EFL Teaching-Learning Utilizing English Literature: A Source of Exploring the World of English (Published)
The universal truth is that language whatever is meant for communication either written or spoken and each language has its own niceties and subtleties loaded with social and cultural norms. The present study specifically focuses on the teaching and the learning of not only English language skills but also the importance of English literature, i.e. prose, poetry, peculiarities, weird, quirks, and bizarre of English language have also been encompassed. Now the question arises, how all this can be utilized in EFL classroom. The best possible answer is the use of different forms of literature in the target language. Another important point is that the selection of different literary texts, poems and other helping material have been suggested as a model according to the level of ESL learner, i.e. under graduate students. Some model texts and couplets have been given in Table-1 and Table-2. It would be appropriate to provide a suitable modern literary text to improve the language skills and competency, critical thinking, stylish and effective communication either written or spoken as closer to native speakers as possible. All this is possible through well- thought, well-planned, well-presented pieces of literary work and S-S and T-S interaction. The most important are motivation and the roles of teachers and students toward an overall success.
Many scholars have observed the general reservation/aversion most students nurse against poetry as an arm of literary studies. Some of the reasons cited for this, among others, include employment of difficult, remote and archaic words as well as complex and evasive constructions and terms. This study examines some of the prominent stylo-rhetorical devices employed by Lenrie Peters in his Poetic Piece: the Fence. The rationale is to foreground the poet’s ingenuity in exploring both linguistic and rhetorical resources in driving home his message to the conviction and admiration of his readers. The chaotic state of the social order and the sorry condition of humanity in most African societies coupled with both the subject matter and language use in the poem explain our choice of the text. The paper, as an exploration of both semantic cum philosophical praxes of language use, dwelt richly on the blend of linguistic and persuasive nuances of the stylo-rhetorical characteristics of the text under study. Hence, we had cause to investigate the functional values of the salient linguistic resources employed in enacting the text. The Systemic Functional Grammar as propounded by Halliday (1978) was adopted as the theoretical framework for our analysis. Findings showed that poetry is both a linguistic and a social act, and, should be so viewed as a background to be activated for proper understanding and appreciation of our text. We found that it is not all cases of poetry that come with out-of-reach linguistic choices and usages. However, the philosophical nuances of poetry make its texts to call for special but interesting readings not common with other literary genres. This work has proved that the reservation people may have against the texts of poetry may not be so much of estranged linguistic choices and constructions as it is with the philosophical/imaginative inclinations and condiments with which the linguistic choices and constructions are woven together.
The Development of Contextual Approach-Based Materials for Poetry Writing On Grade X Student In Sma Budi Murni 2 Medan (Published)
This research is based on the learning problems of class X students of SMA Budi Murni 2 that are still teacher-centered. This causes students not being able to study independently because of the lack of poetry text references used in poetry writing class. In addition, the student’s ability to write poetry texts is known to be low because the teaching materials used by teachers and students are still based on textbooks. The book is the only source of information for poetry text writing study. In learning to write poetry texts, teacher sometimes still use learning methods that tend to be monotonous, such as the use of discussion methods. This is known from the results of observations made by the researchers themselves. All poetry texts writing learning comes from textbooks. Based on the above problems, the researcher conducted a research development aimed at (1) to analyze the development process of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (2) to analyze the feasibility of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan, (3) to analyze the effectiveness of the contextual approach-based poetry text writing materials on grade X student in SMA Budi Murni 2 Medan. The method adopted is the Research and development (R&D) proposed by Sugiyono, based on Borg and Gall. The trial subjects consisted of 3 students in individual test, 9 students in small group test, and 35 students in limited field test. The data collection technique used observation, interviews, questionnaire, and poetry text writing test. The research result shows that (1) material expert’s validation includes content feasibility with an average of 83,52% in “very good” criteria, presentation eligibility with an average of 87,5% in “very good” criteria, and language aspect with an average of 75% in “good” criteria, (2) graphyc design expert’s validation with an average of 83,46% in “very good” criteria, (3) teachers’ responses with an average of 88,23% in “very good” criteria, (4) individual test with an average of 77,77% in “very good” criteria, (5) small group test with an average of 80,10% in “very good” criteria, (6) limited field test with an average of 84,82% in “very good” criteria. The learning outcomes of student’s poetry writing before using the module was 74.28, while after using the module increased up to 85.57. The resulted difference between before and after the module usage is as much as 11.29. The implication of this study is that, the developed teaching materials may provide practical contributions in the implementation of the learning process for teacher. This is because the additional teaching materials provide convenience in the process of teaching.
