Tag Archives: Port Harcourt

Atmospheric Aerosol Loading Over the Urban Canopy of Port Harcourt City, Nigeria (Published)

This study examined the concentration of aerosols (Total Suspended Particulates-TSP) as influenced by both landuse and meteorological parameters of wind speed, relative humidity, ambient temperature and rainfall in Port Harcourt city. Air quality and meteorological data were measured at twelve stations: two each from the industrial, high and low density residential, commercial, transportation and surrounding rural areas. Data were collected for seven weeks during wet, transition and dry seasons. Analysis of data was done using ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression techniques. Findings indicated that TSP concentration was highest in the industrial (71.9%), transportation (17.3%), Low Density Residential (LDR) (12.31%); rural (12.9%), and commercial (24%) landuse areas during the dry season. The high Density Residential (HDR) (13.98%) contributed the highest concentration of TSP during the transition period. At the high density residential areas, only air temperature (r= -0.288) during the wet season correlated inversely to the concentration of TSP; other meteorological parameters and their correlation values are rainfall (r=0.133), wind speed (r=0.409) and relative humidity (r=0.095) which correlated directly to TSP concentration. The coefficient of determination values showed that the meteorological variables, jointly accounted for 19.90% and 11.50% of the variation in the concentration of TSP during the wet and dry seasons respectively. Residents who are sensitive to the effects of TSP especially those with chronic obstructive pulmonary or cardiovascular disease must not be allowed to inhabit and spend longer hours in Woji, Nkpogu, Nchia, Aleto, Akpojo, Alesa, Ogonigba, Okrika main land, and Elelenwo communities which are sandwiched between the Trans-Amadi and Eleme industrial areas that are located down-wind of the city. Specific air pollution and environmental standards ought to be more stringent targeting sources like factories, incineration and vehicle emissions.

Keywords: Port Harcourt, Respiration Infections, TSPs, Urban Canopy, land use

Inhabitants’ Rating of Neighbourhood Quality Indicators in Old Port- Harcourt Township (Published)

This study rated neighbourhood quality indicators by residents of old Port Harcourt Township in Port Harcourt municipality, Nigeria. Neighbourhood indicators were studied in situ without experimental manipulation and at one period in time, i.e. the study adopted a passive-observational research design. The study utilized both secondary and primary data sources. Primary data were collected using face-to-face administration of a largely pre-coded household questionnaire, to a probability sample of 193 respondents, drawn from the 2 communities. Data analysis was based on responses from 193 questionnaires retrieved and the univariate analytical method was adopted. The study found that large percentage of residents reported a negative rating of neighbourhood quality indicators such as waste collection and disposal, safety of lives and property, fire stations, cleanliness of the neighbourhood, residential planning, government provision of housing for the poor, hospitals/clinics, recreational areas, maintenance of streets, aesthetic condition, noise level and the neighbourhood condition. Residents rated markets adequate and fire hazards low. The study concluded that majority of the residents rated neighbourhood quality indicators inadequate. The study recommended that government should intervene in these areas to improve the neighbourhood quality to achieve sustainability.

Keywords: Inhabitants, Neighbourhood, Port Harcourt, Quality, Rating, indicators, residents

Solid Waste Management Trends in Nigeria (Published)

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the current trends in solid waste management in Nigeria and to identify the major challenges inhibiting the attainment of sustainability in solid waste management in the country. The study relied on a desktop and descriptive approach; hence, data were obtained mainly from previous publications relevant to the current study, particularly from peer reviewed publications. Sources such as waste management agencies webpages and documents, journal articles, environmental organizations reports and books were used to obtained data. These data were then analysed using a descriptive approach. It was found that solid waste management is a major concern in the country. Inadequate environmental policies and legislation, low level of environmental awareness, poor funding and inappropriate technology, corruption and unplanned development were some of the challenges facing solid waste management in the country.  As a result, the paper concludes that for waste management to work, various aspects of Government services such as engineering, urban planning, Geography, economics, public health and law among others must be brought together under a proper policy to deliver an effective waste management system.

