This paper x-rays contemporary legal issues and problems associated with population and development in Nigeria. A potpourri of materials namely: statutes, textbooks, journals, articles, reports, case laws, and internet materials have been consulted in the course of writing this paper. The paper states that several studies have revealed that the growth of any nation is basically centered on its developmental strides and policies. The relationship between population and development is very dynamic in nature. A country is regarded as being developed when the institutional framework, policies and structures are functional and effective. Over population affects the environment and in turn, hampers its developmental growth. The environment experiences crisis when its economic growth skyrockets its capacity limit. Developing countries like Nigeria and some other countries in the Sub-Saharan region face an uphill task in trying to manage their ever increasing populace. The paper also examined population policies in Nigeria and reveals a critical gap between population and development and calls for legal and institutional reforms that will bring about an effective enforcement of population and development policies in Nigeria.
A Two-Stage Sampling Design to Study Small Scale Production of Livestock of Households in Unwana, Nigeria: Towards Reduction of Poverty (Published)
In this study, a statistical survey on small scale domestic livestock production of households in Unwana, Nigeria was carried out. The community was first partitioned into eight enumeration demarcation areas (EADs), two EADs were selected by simple random sampling method. Primary data were then collected from the selected areas (a two – stage sampling method). Data obtained were analyzed using sampling estimation theory to ascertain the actual population of livestock reared in the community, again, the chi- square goodness of fit test showed that fowls, goats and sheep are the most kept livestock among the households with estimated population of 56,790, 117,090 and 30240 respectively. The research recommended a modernized method of livestock keeping to maximize production. Engaging veterinary doctors to improve on the animal healthcare, productivity, food safety and safer environment. The work also observed that training of local livestock keepers and incentives from government will ensure a well-developed sector.
Effect of Spacings on the Growth and Yield of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna Subterrananea (L) Verde.) in Asaba Delta State (Published)
A field experiment was conducted at Teaching and Research Farm of Delta state University, Asaba Campus to study the effect of spacing on the growth and yields of Bambara groundnuts. The design was randomized complete block replicated three times. The spacing were 15×30 cm, 25×30 cm, 35×30 cm and 45×30 cm giving a plant population densities of 22,222, 13,333, 9,524 and 7,407 plants/ha, respectively. Results indicated that the number of pods plants-1 and grain yield/ha-1 of Bambara groundnuts increased with increased planting density. The study showed that Bambara groundnuts performed better at high densities for growth and yield than low densities. Plants with population density of 22,222 plants/ha (15×30 cm) had the best yield (3920 kg/ha), followed by 13,333 plants/ha (25×30 cm) with the yield of 3768kg/ha and the least 7,407 plants/ha population density (45x30cm) with yield of 2478kg/ha. It is recommended that Bambara groundnut should be planted at a spacing of 15 x 30 cm in a rain forest zone of Asaba, Delta State for maximum productivity.
Demographic characteristics and economic development are the major determinants of urban shape and pattern of urbanization in Gombe which gave rise to rapid population growth. These determinants resulted to unplanned urban growth, unprecedented urbanization and land use change as a result contributing in the rapid reduction of vegetation cover and loss of arable land in the surrounding urban environment. The aim of this paper is on the impact of urbanization on vegetation cover. Both primary and secondary data was employed in this work. Socio-economic data and information on the status of tree species were gathered through questionnaire survey that involved 195 respondents using purposive sampling techniques in the study area. While the land use land cover analysis was carried out using ArcGis 10.5 and Edras Imagine 9.0. The finding was made to capture as accurate as possible six land use land cover classes as they changed through time. The result of the work shows a rapid decrease on the vegetation and a gradual increase in settlements between 1976 and 2016 due to the fact that Gombe metropolis became the capital of Gombe state in 1996. Also only few tree species were found within the study area, as most trees are cut down for various developmental purposes. The study recommends that urgent attention on conservation of vegetal resources within the metropolis should be encouraged.
Economic Implications of Environmental Degradation in Nigeria: Is the Environmental Kuznets Curve Relevant to Nigeria (Published)
Challenges of environmental degradation have been an impediment to the level of economic progress in Nigeria. The major objective of the paper is to establish the economic consequence of environmental degradation drawing from the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) framework. The research covered the period between 1986 and 2017. The Ordinary Least Squares and Granger Causality were used to analyze the data. The result indicates that per capita income has a positive and insignificant relationship with carbon emission. An indication of the absence of the EKC. The square of the per capita income has a positive and insignificant relationship with carbon emission. A further confirmation of the absence of the EKC in Nigeria. Population has a significant and positive impact on the level of carbon emission. Openness and FDI have positive and significant impact on carbon emission. The result of the granger causality test indicates no causal relationship between carbon emission and per capita income. Increase in per capita income that is not followed by a rise in inflation rate as well as strong regulatory measures are recommended.