Development of Authentic Assessment Instrument Based On Curriculum 2013 on Material of Poetry by Students Class X Sma Negeri 2 North Rantau Academic Year 2017/2018 (Published)
This study aims to produce an authentic assessment instrument product in the form of an authentic assessment manual on poetry material and know the process of development and feasibility of the product. This research method is research and development research and development (R & D) proposed by Sugiyono refers to Borg & Gall model with little adjustment according to simplified research context up to product trial. The data were collected through validation of material experts, design experts, evaluation experts, teacher in SMA Negeri 2 North Rantau, and students class X SMA in total of 35 students as research subjects. Data collection is a questionnaire assessment. The analysis was done by converting quantitative data into qualitative data using Likert scale. The results of this research and development are teaching materials in the form of authentic assessment manuals in the form of print media, which have been declared appropriate for use by materials experts, design experts, evaluation experts and Indonesian teachers as learning resources. Feasibility of teaching learning materials in accordance with the results of the validation. Assessment of products in the form of authentic assessment manual by material experts showed that the presentation of material suitability with core competence and basic competence is 88% categorized as very good, the language and the writing of the instrument as much as 97% with very good category, the learning activities of learners have a percentage of 94 % with very good category, and supporting material has a presentation of 88% with very good category. The overall average is 92% categorized as very good. The assessment of authentic assessment guidebooks by design experts with an overall average of 91% categorized as very good. The assessment of authentic assessment guidebooks by evaluation experts with an overall average of 96% categorized as excellent. The authentic assessment guidebook reviews by Indonesian teachers have an average percentage average of 89% with the criteria of “Very Good”. It can be concluded that the authentic assessment manuals development is effective and worthy of use as a learning resource.
Poetry and personality of Robert Frost, a highly-acclaimed 20th century American poet, are still favored topics for debate among literary critics even half a century after his death. While a group of critics call him a modernist poet, another group denounce him just as a rural poet of New England, while another group sets him at a crossroad and finds assorted elements in his poetry. Frost’s personality too lobbed biographers and critics at varied directions. While one group of critics termed him as a quiet, loner gentleman, the other one portrayed him as jealous, mean-spirited and misogynist career-builder. The third group of critics certified him as a complex man who juggled uncommon fame with an uncommonly difficult private life. Jay Parini, a Frost biographer, said, “You see there are so many Frosts”. This paper runs a review of criticism on Robert Frost’s poetry and personality for a deeper insight into the tug of war and tries to locate the real Frost among “so many Frosts”.
A Comparative Study on the Aesthetics of Language and Structure in T.S. Eliot and Mahmoud Darwish’s Poetry (Published)
This paper explores the insights and inspirations Mahmoud Darwish has received from other poets. The thematic and structural analysis the study conducts on T. S. Eliot’s “The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock” and Mahmoud Darwish’s “A Truce with the Mongols in the Forest of Oak” indicates that the two poems are narrated using a fragmented, ironic and symbolic language. Likewise, both purposefully repeat lexical items and syntactic structures, and abound with imageries and figures of speech.
In this article various critical opinions of prominent critics and poets on poetry and poems are to be examined in detail. Firstly, some statements and opinions, in connection with poetry are to be presented critically. An acquaintance with poetry opens the mind to the wonder and joy of living and it can be related to ‘form’ as well as ‘meaning’ and how poets of different centuries have seen new and fresh possibilities within the unchanging limitations of poetry. It is also examined many critical observations of some particular poets and critics are done. This paper also related various poetical issues of great literary persons from classical age to modern age i.e. Horace to W. B. Yeats. In addition, the other poets such as Chaucer, Shakespeare, Milton, Donne, Byron, Keats, Shelley, Wordsworth, Coleridge, Tennyson, Browning, Arnold, Eliot and Auden are presented with apt instances. Finally the conclusion is drawn on the basis of the review of literature indicated.
This study attempts to understand how the aesthetic aspects of the Qur’an are translated into or accommodated in English. It clarifies slightly challenges in translating the Qur’an, a text believed by Moslems to be the word of God and as such beautiful beyond imagination. To get a feel of its poetic essence, particularly in its rhythmic verses, and the task that lies ahead for translators, three short “surahs” (verses) and seven well-known translations of each were analysed. The theory of equivalence was used to measure. It was found that all surahs showed rhythmic patterns (sound) that are distinctive, even to the untrained eye/ear. Readers who might not understand its meaning can still appreciate its poetry. None of the translations, however, could reproduce these rhythmic patterns that help memorization of the surahs. In summary, the pervasiveness of rhythmic elements is clear and a real challenge awaits the translator of this text.
As mystic poets, Emily Dickinson and Whitman are the two very important and talented writers in the arena of American literature. Both of them are famous for their divine poetry. Emily Dickinson focused greatly on self-awareness as opposed to Walt Whitman who focused on nature. However, he is called a ‘Modern Christ’ but his dual nature is found in his poetry as he fused profound spirituality with an equally profound animality. In Emily Dickinson’s poetry perfection, lightness, boldness and a chaste refinement are found which signify her individualism. This paper highlights two of these transcendentalist poets’ similarity and disparity of views, their experience of personal life, their poetic style and diction.
Manifestation of Elements of Joy in Manouchehri Damghani Poetry (Review Completed - Accepted)
Joy is one of the important themes in Persian poetry that has distinctively been expressed in Manouchehri Damghani poems, one of the foremost poets of the mid-fourth and fifth century AD. Favorable situation in that era attracted writers, scholars and artists to the court of kings and eulogium, and their comfortable living and pleasure led them further towards joyful thoughts. Since Manouchehri was a cheerful, pleasure-seeking, realistic poet, he created a world full of happiness in his poems mainly by relying on visual effects of nature.Inthis paper, the most important elements of joy in Manouchehri poetry including description of different celebrations, effects of nature, birds, flowers, various seasons, etc. were studied by providing some samples. The results obtained by this study indicated that poets of the first period of Persian poetry, especially Manouchehri Damghani, were delighted poems and made the best use of the effects and elements of nature to express their thoughts