Keywords: Environmental Awareness, Nigeria, Port Harcourt, Solid waste management, policies

Inhabitants’ Rating of Neighbourhood Quality Indicators in Old Port Harcourt Township (Published)

This study rated neighbourhood quality indicators by residents of old Port Harcourt Township in Port Harcourt municipality, Nigeria. Neighbourhood indicators were studied in situ without experimental manipulation and at one period in time, i.e. the study adopted a passive-observational research design. The study utilized both secondary and primary data sources. Primary data were collected using face-to-face administration of a largely pre-coded household questionnaire, to a probability sample of 193 respondents, drawn from the 2 communities. Data analysis was based on responses from 193 questionnaires retrieved and the univariate analytical method was adopted. The study found that large percentage of residents reported a negative rating of neighbourhood quality indicators such as waste collection and disposal, safety of lives and property, fire stations, cleanliness of the neighbourhood, residential planning, government provision of housing for the poor, hospitals/clinics, recreational areas, and maintenance of streets, aesthetic condition, noise level and the neighbourhood condition. Residents rated markets adequate and fire hazards low. The study concluded that majority of the residents rated neighbourhood quality indicators inadequate. The study recommended that government should intervene in these areas to improve the neighbourhood quality to achieve sustainability

Keywords: Inhabitants, Neighbourhood, Port Harcourt, Quality, Rating, indicators, residents

Atmospheric Aerosol Loading over the Urban Canopy of Port Harcourt City and its implications for the incidence of obstructive pulmonary diseases (Published)

In view of the deaths arising from obstructive pulmonary diseases, this study examined the concentration of aerosols (Total Suspended Particulates-TSP) as influenced by both landuse and meteorological parameters of wind speed, relative humidity, ambient temperature and rainfall in Port Harcourt city. Air quality and meteorological data were measured at twelve stations: two each from the industrial, high and low density residential, commercial, transportation and surrounding rural areas. Data were collected for seven weeks during wet, transition and dry seasons. Analysis of data was done using ANOVA and stepwise multiple regression techniques. Findings indicated that TSP concentration was highest in the industrial (71.9%), transportation (17.3%), Low Density Residential (LDR) (12.31%); rural (12.9%), and commercial (24%) landuse areas during the dry season. The high Density Residential (HDR) (13.98%) contributed the highest concentration of TSP during the transition period. At the high density residential areas, only air temperature (r= -0.288) during the wet season correlated inversely to the concentration of TSP; other meteorological parameters and their correlation values are rainfall (r=0.133), wind speed (r=0.409) and relative humidity (r=0.095) which correlated directly to TSP concentration. The coefficient of determination values showed that the meteorological variables, jointly accounted for 19.90% and 11.50% of the variation in the concentration of TSP during the wet and dry seasons respectively. Residents who are sensitive to the effects of TSP especially those with chronic obstructive pulmonary or cardiovascular disease must not be allowed to inhabit and spend longer hours in Woji, Nkpogu, Nchia, Aleto, Akpojo, Alesa, Ogonigba, Okrika main land, and Elelenwo communities which are sandwiched between the Trans-Amadi and Eleme industrial areas that are located down-wind of the city. Specific air pollution and environmental standards ought to be more stringent targeting sources like factories, incineration and vehicle emissions

Keywords: Port Harcourt, Respiration Infections, TSPs, Urban Canopy, land use

Seasonal Analysis of Atmospheric Pollutants Concentrations in Urban and Rural Land use Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. (Published)

