The study is on demarketing of tobacco in Nigeria: the marketing mix perspectives. The study is a descriptive survey and it specifically examined the effect of product elaboration on consumers’ attitude toward smoking, and intention to quit smoking; the effect of price elaboration on consumers’ attitude toward smoking, and intention to quit smoking; the effect of place elaboration on consumers’ attitude toward smoking, and intention to quit smoking and effect of promotion elaboration on consumers’ attitude toward smoking, and intention to quit smoking. Primary data for this study was collected through questionnaires while secondary data was collected from the International tobacco Control (http://www.itcproject.org). Consumers of products of two tobacco companies operating in Nigeria constitute the population for the study. The two companies are: International Tobacco Company, Ilorin and Nigeria tobacco company, Ibadan. Since the population of smokers in Nigeria is unknown, convenience sampling technique was used to select 364 smokers from Ondo and Ekiti State. Inclusion criteria for this study defined smokers as those who have smoked atleast 100 sticks of cigarette in their life time and who still smoked at least once a day. Out of 364 questionnaires that were distributed, 355 (97.5%) were returned. Data analysis was done using Cronbach’s Alpha, frequency analysis, descriptive analysis, linear regression and one sample t-test. The linear regression tests show that elaboration of the 4Ps of marketing otherwise known as the marketing mix have significant effects on consumers’ attitude toward smoking and intention to quit smoking. It was therefore recommended among others that the government of Nigeria should develop a suitable legislature aim at further reducing the acceptability and appeal of smoking; increase smoke-free places and decrease accessibility of people to tobacco.
This study examines the manifestations of place in Ibrahim Al-Kawni’s From The Desert’s Myths. Aware of the importance of place and its profound impact on the various aspects of people’s lives and its strong presence within the human psyche and its major functions in the structure of the novel, Al-Kawni has paid place special attention. In his novel, Al-Kawni has depicted place concurrently as a factual and imaginary reality and as an artistic structure. To be more specific, he chooses the world of the great desert dominating Libya, Morocco and Mauretania, which is a real place, to portray his fictional universe. Besides, the desert is simply rich with special places like the mountains, oases, caves, sand hills, etc., which require careful examination. It is our goal in this study to look into Al-Kawni’s employment of place to learn more about its manifestations and the author’s attitudes and philosophy.