Effect of Different Temperatures on Some Biological Parameters of Anisopteromalus Calandrae, (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) and Population Fluctuation of the Parasitoid and their Insect Hosts of the Genus Sitophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (Published)
Population fluctuation of some different insect species of the genus Sitophilus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and their parasitoid, Anisopteromalus calandrae, (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) were studied at El-Beheira Governorate (Egypt). The present results show that during the first year 2013 S. oryzae reached its peak in August where the average number was 510 adult per kilogram wheat. While S. granarius and S. zeamais reached its peak at December and September achieved 401 and 300 adults per kilogram grain, respectively. The parasitoid A. calandrae was active from March to November and reached its peak in August achieved 112 parasitoid per kilogram. The parasitoid sex ratios of A. calandrae increased gradually with increasing temperature and reached its peak in August of the year 2013 recorded 2.3 female to 1male. The duration of immature stages of the parasitoid A. calandrae decreased with increasing temperature where it was extended from 26.89 day at 20°C to 11.55 day at 35°C. The parasitoid total numbers also increased gradually with increasing temperature from 20°C to 30 °C, recorded 67.67 at 30 °C. Then, the numbers decreased also at 35 °C recorded 62.67. The results illustrated also that there were significant difference in sex ratio between the temperature of 20 °C and 35 °C. Where, at 20°C the sex ratio was 2 females:1male. Whilst, at 35 °C the sex ratio was 2.3 females:1male. No significant differences in the sex ratio were observed between the temperature of 20, 25 °C and 30 °C. From the previous results the temperature of 30 °C was the most desirable temperature for the activity of the parasitoid.
The quality of any research and its findings is connected and /or shaped by the process diligently followed. This suggests an unending link between the methodology (process) and the quality / outcome of a research. This paper explains the imperative of population and sampling and the value it adds to the quality of research and its findings. The paper is an explanatory one that analyses documented views of experts in the field of research and correlate same with the experience of the researcher. Observations and assessment of researches conducted by students of undergraduate studies and most times the graduate students’ revealed research procedural lapses. These lapses are mostly methodological that affect considerably the quality/outcome of their researches. The emphasis hinges on the need to pay required attention to the population and sampling procedure to ensure accurate research findings not speculative outcome.
THE EFFECT OF FISCAL POTENTIAL AND NEEDS ON REGIONAL BOTTOM AID MODEL (BDB) IN NORTH SUMATERA PROVINCE (Published)
The purpose of this study is to analyze and determine the influence of fiscal potential and needs in the model of allocation formulation of regional bottom air (BDB) in North Sumatra province. The variables used in this study are the performance of the regional bottom aid (Y) as dependent variable while is total population (X1), poverty index (IKR) (X2), size of region (X3), construction cost index (CCI) (X4), gross domestic product (GDP) (X5), regional revenue (PAD) (X6), balances of fund (X7) and income per capita (X8) as independent variables. The data analysis used in this study is structural equation models, while the population is all the 33 districts/cities in North Sumatera province, and the sampling technique is using purposive sampling method with consideration of specific criteria. The findings concluded that the dominant variable in determining the allocation of the regional bottom aid (BDB) in North Sumatra is the total population, construction cost index (CCI), the financial fund balance and income per capita.
THE EFFECT OF FISCAL POTENTIAL AND NEEDS ON REGIONAL BOTTOM AIDMODEL (BDB) IN NORTH SUMATERA PROVINCE (Review Completed - Accepted)
The purpose of this study is to analyze and determine the influence of fiscal potential and needs in
the model of allocation formulation of regional bottom air (BDB) in North Sumatra province. The
variables used in this study are the performance of the regional bottom aid (Y) as dependent
variable while is total population (X1), poverty index (IKR) (X2), size of region (X3), construction
cost index (CCI) (X4), gross domestic product (GDP) (X5), regional revenue (PAD) (X6), balances
of fund (X7) and income per capita (X8) as independent variables. The data analysis used in this
study is structural equation models, while the population is all the 33 districts/cities in North
Sumatera province, and the sampling technique is using purposive sampling method with
consideration of specific criteria. The findings concluded that the dominant variable in determining
the allocation of the regional bottom aid (BDB) in North Sumatra is the total population,
construction cost index (CCI), the financial fund balance and income per capita.