Phytochemical screening and proximate analyses of some Medicinal plants used in Irun Akoko, Akoko North West Local Government Area Ondo State, Nigeria. (Published)
The study was designed to focus on the potential of seven selected medicinal plants vis Azadiracta indica (A.Juss), Saraca indica (Linn.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf,), Morinda lucida, (Benth.), Moringa oleifera (Lam.), Acacia senegalens (Houtt.), and Gossypium arboretum (Jacq.). The plants are relatively available, effective, disease resistance, less toxic and found traditionally medicinal relevance in the study area.This work was designed to identify secondary metabolites present in the leaves extracts of Azadiracta indica (A.Juss). Saraca indica (Linn.), Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Stapf,), Morinda lucida, (Benth.), Moringa oleifera (Lam.), Acacia senegalens (Houtt.), and Gossypium arboretum (Jacq.) to validate their traditional importancePhytochemical screening and proximate analysis was carried out using standard qualitative and quantitative tests respectively. The screening assessed and determined the proximate composition of Azadiracta indica; Saraca indica; Cymbopogon citratus; Morinda lucida; Moringa oleifera; Acacia senegalens; and Gossypium arboretum. Statistical analysis was performed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) while Duncan’s New Multiple range test were applied at 0.05 level of significance (p < 0.05). Phytochemical screening of the plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phenols and flavonoids. Nutritional analysis revealed that all the plants were rich in crude protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, moisture and dietary fiber. Morinda lucida has the highest moisture contents of 13.42± 0.05 % while Saraca indica has the least moisture contents of 9.19± 0.52 %. Acacia senegalens has the highest fat contents of 6.17±0.70 % while Azardiracta indica has the least contents of 2.84 ± 0.19 %. Similarly, Gossypium arboretum has the highest ash content of 13.46± 0.08 while Saraca indica is having least ash content of 6.60±0.03 %. Moringa oleifera has the highest proteins contents of 7.81±0.08 % while Cymbopogon citratus has least protein content of 3.64± 0.05 %. Gossypium arbereum has the highest number of fibers 11.28± 0.11 % while Saraca indica is having least fiber contents of 7.35± 0.14 %. Also, Saraca indica has the highest carbohydrates contents of 67.69 ± 0.11 while Moringa oleifera is having the least of carbohydrates content of 52.97±0.23 % respectively. Proximate composition in the plants supported various body functions such as body development, maintenance of fluid balance, formation of hormones, enzymes, repair of worn out tissues, sustaining strong immune function among others. Therefore, the results of this study validated the traditional relevance of the plants.
Antioxidant and Phytochemical Concentration of the Methanol Extract the Leave and Stem of the Two Common Varieties of Mangifera Indica. (Published)
Phytochemical and antioxidant concentration was determined two common varieties of the stem, and leaves of Mangifera indica that was collected in the school environment in Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria. The plant sample of each variety where labeled based on their Varieties common name (Opioro mango and Sweet mango) and method of extraction. After extraction, they were further concentrated and subjected to antioxidant and phytochemical analysis, which include phenol, flavonoid, saponins, alkaloid and DPPH assay. The result obtain from this study revealed that methanol is an effective method of preparation of plants sample varieties studied and also, plant varieties significantly showed inhibition of the dpph radicals. In comparism among all extract, methanol extract of opioro (MOL) mango leaves was highest in phenol content (7.55±0.077mg/g), methanol extract of sweet mango stem (MSS) revealed high total flavonoid content (309.45±16.99), while methanol extract of opioro mango stem (MOS) showed significant concentration of saponin (40.847±1.276) and these findings support the use of M. indica extracts for pharmaceutical purposes.
Phytochemical Screening and Pharmacognostic Properties of Peuraria Phaseoloides Leaves (Roxb) Benth. (Fabaceae) (Published)
Pueraria phaseoloides is an herbaceous twining vine and much branched. It belongs to the family fabaceae. Evaluations of the leaves were carried out to determine the phytochemical, macroscopic, microscopic, chemomicroscopic, and physicochemical analysis using standard methods. The phytochemicals detected in the ethanol leaf extract were alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids, cardiac glycoside, carbohydrate and reducing sugar. The macroscopic examination revealed fresh leaves are dark green, glabrous, cuneate, alternate and pubescent. Microscopic examination indicated the presence of calcium oxalate crystals, starch grains, xylem, phloem, trichomes, epidermal cells, collenchyma cells, amphistomatic stomata and reticulate vessels. Chemomicroscopic characters present are starch grains, lignified tissues, calcium oxalate crystals, cystolith, tannin, and cellulose. The physicochemical evaluation indicated 5.8% moisture content, 1.3% total ash value, 0.5% acid insoluble ash value, 1.0% water soluble ash value, 8.0% water soluble extractive value and 6.0% alcohol soluble extractive value. This study is useful in pharmacognostic standardization of this plant.
