Rap music is a derivative of the oral form of literature, which is man’s original medium of self-expression and artistic creativity. Rap music is a highly prolific component of a popular culture which has served as a means of expressing the plight of the black man in a predominantly prejudiced white society. Rap music came as a result of the elongated measure of exposure to slavery, segregation and prejudice. In order to air their mind, different forms of literature were employed, one of which is Rap music which has been identified as (Rhythm and Blues). This work takes a look into the socio, economic and political significances of Rap culture on African-Americans and how it enhances their lives.
This study examined the prevalence of domestic violence in the socio-economic and political context in Ghana. The study conveniently sampled 200 women within Kumasi metropolis as participants. Data for the study came from both primary and secondary sources. Structured questionnaires were face-to-face administered to the respondents. The data were analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows. The study revealed that the prevalence of Cultural factors had been agreed by respondents as scourge of domestic violence. Acceptability of violence as means to resolve conflict (M=4.7), bride price and dowry (M=4.2), Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles (M=4.25), Belief in the inherent superiority of males (M=4.3). Prevalence of economic factors were agreed by respondents as follows: Women’s economic dependence on men (M=5.0) limited access to employment in formal and informal sectors (4.26) discriminatory laws regarding inheritance, property rights, use of communal lands (4.2). Prevalence of Political factors were agreed by respondents as follows: Under-representation of women in power, politics, media and in the legal and medical profession (M=4.17), Risk of challenge to status-quo/religious laws (M=4.35). Legal factors included: laws regarding divorce, child custody, maintenance and inheritance (M=4.31) insensitive treatment of women and girls by police and judiciary (M=4.91). More than halve of the respondents indicated that they have even been assaulted by men. The study revealed a significant association between ever been assaulted and employment status (X2=76.9, p-value<0.05, df =6). Again there is a significant relationship between ever been assaulted and education attainment (X2=35.25, p-value<0.05, df =8). There are relationship between females ever been assaulted and age X2=21.13, p-value<0.05, df =8). Policy intervention and reinforcement of the existing legislation is imperative in the civility of these findings.
This paper examines the issue of Boko Haram insurgence and its implications on socio-political economic in Nigeria. We used survey questionnaire based on economic, social and political activities in the country, data were collected from stakeholders with evidence from newspapers. The findings include the following; the activities of the insurgency have crippled the economic activities which are as results of unemployment, poverty and illiteracy in the Northern-part of Nigeria. This suggests that this may constitutes serious threat to lives and property of Nigerians thereby hindering business activities and discouraging foreign investors. We find that the role of religious leaders encourage the activities of the insurgency, the political elite in the Northern-part of Nigeria also contribute to the insurgency as a result of bad governance. We recommend that Government must be proactive in dealing with security issues, use modern methods of intelligence gathering, adequate training, and motivation among security personnel and encourage the youth in going to school.
Issues of Cultural, Political and Racial Identity of Women in Rich’s Poetry: A Socio-Feministic Analysis (Published)
This paper aims to analyze the socio-feministic picture of a poet who has distinguished place in American literature for her contribution in the field of feminism. The feminist struggle against patriarchal set up has been found in Rich’s poetry with reference to the selected poems. In these poems women are not constantly under men’s power and supremacy; they want to struggle for their rights and make an improved life even when there is no man. Women revolt and escape as they are being oppressed and burdened by male oriented society. She is different from other American poets like Plath whose poetry revolves round her. This paper will helpful in understanding the background of her poems.
CONSTRUCTION OF SOCIO-CULTURAL AND POLITICAL ORIENTATION OF THE FOLLOWERS OF MUHAMMADIYAH AND NAHDLATUL ULAMA (NU) IN THE POST REFORM ERA IN EAST JAVA INDONESIA (Published)
Indonesia’s population of approximately 248.216.193 million spread over almost the entire Indonesian archipelago. There are many different religions and beliefs living in Indonesia, but only five religions recognized by the government, Islam, Christian, Catholic, Hindu, and Buddhist. Among the followers of these religions, Muslims are the most numerous, especially people who inhabit the island of Java. Islam in Indonesia organized by several Islamist organizations. The largest Islamic organizations are Muhammadiyah and Nahdlatul Ulama (NU). To find the development of two organizations community mentioned above, this study aims to (1) describe the cultural and social changes, the Muhammadiyah and NU, and (2) describe the social significance of these changes (cultural and social) for the social life of Muhammadiyah and NU and, (3) Describe the political orientation of Muhammadiyah and NU in Indonesian. With the data collection methods of observation, in-depth interviews, and questionnaires, this study concludes that in terms of socio-cultural of the two community, both Muhammadiyah and NU is located at the same position, ie there is no difference in the use of all forms of development and progress of existing as the impact factor of the development of religious thought, economic, social, cultural, and education is growing in Indonesia. The level of Islam, both Muslim organization has no principle difference. The most prominent difference is evident in the relationship between followers and leaders. The relation between followers and leaders at Muhammadiyah are to be equality, while at NU in general is more stratification (hierarchy). This is kind of relationship models for each follower will affect their behavior patterns in several ways, including the orientation or political aspirations. Regarding the political aspirations orientation (political party) there is a difference between Muhammadiyah and NU. The difference was due to the different nature of the base due to the influence of the history of the organization and community levels as well as models of the relationship between followers and leaders in their organizations respective. Regarding the choice of the party, Muhammadiyah members more rational while at NU generally more emotional and to the organization and kiai (religious scholar).