Tag Archives: Pilot Study

Intention to Prolong Work after Retirement among Health Personnel in Nigeria: A Pilot Study (Published)

Citation: Muhammad Anka Nasiru, and  Farauk U. Abubakar  (2022) Intention to Prolong Work after Retirement among Health Personnel in Nigeria: A Pilot Study, International Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Research, Vol.8, No.1 pp.40-49


In Nigeria, the severe shortage of registered nurses (RNs) and Registered midwives (RMs) have made the Nigerian government carefully propose a policy to prolong the health personnel working lives. Conversely, little is known about the predictors that influence Intention and actual preparation to extend work life among the selected professionals. Therefore, this pilot study’s objective was to evaluate a small sample data to establish the reliability and validity of the constructs’ measuring instruments under study. This study recruited respondents 40 years or older by sending recruitment e-mails to them, which only 50 questionnaires were usable. The validity and reliability of the instruments were analyzed using SPSS v24 and smartPLS v2.0.The study result shows that the entire adapted constructs were reliable and valid and appropriate for the upcoming main study. Precisely, composite reliability (CR) indicated values of 0.90, 0.89, 0.89, 091, and 0.92 for the constructs of attitude, Intention, perceived behavioral control (PBC), preparation, and subjective norms, respectively, which are all above the threshold value of 0.70.Similarly, the average variance extracted (AVE) and discriminant validity were used to determine its validity. The AVE of the constructs of attitude, intention, PBC, preparation, and subjective norm are 0.82, 0.74, 0.63, 0.73, and 0.74, respectively, which indicated all the values are above the suggested threshold of 0.5. The discriminant validity of the entire constructs was attained because the AVE’s square root for the adapted constructs was more significant than the correlation among other reflective constructs, as specified by the studies embolden values. The current study’s main limitation is that some nurses and midwives could not respond to the e-mailed questionnaire sent to them; only a few respondents completed the questionnaires. Thus, monetary rewards should be offered to the respondents to cover the cost of data.


Keywords: Pilot Study, health personnel, intention, preparation, prolong work, retirement

Association between Optimism, Dietary Habits, Lifestyle and General Health Self-Assessment: A Pilot Study (Published)

The aim of the study was to develop and standardize a new questionnaire to examine the relationship between optimism, dietary habits, lifestyle and general health self-assessment. A pilot study was conducted in a sample of 114 individuals of general population in Sparti/Greece. The questionnaire combines a general health self-assessment questionnaire (GHSAQ), the GrLOT-R, the weekly dietary habits, a personal/family medical history and a lifestyle questionnaire. The mean score of GrLOT-R and GHSAQ was found equal to 20.209(±3.817) and 27.482(±4.164) respectively. Higher score on GHSAQ was associated with the frequency of consumption of kiwi (p=0.027), orange (p=0.022), green tea (p=0.044) and raw olive oil (p=0.044). Higher score in GrLOT-R was associated with the frequency of consumption of fruits (p=0.028), pepper (p=0.037), red cabbage (p=0.011) and carrot (p=0.023). GHSAQ and GrLOT-R have acceptable internal validity (Cronbach’s α=0.719 and 0.723 respectively) and a very high Test-Retest reliability (Pearson’s r=0.928 and ICC=0.962 for GHSAQ and Pearson’s r=0.950 and ICC=0.983 for GrLOT-R). The new questionnaire is reliable and valid. High vitamins, antioxidants intake and water consumption seem to influence positively optimism and general health self-assessment

Keywords: Dietary Habits, Health Self-Assessment, Lifestyle, Optimism, Pilot Study, Questionnaire Standardization