Status of Discharged Abattoir Effluent and Its Effects on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Orogodo River, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
The discharge of untreated wastewater into waterbodies results in water quality deterioration of the receiving waters. This study assesses the impact of abattoir wastewater discharge on the water quality of Orogodo River in Nigeria. Effluent discharges and water samples were collected from river at six points over a 6-month period. Physicochemical analyses were conducted using standard methods. The pH was within a fixed band of 5.56 – 8.04. The downstream biochemical oxygen demand of the receiving river water increased significantly to 75% in July and up to 192% in December. Suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus followed a similar trend. Dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, also increased appreciably. The downstream levels of these parameters were higher than their corresponding upstream values, indicating that the discharge of the abattoir wastewater into the river has negatively impacted the river water. The dilution of the waste in the river water was not enough to reduce them to acceptable levels. This study demonstrates that abattoir wastewater impacts Orogodo River water negatively. The abattoir effluent did not meet the National standard for effluent discharge into the environment leading to cross pollution of the receiving water based on the parameters investigated. This therefore, calls for the need to put an effective wastewater treatment and monitoring system in place to enforce existing legislations to curb water pollution and to safeguard both the environment and human health.
Water Pollution Scenario at River Uramurukwa Flowing Through Owerri Metropolis, Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
Pollution scenario of water from River Uramurukwa was investigated. In both rainy and dry season, 5 water samples each taken from different points were analysed to determine physico-chemical parameters and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer). The investigated physico-chemical parameters for both dry and rainy season respectively ranges from: temperature (32-32.4oC, 29-29.8oC), electrical conductivity (15.67-2.00 µS/cm, 7.31-61 µS/cm), pH(5.2-5.7, 5.9-6.7), total dissolved solids (2.67-3.98 mg/L, 3.29-5.33 mg/L) and TSS (4.43-6.64 mg/L,4.88-5.84 mg/L). The analysed major ions were: sodium (Na+)(1.30-1.67 mg/L, 1.76-2.38 mg/L), potassium (K+)(0.819-0.898 mg/L, 0.08-1.89 mg/L), magnesium (Mg2+)(1.13-2.78 mg/L, 1.23-2.86 mg/L), calcium (Ca2+)(22.92-24.6 mg/L, 13.9-43.9 mg/L), nitrate (NO3–)(0.91-0.96 mg/L, 0.56-0.97 mg/L), phosphate (PO43- )(0.34-1.65 mg/L, 1.07-2.17 mg/L) and sulphate (SO42-)(23.4-24.8 mg/L, 21.02-29.18 mg/L). The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb), zinc (Zn)(1.2-2.63 mg/L, 1.60-3.33 mg/L), copper (Cu)(0.13-0.79 mg/L,0.001-0.61 mg/L), iron (Fe)(0.091-0.19 mg/L,0.017-1.97 mg/L), cadmium (Cd)(0.002-0.180 mg/L, 0.002-0.025 mg/L), manganese (Mn)(0.08-1.02 mg/L, 0.008-0.091 mg/L). Temperature, Ec, DO,TDS and TSS were found to compile with WHO guidelines for domestic drinking water except for pH. Cu, Mn, Fe, in the water samples were all within the recommended guidelines of FEPA and WHO for domestic water use. High concentrations of Cd, Mn and Fe were observed at point 2 while all points for Zn and Pb exhibited high concentration. Water quality Index showed the area is unpolluted and safe for use. No ecological risk was observed except for Cd and Pb. PLI was all within recommended limit except for point 2 during the dry season. It should be observed that the River is polluted with Cd and Pb, this are highly toxic metals which can cause serious health damages even at low concentration.