Effects of Ethanol Leaf Extract Of Eremomastax Speciosa (African Blood Tonic) on Female Reproductive Hormones of Albino Wistar Rats (Published)
Eremomastax speciosa is known to exhibit a wide range of biological activities because of the presence of tannins, saponins, alkaloids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides. This work evaluates the effects of Eremomastax speciosa on reproductive hormones in female rats using standard analytical methods. The phytochemical screening and the antioxidant activities of Eremomastax speciosa leaves were also evaluated using standard methods. Twenty-five matured virgin female rats were divided into five groups of five rats each; groups 1 and 2 were the normal and positive controls and were given distilled water and the standard drug respectively while groups 3, 4 and 5 were administered the ethanol extract of the plant in graded dosages of 400, 200, and 100mg/kg respectively. The phytochemical screening reviewed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, terpenes and flavonoids while, the leaves showed a significant free scavenging activities with IC50 90μg/ml. The hormonal result showed that the extract caused a dose dependent significant increase (p<0.05) in estrogen, prolactin, progesterone and FSH when compared with the normal control. However, there was a significant decrease (p<0.05) in serum LH levels also in comparison with the normal control. In conclusion, the ethanol leaf extract of Eremomastax speciosa suggested an increase in the reproductive enhancing hormones which might increase the reproductive activities of the female rats.
Phytochemical screening of pods of indigofera tinctoria l. (uri) and its antibacteria and antifungi properties (Published)
The phytochemical screening of Indigofera tinctoria L. (Uri) pod extracts using hot ethanolic, cold ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed the presence of Alkaloids, Flavonoids, Saponins, Tannins and Cardiac glycosides. Alkaloids were present in all the three different extracts, saponins was absent in cold ethanolic extract but present in the others, flavonoids was present in only cold ethanolic extract, cardiac glycosides were present in cold ethanolic and aqueous extract but absent in hot ethanolic extracts. Antimicrobial activity of Soxhlet ethanolic and aqueous extracts in different concentration were used against the following pathogenic bacteria isolates like Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus auerus and Bacillus cereus using Disk diffusion method. The undiluted Soxhlet ethanolic extract showed that S. typhi has the highest zone of inhibition of 25 mm, followed by B. cereus, S. auerus at 11 mm and E. coli having the least zone of inhibition at 8 mm. In undiluted concentration of aqueous extract, B. cereus has the highest zone of inhibition of 11 mm, followed by E. coli at 8 mm, S. auerus at 7 mm and S. typhi at 6 mm being the least. Also in Soxhlet ethanolic extract at dilution 1:1 concentration, the highest zone of inhibition is B. cereus at 10 mm, followed by S. typhi at 7 mm, while there was no zone of inhibition against E. coli and S. auerus. While in aqueous extract at dilution 1:1, B. cereus and S. typhi has the same zone of inhibition of 7 mm and no zone of inhibition was observed against E. coli and S. auerus. Similarly, in Soxlet ethanolic extract of 1:2 dilution concentration, zone of inhibition was observed only on B. cereus as 7 mm and no zone of inhibition was observed in the remaining isolates. For aqueous extract at dilution 1:2, there was no zone of inhibition against all the isolates. Hence the percentage antibacterial activity of both extract indicated that B. cereus with cumulative zone of inhibition of 47 mm has thre highest percentage zone of inhibition at 37.30%, followed by S. typi at 45 mm against 35.71%, S. auerus at 18 mm against 14.29% and E. coli at 16 mm against 12.70% as the least percentage of antibacterial activity. Conversely, same extracts tested against fungal isolate like Aspergillus tereus, did not exhibit antifungal properties. Thus the results obtained from this study suggested that Indigofera tinctoria pod validate the use of undiluted extracts of this species in ethnomedicine and could provide a lead in the treatments of bacterial infections.
