Heavy Metal Contamination and Health Risk Assessment of Groundwater Sources to Waste Dumpsites in Port Harcourt (Published)
Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment of groundwater ingestion in proximal relation to waste dumpsites in Port Harcourt were investigated during the rainy and dry season of 2020. Five (5) sampling points were established and designated as Groundwater (GW) as follows: GW1, GW2, GW3, GW4, and GW5 respectively. The control station used was GW5. Nine (9) heavy metals (Cd, As, Mn, Cu, Hg, Ni, Fe, Pb, and Zn) were assessed during the period using an atomic absorption spectrometer and were compared with National Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) of Nigeria. The Estimated Daily Intakes of Metal (EDIM) of these metals for adult males, females, and children revealed no significant health issues during the wet and dry seasons. However, the Health Risk Index (HRI) for non-carcinogenic revealed that during the wet season Pb in the control station (GW5) had a concentration of 4.000E+0 mg/kg/day that was far higher than unity (HRI<1) for females. The Arsenic (As) values for children at GW1, 2, and 3 were also higher than unity. The pollution index for each heavy metal across sample location showed that Fe in GW1 and 3 during the dry season was high while in the wet season, values for Cu in GW4 was very high, Fe in GW1 and 2, and Mn in GW2 were higher than the unity. The overall pollution index of the heavy metal studied revealed that only Fe exceeded the unity value during the dry season whereas Cu, Fe, Pb, and Mn concentrations were also higher during the wet season. This calls for concern considering the vulnerability of children and women who may have been exposed to groundwater sources via ingestion. The heavy metal contamination as observed in this study may have occurred due to anthropogenic activities superimposed by the unregulated insanitary waste disposal phenomenon.
Citation: Alaye A.S. Bibiye; David N. Ogbonna; Sodienye A. Abere; Augusta Ayotamuno (2022) Heavy Metal Contamination and Health Risk Assessment of Groundwater Sources to Waste Dumpsites in Port Harcourt, International Journal of Environment and Pollution Research, Vol.10, No.2 pp.34-49
Keywords: Groundwater, Heavy Metal, Pollution Index, Waste Management, health risk assessment.
Geochemical Mapping of Metal Contamination and Distribution in Topsoil, Western Oban Massif Southeastern Nigeria (Published)
This study is to examine heavy metal contamination of topsoil around the western flank of the Oban Massif and environs, southeastern Nigeria. Soil samples were collected in seven locations in farming and quarrying land use locations across the study area. Heavy metals (Al, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, V, Pb, As, Cr, Co, Ni, and Mo) were analyzed in soil samples using ICP-Ms. Computation of enrichment factor (EF) and Pollution index (PI) was performed on concentration values of potentially toxic heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, As, Cr, Ni and Co), to determine the extent of pollution caused by human activities in topsoil of farming and quarrying areas. The concentration values of heavy metals in soils were also compared with world average background values of heavy metals. Results showed that the potentially toxic heavy metals enrichment factors and pollution index values were below values considered to be harmful to human health. The soil samples with respect to PI can be classified as deficient to minimal enrichment factor. With exception of Pb, Cr and Co which had PI values slightly above 1 and mean values exceeded 1, other potentially toxic heavy metals do not pose any health threat. The heavy metals: Pb Cr and Co are a health threat. Excess Pb and Co are carcinogenic to human system, while excess chromium causes diabetes and bronchitis. Sources of Pb, Cr and Co should be further investigated to institute appropriate remediation measures and also the bioavailability of these heavy metals be conducted in the human population inhabiting the study area.
Keywords: Bioavailability, Carcinogenic, Enrichment Factor, Pollution Index, Remediation, potentially toxic