Assessment of Pollution Status of Ikwette Stream at Obudu Cattle Ranch Bottom Hill, Cross River State Calabar Nigeria (Published)
The focus of this study is on the assessment of pollution status of Ikwette stream at Obudu cattle Ranch Bottom Hill. Water samples were collected three times in the months of August, September and October 2014. The samples were analogized for physic-chemical and bacteriological parameters. The results of the analyzed samples were compared with the World Health Organization Standard for drinking water (WHO) and (NDWOR).Nigeria Drinking Water Standard. Pollution index (PI) was used the ascertain the level of pollution of the stream. The result indicates that all the stream. The result indicates that all the parameters except chromium (PI of 1) fall with in class 1 indicating no pollution and slightly polluted for chromium which fall with in class 2.
Physico-Chemical, Heavy Metal and Microbiological Concentrations in Soil and Water Samples around Veritas University Campus, Obehie, Southeastern Nigeria (Published)
This study aims at evaluating the physico-chemical, heavy and microbiological concentrations in soil and water samples around Veritas University, Obehie, Abia State, Nigeria to prevent the risk on the public health. Standard sampling and analytical methods were employed during the study. Results of the study revealed that the concentrations of heavy metals in borehole water samples were low (mostly < 0.001), and hydrocarbon were also below detection limit in all borehole samples. The concentrations of heavy metals in surface water were also low, ranging from < 0.001 mg/l in some cases, with the highest single value being 0.165mg/l for iron. Total hydrocarbon content was also below detection levels in surface water showing unpolluted conditions. Heterotrophic bacteria densities were high in soil samples, ranging from 1.0 x 104 to 3.5 x 105 cfu/g soil. Densities of heterotrophic fungi were high in some locations, ranging from 1.0 x 103 to 1.5 x 105 cfu/g. Counts of petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were generally high. Percentage petroleum degrading bacteria and fungi were greater than 1 % in all samples, except at one location. Microbial populations of soils particularly high in petroleum degraders (> 1 %) show that the soils have been exposed to contamination from petroleum products. High counts in some of the samples indicate normal microbial growth and activities. Heterotrophic bacteria and fungi contribute to good quality soil in terms of fertility. The quality of the borehole and surface water quality is fairly good hence, regular monitoring of water quality in the area is very necessary.
Water samples were collected from seven different locations along the Aba River close to various human, industrial, commercial and domestic activities. The heavy metals were analyzed using the Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS). The result revealed that the concentration of some heavy metals like Iron, Copper, Manganese and Chromium are above the WHO and FMEnv Standard limits for surface water. These high values could be attributed to indiscriminate disposal of wastes into the river. The various parameters of the water samples from the control site (Okpu-Umuobu) were significantly different from those of locations close to the major industrial/commercial activities. This confirms the impact of human activities on the quality of the Aba River. The impacts of dredging and sand mining in and along the river bank were obvious. These activities have an adverse effect on the environment and ecology, speeding up flow and potentially increasing the risk of flooding downstream. This also has the potential to damage ecology by directly affecting its physical habitat, disrupting riverine processes and reduced connectivity with the floodplain. It is therefore recommended that effluent treatment plants be installed to treat waste generated before they are discharged into the stream as well as regular monitoring of the River should be encouraged by the regulatory bodies.
Hydrochemistry of River Owan water and groundwater in its vicinity were examined to decipher their quality status and evaluate the impact of man on the coastal area of the river. Twelve River Owan water and three groundwater samples were subjected to hydrochemical and bacteriological investigations using standard methods. Temperature, pH and electrical conductivity were measured insitu employing pH Testr Meter. The waters were alkaline (average pH of 9.27) signifying a slight trend of alkaline chemical reaction within the system. Electrical resistivity (EC) was virtually less than 1000µS/cm in all water samples indicating fresh water. The dominance of the major ions was as Na+ > Ca2+ >Mg2+ > K+ and HCO3− > Cl− > SO42− > NO3−. The average values of major ions (mg/L) in the order of dominance were 23.15, 11.56, 9.25, 9.07 and 79.63, 48.92, 29.18, 5.49 respectively. Total hardness of the water revealed that 12 out of 15 water samples were under soft water category ( TH ). All water samples tested positive to bacterial infection (1.60*102 e-coli 8.10*103 Cfu/ml). Anthropogenic activities dominated ionic sources in River Owan while that of the groundwater was mainly geogenic. Much of the natural character of the coastal environment of River Owan has been modified by human activities. Hygiene education of the public must be encouraged in order to ameliorate the unhygienic status of River Owan.