Phytochemical Screening and in-Vitro Antioxidant Activity on Vernonia Amygdalina (Ewuro- Bitter Leaf) (Published)
Most of the plants exhibit a variety of phyto-pharmaceuticals, which have important applications in the fields of agriculture, human and veterinary medicine. This study was conducted to evaluate phytochemical screening and in-vitro antioxidant activity on Vernonia amygdalina (bitter leaf) at the Department of Biological Sciences, Federal Polytechnic, Ado Ekiti. It was revealed that the phytochemical constituents in Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) were alkaloids, saponin, tannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and cardiac glycosides in the extract. Anti-oxidant property results of the aqueous extract of Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) showed Total phenolic content was 120.16mg Gallic acid equivalent/g extract while the total flavonoid was 235.147mg Quercetin equivalent/g extract. The plant could be exploited as source of antioxidant additives and used for future project to evaluate the potentials of Bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina) as a strong medicinal plant in improving human health status.
Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Activity of Neem Seed Oil (Azadirachta Indica) On Bacteria Isolates (Published)
Antibacterial activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil extract was investigated using microbial growth inhibition zone. The neem seed oil was obtained by the cold extraction method using ethanol as an organic solvent of which 42ml of oil was obtained from 70g of neem seeds, with 40g (57%) of residue. Oil extracted was screened for its antibacterial properties and phytochemical components. The test organisms used were Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi had the highest zones of inhibition while Escherichia coli had the least zone of inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The Phytochemical screening of the sample revealed the presence of Tannin, Alkaloid and Hydrogen cyanide.
Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extracts and Fractions of the Leaf and Stem Bark of Vitex Doniana Sweet (Lamiaceae) (Published)
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of leaves and stem bark of Vitex doniana Sweet (Lamiaceae) in vitro on clinical isolates of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Fresh dried leaves and stem bark of Vitex doniana were extracted by cold maceration which yielded a mucilaginous methanol extract. Fractionation of the crude extract was done with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water in that order. Phytochemical analysis and lethality tests (LD50) were carried out using standard procedures. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml were evaluated using the agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, steroids, cardiac glycosides. Lethality was not observed in the mice even at 5000 mg/kg. Results showed significant (P < 0.05) antimicrobial activity as well as a broad spectrum activity. This study therefore supports claims by traditional health practitioners.
Antioxidant Activity, Phytochemical and Antioxidant Levels of Musa Paradisciaca L. And Musa Sapientum L. At Various Ripening Stages (Published)
Musa paradisiaca L. (plantain) and Musa sapientum L. (banana) are tropical fruits that play a major role in the nutrition and health of people throughout the world. Analyses of the levels of antioxidants such as glutathione, caroteniods and vitamin E of two cultivars of Musa paradisaca and three cultivars of Musa sapientum revealed an increase in these antioxidants from the unripe to the overripe stage during ripening. The overripe stages of Musa paradisiaca L.cv. French (Bini plantain) and Musa sapientum L.cv. Bluggoe cacambou (Cooking banana) were found to contain the highest level of glutathione (54.10±0.60 μg/g fresh weight and 47.79±3.45 μg/g fresh weight, respectively). The highest level of lycopene occurred in the overripe stages of Musa paradisiaca L. cv. False horn (Auchi plantain) and Musa sapientum L.cv. Bluggoe cacambou (Cooking banana) with values 0.91±0.00 and 0.80±0.01 μg/gfresh weight, respectively. The highest level of vitamin E (20.20±1.99 μg/gfresh weight and 17.53±1.18 μg/gfreshweight) occurred in Musa paradisiaca L.cv False horn (Auchi plantain) and Musa sapientum L.cv Dwarf Cavendish (English banana). However β-caroetene was detected only in the unripe stage of Musa paradisiaca L.cv False horn (Auchi plantain) and the level of β-carotene was negligible. Phytochemical screening of the plantain and banana cultivars showed decreased levels of tannins, phenols and alkaloids but increased levels of saponins and flavonoids as ripening progressed except in Musa sapientum L.cv. Bluggoe cacambou (Cooking banana) where there was a decrease in the level of saponins. Antioxidant activity also increased with ripening in the plantain and banana cultivars, with their ripe and overripe stages having the highest values. Methanolic extracts of the plantain and banana cultivars showed higher antioxidant activity than that of aqueous extracts. The results obtained in this study showed that plantain and banana irrespective of the variety are good sources of antioxidants particularly when they are ripe and overripe.
