The Role of Institutional Trust and Political Accountability in Pakistan: An Empirical Study (Published)
A substantial literature have attributed that weak political accountability and failure in governmental performance is basis of declining political trust in Asian countries. Thus Pakistan as an Asian country and emerging democracy also facing both challenges of political accountability and governmental performance. Examining political trust in Pakistan data triangulation is used. It is gathered by interviews (n=20) and from previous literature. However, data is thematically analyzed, that is expedient technique for multiethnic country like Pakistan. Therefore, it is find out that weak political accountability and lower government performance have robust trust eroding effects in Pakistan.Thus the overall results are categorical about people lacking trust over political accountability institutions.
The Role of Social Media towards Political Accountability in Pakistan: A Literature Review (Published)
Democracy is globally accepted form of government, especially when the technological development going to make this world a global village. Scholars think about the ideas of global democratic government, wherein short fall of democracy is ill-fated. However, political accountability is the essential characteristics of democracy and it cannot flourish without it. This paper adopts a qualitative approach by using qualitative content analysis and observation over social networking sites (SNS), in which democracy, accountability, and freedom of expression will extensively use. The extensive literature review indicates that social media facilitates the freedom of expression, provides opportunities of direct political participation, improves the electoral process and increase political accountability in authoritarian countries and emerging democracies. However, an emerging democracy like Pakistan, where social media trend is up surging and accountability condition is destitute. It is highly justified to investigate the role of social media towards political accountability.