Preliminary Assessment of Some Heavy Metals Pollution Status of Lisikili River Water in Zambezi Region, Namibia (Published)
Good water quality is fundamental to human health and sustenance of aquatic ecosystems. The Lisikili river in Zambezi region, Namibia is a major perennial river which serves diverse economic purposes in the host community. However, it is now receiving pollution threat from effluents discharge and surface run-off from large agricultural lands. Eight (8) water samples were collected at 8 random points within a stretch of approximately 2km on each extremity and median parts of the river. Two major economic fish from the river, tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) and cat fish (Siluriformes) (8 samples of each) were collected using fish net at the points of water sampling. The samples were transported to analytical laboratory in ice boxes for processing and analyses for the levels of Pb, As, Cr, Cd, Cu, Zn, Mn and Fe using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP: Perkin Elmer Optima 7000 DV). The results obtained showed wide mean concentrations of the heavy metals in the river water; iron recorded the highest level of 2.375 mg/l and arsenic (0.047 mg/l) recorded the lowest level. Apart from Zn (0.259 mg/l) and Cu (0.073 mg/l) with the present concentrations lower than their guideline permissible limits, the mean concentrations of the other heavy metals exceeded their maximum permissible guideline values for the protection of human and aquatic health. Based on the classification of metal pollution index (PI) for water, apart from Cu (PI = 0.03) and Zn (PI = 0.04); all the other heavy metals recorded pollution indices which suggest moderate to strong effect on the river water quality. In both the catfish and tilapia fish (wet weight whole sample), iron (4.926 mg/kg and 3.323 mg/kg) recorded the highest mean concentration while Cd (0.136 mg/kg and 0.078mg/kg) recorded the lowest level respectively. Generally, the present levels of the heavy metals were below their regulatory limits for the protection of human health. However, the fish’s bio-accumulation factors of the metals suggest that they have high potentials to bio-accumulate some of the heavy metals to high levels and this has adverse implication for human consumption. Because heavy metals are non-biodegradable and bio-accumulative in nature which therefore, make their presence in human foods even at very minute levels potential toxins, it is important to monitor their accumulations in the river and fish and advice precautionary measures to limit excessive human exposures to the heavy metals content.
Survey and Cartography of the Spatial Variation of the Pollution of the Waters From Well of Some Districts of the Township of Abomey-Calavi, Benin. (Published)
The right to the development and to the improvement of the setting of life of each one as well as the duty to protect natural heritage are nowadays two (02) parameters, of a difficult problem to approach (AMHARREF and BERNOUSSI 2007). So, the water that constitutes a primordial factor for the human life and for all economic development is contaminated often by anthropic activities. The situation is more critical for the under-developed countries with limited water resources; it is the case of Benin. The major question that puts itself is then how to manage, to decontaminate and to protect our water resources without breaking down the anthropic activities affecting economic growth? This situation calls for protective and preventative measures that cannot be optional. The nature and the size of the measures to be taken according to the zones require a very advanced knowledge of features of these waters and the sources of their pollution. A prospective survey of three months spread from the month of January in the month of March 2013 and having for objective the assessment and the cartography of the hygienic quality of the waters of wells used like drinking water and also for the domestic activities, by the population of some districts of the township of Abomey-Calavi, has been achieved. To the total, twenty (20) withdrawals of water have been done from some twenty (20) wells presenting risks for the health of their users. The bacteriological analysis showed that all waters of well reveal a pollution due to the bacteria as the coliforms thermotolerants, the intestinal enterococcus, the total coliforms with the most elevated concentrations in the wells situated very close to the Lake Nokoué. It reveals that these waters can be responsible for the dissemination of water related diseases. The report between the coliforms’ thermolerants and the intestinal enterococcus indicated that the origin of the fecal contamination is of human type in 50% of the wells. The fecal contamination of human type concerns all wells close to the lake and the one of animal type concerns wells moved away of this lake.
MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF SOIL AND SEDIMENT EXPORTED THROUGH STREAM FLOW, CHANGES IN THE RIVER FLOW AND IN EXPORTED PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS: LONG TERM ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS AND MITIGATIONS STRATEGIES: CASE OF THE RIVER MEWOU (SOUTH MIFI) IN THE WESTERN TROPICAL HIGHLANDS OF CAMEROON (Published)
This study aims at determining the impact on water, agriculture and the environment of the soil constituents exported by the Mewou river on the southern Mifi through modeling of the changes in the river flow and in the exported physico-chemical constituents and to identify mitigate strategies. The average exported soils varied in t/km2 from 195.34 in 2011 to 256.02 in 2012. The flow variation of water and chemical constituents were each characterized by a general equation with a model:
Y = a*t9+b*t8+c*t7+d*t6+e*t5+f*t4+g*t3+h*t2+i*t+j
Environmental pollution was identified by water turbidity, 146.9 NTU, and in mg/l Organic matter 2.33, Cd2+ 11, Pb2+ 48.20, NH4+ 2.8, PT 0.84, Al3+ 0.593, NO2- 4.645. It is recommended that to mitigate soil loss, pollution and increase recharge of water table, the use of Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) hedges and by installation of wastewater treatment plants by each industry and the Municipal council for the household wastes.
DETERMINATION FOR LEVELS OF RADIONUCLIDES OF URANIUM, THORIUM AND POTASSIUM IN WATER, SEDIMENTS AND ALGAE SAMPLES FROM SELECTED COASTAL AREAS OF LAGOS, NIGERIA; USING ENERGY DISPERSIVE X-RAY FLOURESCENCE (Published)
Concentration of some natural radionuclides were determined in water, sediments and green algae collected from selected coastal areas of Lagos, Nigeria over a period of two seasons (wet and dry) using Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (ED-XRF) techniques. This was done to highlight and ascertain possible radionuclide pollution. Using the ED-XRF technique, 46.10±1.34 ppm of Potassium was found in the sampled sediment during the dry season while Uranium, Thorium and Potassium were beyond the limit of detection during the wet season The ED-XRF technique showed that 31.40±0.14 ppm of Potassium was present in algae during dry the season. Uranium, Thorium and Potassium were beyond detection limit in the water samples using ED-XRF. The interactions of the wet and dry season showed that the nuclides of Uranium, Thorium and Potassium series are on the move and no significant changes in the concentration of the nuclides from wet to dry season. Potassium obtained are above the permissible levels by IAEA and may have health implication on the environment and persons living around the Coastal areas.
CAN MOST THIRD WORLD COUNTRIES EVER GUARANTEE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF THE ENVIRONMENT (Review Completed - Accepted)
Five main types of environments are recognized. These are the natural environment, the socio-economic environment, the built environment, the political/governmental environment and the spiritual environment, which is an addition by the author to the list of environments. However, since these environments are in most cases affected by certain environmental challenges that are common to all of them and these environments are inter-dependent, with the happenings in one affecting the others, an “integrated environment” approach is adopted in this paper in discussing the environments, which are simply referred to as “the environment”, in most part of this paper.
The global environmental issues that are germane to sustainability of environment in which most of the third world countries are still lagging behind, are discussed. These issues are weighed against the back drop of the diverse sociological challenges facing these third world countries, many of which are not showing any sign of abatement within a foreseeable future. All these have led the author to the conclusion that most of these countries may remain in the doldrums for long, on the all-important issue of sustainability of the environment
Keywords: Built Environment, Climate Change, Loss of Biodiversity, Natural Environment, Natural Hazards and Sustainability, Political/Governmental Environment, Pollution, Socio-Economic Environment, Spiritual Environment