Phytochemical, Antimicrobial and Gc/Ms Analysis of the Root of Stachytarpheta Cayennensis (L .Vahl) Grown in Eastern Nigeria (Published)
Stachytarpheta cayennensis is a plant full of phytonutrient, it has been applied by many traditional healers to treat host of diseases. Its full constituents have not been fully documented. The phytochemical screening of the root of this plant revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, glycosides, steroids and phenols. The antimicrobial analysis on selected human pathogens; Streptococcus specie, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella, Proteus specie and Pseudomonas specie showed that the extract was only sensitive to Proteus specie having a diameter of inhibition of 4mm at concentration of 240mg/cm3 and minimum inhibition concentration of 120mg/cm3. The spectrum obtained from the GC/MS analysis showed ten peaks at M/z 128 ,220,242,256,252,270,256, 296, 282 and 281 corresponding to molecular formulas of C10H8 for Cyclopentyl cycloheptene, C15H24 for Butylated hydroxyl toluene, C16H320 for Hexadecanoic acid, C16H28O2 for 11-tetradecyl-1-ol acetate, C17H38O2 for Hexadecanoic acid methyl ester,C16H32O2 for n-hexadecanoic acid C19H34O2 for 9-octadecenoic acid methyl ester, C18H34O2 for octadec-9-enoic acid and C18H35NO for 9-octadecenamide respectively. 9-octadecenamide (Oleamide) is useful for the treatment of insomnia. Oleamide accumulates in the cerebrospinal fluid during sleep deprivation and thus induces sleep in animals. It may be a potential medicinal treatment for mood and sleep disorders
The palm beetles, Oryctes rhinoceros L are pests of palm trees in the tropics and are also very important as edible insects. This study was conducted to investigate the nutrient composition, mineral salt contents, functional properties and anti-nutrient factors of the developmental stages (i.e. larvae, pupae and adults) of Oryctes rhinoceros beetles. The samples were oven-dried and blended into fine particles before being used for nutrient composition analyses using standard procedures. Analysis of mineral salts, functional composition and phytochemical (anti-nutrient) composition were also carried out, using standard procedures. The results obtained showed that protein content was highest in the adult (74.18±0.15%) while larva and pupa had 70.76±0.12% and 65.34±0.11% respectively. The ash content of the larva was the highest with a value of 8.29±0.01% while the pupa and the adult had 3.17±0.01% and 5.29±0.01% respectively. The pupa was highest in fat content (20.21±0.03%) while the larva had 7.47±0.01% and the adult had 9.55±0.01%. The moisture contents of the larva, pupa and adult are 1.04±0.02%, 4.76±0.02% and 4.53±0.03% respectively. The larva stage had the highest soluble proteins while the lowest protein solubility was observed in the pupa stage. In the larva stage, the highest protein solubility occurred in acidic medium while in the pupa and adult, it occurred in basic and neutral media respectively. Phosphorus was consistently highest in all the developmental stages. While Cu was not detected in any of the developmental stages, Magnesium was the highest minerals in the beetle with the values of 71.54±0.20mg/100g, 56.55±0.13mg/100g and 58.73±0.11mg/100g in the larva, pupa and adults respectively. Other mineral salts that were detected include Na, K, Ca, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cr. All the developmental stages of O. rhinoceros have good functional properties and thus can be used in baking industries. They all have high water absorption capacity, oil absorption capacity, foaming capacity, emulsion capacity and good least gelation concentrations. The anti-nutrient values of all the developmental stages are of negligible quantity that will pose no threat to life since the values fall within the tolerance values. Oryctes rhinoceros is a good source of nutrients and minerals which can be put to better use to accelerate the proper growth and development of man and livestock.
