan also. MDGS are not implemented in true spirit. Because the calories base reduction in poverty is not solution to overcome the poverty for development. Government should invest the skill labor force development and techniques of production will improve it can reduce the poverty line.   Good Governance is one of best solution of the problem. Empower the local government system which is very play effective role in poverty reduction.

Keywords: Lack of Resources, Low Income, Poverty

Do Social Safety Net Policies Reduce Poverty In Bangladesh? Understanding Perception of State Philosophy in Swimming across the Tide (Published)

Bangladesh is a populated country and most of the people live below the poverty line. After the independence of Bangladesh in 1980s safety net programmes has been adopted to reduce poverty from Bangladesh. At present 30 social safety net programmes are now operation in Bangladesh. The objective of the study is to find challenges ahead to implement Social Safety Net (SSN) programmes that initiated to reduce poverty at rural areas specially. The article is based on content analysis method and secondary data has been used to conduct the study. The study found that there is various weakness in social safety net policies. There is lack of integration and coordination among different safety net programmes and providers. Political stability is one of the great obstacle to fulfill the ultimate goal of safety net programmes. The extent, nature and mechanism of safety net programs change with the change of government. Besides this, corruption, shortage of budget etc hinder the implementation of safety net programmes. However, high political commitment, increase allocation, better targeting beneficiary, involvement of NGOs, civil society, monitoring and overseeing, reduction of corruption should be ensured. 

Keywords: Poverty, Poverty Politics Nexus, Social Safety Net, State Philosophy, Swimming Across the Tide

Socio-Economic Security and Democratic Participation in Nigeria (Published)

Democracy has been an acceptable platform of interaction in the committee of nations. It is also the most widely acceptable system of governance. Essentially, the birth of democracy in Nigeria has endured for over a decade, but the democratization process in Nigeria suffers from several security issues, given that the citizens have been exposed to high levels of insurgency, poverty and unemployment. Social and economic insecurity has being a major setback to democratic governance in Nigeria and this has impaired the participation of the citizens in democratic governance, thereby leaving governance for a privilege few. This paper examines the linkage between social and economic insecurity and the participation of Nigeria citizens in democratic governance. The researchers adopted a public opinion questionnaire based on experts’ judgment; and using the Cronbach alpha formulae; internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.87 was obtained. The data collected was analyzed using the one sample t-test, with hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings indicate that social and economic insecurity negatively impact on democratic participation; given that the fear of violent attack, poverty, absence of the dividend and unequal distribution wealth reduce democratic participation. Recommendations are made that politicians should be obliged by law to fulfill the promises made during campaigns or before elected into offices. Government should create an enabling environment to address issues of poverty, unemployment, corruption among governing class and insurgency, so that security for life and property will be assured.

Keywords: Insecurity, Poverty, Security, Socio-Economic, democratic participation

The Effect of the Provincial Government Public Expenditures on the Autonomy Regional Era in Indonesia (Published)

The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of economic spending (BEK) and education spending (BPD) by province on poverty in the era of regional autonomy in Indonesia. Data were collected through the publication of the Indonesian Central Bureau of Statistics and the Director General of Fiscal Balance of the Indonesian Ministry of Finance for the period of 2012 to 2015. The analysis in this study was conducted with panel data analysis model, using fixed effect model. Based on the estimation result, it is found that the variables of economic expenditure and education expenditure are significant together with poverty, while the partial variable of economic expenditure by province has significant and significant effect to poverty in the era of regional autonomy in Indonesia, and the variable of education expenditure by province is not significant. However, the ability of independent variables in to have an update dependent variable of 34.71% and the rest of 65.29% influenced by other variables not included in this research

Keywords: Economic Expenditure, Education Shopping, Poverty, and era of autonomy Area

Impact of Comprehensive Village Development Programme (Cvdp) On Poverty Reduction: A Case Study of Two Villages in Comilla Adarsha Sadar Upazila (Published)

The present study highlights the impact of Comprehensive Village Development Programme (CVDP) on Poverty Reduction in two villages of Comilla District. It was found that the programme has contributed much to human resources development through imparting training, organizing capital through share-savings, harnessing local resources through participative planning, enriching entrepreneurial skills by implementing different Income- Generating Activities (IGA) through micro-credit, and on the whole, creating social capital for village development. This research used head count method for poverty measurement and found that CVDP played vital role in reducing poverty in the two researched villages. It was found that poverty in the researched villages is now less than 23% in 2013 compare to 67% in 2003.

Keywords: Poverty, Poverty measurement, Village Development