The study examined the seasonal urban-rural difference in atmospheric pollutant concentration in Port Harcourt region. Sampling was performed at four different sites with two having urban and rural characteristics respectively, with the aid of multi-gas sampler and hand held weather tracker during the wet, transition and dry season from 2010-2011 on the bases of 24-hour continuous measurement. Data collected were analysed using t-test at p = 0.05. Findings showed that the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations during the dry season were PM10 (384.0 ± 32.6 and 259µg/m3 ± 41.7 µg/m3), SO2 (1.4 ± 0.0 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3) and CH4 (61.4 ± 3.8 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3); while in the wet season they were PM10 (101 ± 4.7 and 33.6µg/m3 ± 0.7µg/m3), TSP (155.2 ± 15.5 and 42..3µg/m3 ± 1.2 µg/m3) and CO (26.2 ± 0.2 and 17.5 mg/m3 ± 0.4 mg/m3). For the transition period, the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations were PM10 (215.7 ± 20.0 and 146.2 µg/m3 ± 19.2 µg/m3), TSP (287.7 ± 45 and 204.6µg/m3 ± 55.4 µg/m3), NO2 (0.2 ± 0.0 and 0mg/m3 ± 0mg/m3) and CH4 (20.5 ± 0.6 and 0.9mg/m3 ± 0.0mg/m3). The slashes and burn method of farm preparation and fuel wood which is used for cooking contributed to the high concentration of TSP, PM10 and CO during the dry season and this is why there was no significant difference in their concentration with the urban areas. In general however, there were significant differences in the mean concentrations of PM10, TSP, NO2, and CO; PM10, TSP, NO2 and CH4 during the wet, transition an dry seasons respectively at 95% significant level between the rural and urban areas for the seasons at p = 0.05. Regular monitoring of pollutants especially at the rural areas of Port Harcourt region with heavy hydrocarbon industrial foundations is advocated.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pollutants Concentration, Port Harcourt, Rural, Seasons, Urban

Residents’ Satisfaction with Residential Quality of Life in the Old Port -Harcourt Township of Port -Harcourt Municipality (Published)

This study assessed residents satisfaction with residential quality of life in two neighbourhoods of Port Rivers State, Nigeria – that is two from the old PortHarcourt township of the city. The study set out to ascertain residents’ satisfactiom of neighbourhood attributes, sanitation attributes and residential quality of life. Neighbourhood attributes were studied in situ without experimental manipulation and at one period in time, i.e. the study adopted a passive-observational research design. The study utilized both secondary and primary data sources. Primary data was collected using face-to-face administration of a largely pre-coded household questionnaire, to a probability sample of 193 respondents, drawn from the 2 neighbourhoods. Data analysis was based on responses from 193 questionnaires retrieved and the univariate analytical method was adopted. The study found, that residential quality of life in Port Harcourt Municipality was low with garbage on the streets and neighbourhoods. The study further revealed that most residents were dissatisfied with their residential conditions such as electricity supply, water supply and waste collection and disposal. The study further revealed that 45.5%of the residents in Old Port Harcourt townshipand 26.0% in Coronation Layoutwere unhappy with their residential quality of life. A key conclusion of the study was that the improvement of neighbourhood residential conditions as perceived by the residents was important in raising residential quality of life, and recommendations included that in the provision of public infrastructure and services , the perceptions and preferences of the beneficiaries/target population must be taken into account to achieve user satisfaction. To achieve adequate provision of infrastructure and amenities government should take advantage of funds available in the National Urban Development Bank, assistance from international development agencies and through private-public-partnership (PPP) arrangements.

Keywords: Port Harcourt, Residential Quality of Life, Residents’ Satisfaction

SEASONAL ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN AND RURAL LANDUSE AREAS OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)