Anti-Bacterial and Phytochemical Potential of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extracts on Some Wound and Enteric Pathogenic Bacteria (Published)
Majority of Africans today depend either totally or partially on medicinal plants for the healing of their ailments which was used by their ancestors. This form of treatment, which is referred to as ethno medicine is sometimes the only kind of health care available to the rural populations. As part of the efforts to ascertain the healing capability credited to Moringa oleifera by the general public and some traditional practitioners, this work aimed at determining the antibacterial potentials and phyto-chemical constituents of M. oleifera was embarked on. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh and dried leaf of Moringa oleifera (FMLE, FMLDW and DMLE, DMLDW) were obtained using a standard method (1). The antibacterial efficacy of aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh and dried leaves of Moringa oleifera was tested against Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi, isolated from wound and feaces respectively, to ascertain its effectiveness in the treatment of wound infection and typhoid fever using Agar diffusion by punch method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and phyto-chemistry of the extracts were also evaluated. The mean values of zones of inhibition obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The least significant difference was determined according to LSD test at P ≤ 0.05. Results obtained showed that FMLE at 500mg/ml has the highest zone of inhibition of 22.00b against S. aureus, E. coli and lowest 15.00b against S.typhi, compared with DMLE with the highest zone of inhibition of 20.00b against S. pyogenes and lowest of 10.00b against S. aureus. FMLDW presented the highest inhibitory activity 28.00b against S. pyogenes and no activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa while DMLDW recorded 20.00b P. earuginosa and 10.00b against S. pyogenes. Both the aqueous and the ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leave exhibited appreciable level of inhibition against the test bacteria, but the aqueous extracts were not as effective as the ethanolic extracts. Phyto-chemical analysis of aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh and dried leaf of Moringa oleifera revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin, flavonoids and tannins. The findings from this work could be of interest and suggest the need for further investigations in terms of toxicological studies and purification of active components with a view to using the plant in novel drug development.
Effects of Extraction Solvents on Phytochemicals and Antioxidant Activities of Walnut (Juglans Regia L.) Green Husk Extracts (Published)
The effects of extraction solvents (hexane, ethyl-acetate, acetone, ethanol, methanol, and water) on the content of phytochemicals including total polyphenols, flavonoids and condensed tannins, as well as antioxidant activities of walnut green husk were investigated. The results showed that extraction solvents significantly affected phytochemicals content and antioxidant activities of walnut green husk. The acetone, ethanol, and methanol extracts had the higher content of phytochemicals, and they exhibited stronger antioxidant activities, followed by ethyl-acetate and water extracts, and the lowest for hexane extract. These results indicated that selective extraction from walnut green husk, by an appropriate solvent, is important for obtaining fractions with high antioxidant activity, which will be useful for the developing and application of walnut green husk.
In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Effects of Subchronic Administration of Trichilia Emetica Leaves Extracts (Published)
Objective: The leave extracts of Trichilia emetica were investigated for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei infections in mice and chronic dose effects of the methanolic extract were also studied. Methods: The plant leaves were successively extracted into three (3) extract forms (Hexane, ethylacetate and methanolic extracts). Plasmodium berghei (NK 65 Chloroquine sensitive strain) was inoculated in to twenty mice assigned for 5 groups of 4 mice each. Group I, II and III were treated with 300mg/Kg bw hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts respectively. Group IV with 5mg/kg bw chloroquine phosphate (standard) and group V with 20ml/kg bw normal saline (control). Another set of 40 mice were divided into two groups of twenty each (test and control) and some serum parameters were studies. The test animals were gavaged with 300mg/kg bw extract while controls were given normal saline over a period of 5weeks on alternate days. Histology of the liver, and kidney were carried out. Results: The presence of alkaloids, saponins, pholobatannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds have been detected and quantified. T. emetica extracts of hexane and methanol suppressed parasitemia in mice by 79.19 % and 95.83%respectively while ethylacetate extract has no activity. The weight of the test group was on a continuous decrease compare to the control while the reverse was the case in terms of the PCV. Glucose, total proteins, triacylglycerides, ALT and ALP levels all decrease significantly compared to the control group. AST level of the test group was significantly higher compare to the control. Histology revealed no damage to the kidney and liver. Conclusion: Hexane and methanolic extracts of Trichilia emetica have strong efficacy against malaria and a possible mechanism for this efficacy is its ability to lyses erythrocytes.
Proximate composition and phytochemical analyses were carried out on the leaves of Annona muricata using standard methods. The result of the proximate composition showed that the leaves contained 88.99% dry matter, 11.01% moisture, 25% crude protein, 14.96% ash, 22.20% crude fiber, 21.22 % fat and 16.62% carbohydrate contents. The phytochemicals detected in the ethanolic leaf extracts were flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside, tannins, triterpenoid, saponin and reducing sugar. The findings indicate that Annona muricata leaves is a potential source of highly nutritious feed stuff and phytomedicine. They are of nutritional, clinical and veterinary relevance considering the diverse ethnopharmacological uses of the plant in different parts of the world