The study examined the seasonal urban-rural difference in atmospheric pollutant concentration in Port Harcourt region. Sampling was performed at four different sites with two having urban and rural characteristics respectively, with the aid of multi-gas sampler and hand held weather tracker during the wet, transition and dry season from 2010-2011 on the bases of 24-hour continuous measurement. Data collected were analysed using t-test at p = 0.05. Findings showed that the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations during the dry season were PM10 (384.0 ± 32.6 and 259µg/m3 ± 41.7 µg/m3), SO2 (1.4 ± 0.0 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3) and CH4 (61.4 ± 3.8 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3); while in the wet season they were PM10 (101 ± 4.7 and 33.6µg/m3 ± 0.7µg/m3), TSP (155.2 ± 15.5 and 42..3µg/m3 ± 1.2 µg/m3) and CO (26.2 ± 0.2 and 17.5 mg/m3 ± 0.4 mg/m3). For the transition period, the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations were PM10 (215.7 ± 20.0 and 146.2 µg/m3 ± 19.2 µg/m3), TSP (287.7 ± 45 and 204.6µg/m3 ± 55.4 µg/m3), NO2 (0.2 ± 0.0 and 0mg/m3 ± 0mg/m3) and CH4 (20.5 ± 0.6 and 0.9mg/m3 ± 0.0mg/m3). The slashes and burn method of farm preparation and fuel wood which is used for cooking contributed to the high concentration of TSP, PM10 and CO during the dry season and this is why there was no significant difference in their concentration with the urban areas. In general however, there were significant differences in the mean concentrations of PM10, TSP, NO2, and CO; PM10, TSP, NO2 and CH4 during the wet, transition an dry seasons respectively at 95% significant level between the rural and urban areas for the seasons at p = 0.05. Regular monitoring of pollutants especially at the rural areas of Port Harcourt region with heavy hydrocarbon industrial foundations is advocated.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pollutants Concentration, Port Harcourt, Rural, Seasons, Urban

THE IMPACT OF AUTOMOBILE EXHAUST FUMES ON CONCENTRATION LEVELS OF LEAD ON BREAD IN PORT HARCOURT CITY, NIGERIA (Published)

The study examined the spatio-temporal analysis of Lead (Pb) concentrations in bread in five selected bus terminals in Port Harcourt metropolis A total of one thousand and two hundred loaves of bread were exposed to air with two hundred in each bus terminals on Mondays and Fridays in the morning, afternoon, and evening for four weeks and used for laboratory analysis. Volume of vehicular counts was also determined in the morning, afternoon and evening across the selected bus terminals. Thirty samples of premium motor spirit (PMS) were randomly collected between July and September 2013 to determine the amount of Pb and octane rating present in the laboratory. The area of each bus terminal was determined by multiplying the length and the breadth of each bus terminals. Mean value of Pb concentration and octane ratings; the volume of vehicular counts, size of the bus was determined. ANOVA and regression analysis were used in the study. Result showed that the mean values of Pb concentrations in bread were highest in Flyover Mile 1 Park in the morning, afternoon and evening with a value of 0.464 g/g, 0.305g/g and 0.339g/g respectively. Generally, the Pb concentration in bread was highest in the morning (0.271g/g) and least in the evening (0.235g/g). A direct relationship existed between the concentration of Pb in bread in bus terminals and volume of vehicular counts (r2= 0.194). Similarly, the size of bus terminals accounted for 60.0% of the concentration of Pb in bread (r2 = 0.600). There was a significant variation in the Pb concentrations in bread recorded in the morning, afternoon and evening as F calculated was 10.451 at 0.5 significance level. Similarly, there was a significant variation in the Pb concentrations recorded in the selected locations as F calculated was 10.788 at 0.5significance level. Policy measured aimed at stopping the sale of bread at the bus terminals and the use of leaded petrol in the city is advocated.

Keywords: Bus terminals, Lead (Pb) concentration, Port Harcourt, Spatio-temporal, White bread

Confusing Violent People with Violent Places: An Investigation Of Urban Change And Criminality In Port Harcourt (Review Completed - Accepted)

Indeed some works on urban settlement and crime are skeptical that specific places can be considered a category capable of differentiating social groups base on their controversial status in other sub-areas of sociology, the twin concept of study of crime and urban communities remain important. Social inequality that shared perceptions of social deprivation have been instrumental in creating a distinct community based collective psychological reaction. It is this specific psychological reaction which in theory has made shanty dwellers more aggressive than non-shanty dwellers. In this paper, we show how spatial inequality goes about constructing difference based on a collective psychological reaction to social deprivation. To do this, the study used some assumptions on key variable ‘crime’, income’ and ‘class’. Using regress and regression micro fit 4.1 statistical package, the study revealed that crime in Port Harcourt is not tied to spatial phenomenon but based on the prevalence of certain social forces which determine the dimension and magnitude of crime. The study recommends the inclusion of urban poor in government housing development plan

Keywords: Change, Criminality, People, Port Harcourt, Urban, Violent, Violent Places’