Antimicrobial Efficacy of Guiera Senegalensis and Prosopis Africana Leave Extract on Some Bacterial Pathogens (Published)
The bioactive components of the leaves of Guiera senegalensis and Prosopis africana were extracted using ethanol, aqueous and crude extraction methods. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids, while glycosides and alkaloids were absent in P. africana and G. senegalensis respectively. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of G. senegalensis showed 1.352mg/100g of flavonoids and 14.59mg/100g of phenols. Prosopis africana quantitatively showed 3.041mg/100g flavonoids and 10.22mg/100g phenol content. The various extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity using agar diffusion methods of susceptibility testing against the test organisms. The ethanolic extract of Prosopis africana demonstrated the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi (4.7mm, 4mm and 4mm zones of inhibition respectively) while the least activity was demonstrated by aqueous extract against Escherichia coli (1mm inhibition zone). The ethanolic extract of G. senegalensis also inhibited Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with (3.5mm, 3mm, and 2.8mm of zones of inhibitions respectively). The crude and the aqueous extracts of both plants showed lower zones of inhibition against all the three organisms. This study shows that the use of G. senegalensis and Prosopis africana leaves as traditional medicine has a lot of potential in treatment of antimicrobial infections with further standardization.
INVESTIGATION ON THE MEDICINAL AND NUTRITIONAL POTENTIALS OF SOME VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
Nine medicinally important vegetables consumed in Ekiti State, Nigeria were analyzed to determine their proximate and phytochemical contents using standard analytical procedure. These vegetables are Corchorus. olitorious L., Cnidoscolus acontifolius Mill., Vernonia amygdalina L., Cucurbita pepo L., Ocimum gratissimum L., Senecio biafrae Olive & Heirn., Moringa oleifera L., Telfaria occidentalis Hook. F. and Hibiscus asper Hook. F.. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of reducing sugar in all the plant samples analyzed. Saponins and tannins were discovered in four of the plant samples. Seven of the nine plants have philobatannins and cardiac glycosides while alkaloids and steroids were detected in two samples. Anthroquinine was absent in all the vegetable plants. Quatitative phytochemical analysis further revealed reducing sugar, tannins, flavonoids, saponins alkanoids and phenols composition in different proportions, with values ranging from 141.88 mg/100g to 210.07 mg/100g, 44.05 mg/100g to 70.89 mg/100g, 11.71 mg/100g to 41.08 mg/100g, 0.76 mg/100g to 5.88 mg/100g, 163.77 mg/100g to 269.86 mg/100g, and 110.43 mg/100g to 116.68 mg/100g respectively. The percentage proximate values for moisture content, ash, crude fat, crude protein crude fibre and carbohydrate content in the leaves ranged from 50.20% to 88.30%, 7.67% to 10.17%, 1.53% to 4.99%, 13.70% to 24.90%, 10.10% to 21.81% and 40.99% to 53.04% respectively. The results of the study lend credence to the significance of the nine vegetables in the treatments and prevention of various ailments and diseases. Furthermore, high protein, fibre, carbohydrates and low fat contents justify their nutritional importance in human daily diet.
Comparative Studies of the Antimicrobial Activities of Different Chewing Sticks on Some Selected Pathogenic Microorganisms (Review Completed - Accepted)
The crude aqueous and methanol extract of the chewing sticks were assessed for antimicrobial activity and the active principles present in them. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol and aqueous extract of ten (10) different types of chewing sticks were determined against a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The extract was tested against bacteria likeStapylococcusaureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, βeta. haemolytic streptococcus, Bacillus subtilisATCC 6633, ShigellaflexneriATCC 12022, SerratiamarscenceATCC 39006, EnterobacteraerogensATCC 13045, Proteus mirabilisATCC 2598, and fungi such as Candida albicans, Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillusniger, and Aspergillusfumigatus. The methanol crude extract of the chewing sticks have greater zone of inhibition compare with the aqueous extracts. All plants tested displayed antimicrobial activityes against one or more of the tested organisms but Fagarazanthoxyloidesshows greater antibacterial against Escherichia coli 40mm, Stapylococcusaureus34mm, while Disthemonanthusbenthamianusdisplayed the highest antifungal activity against Candida albican with 11mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each active values were as well determined using agar well diffusion method. The chewing sticks contain antimicrobial agents though the concentration and composition of the bioactive substances may differ amongst the plants.The result showed that the extract of the plants also possessed some active principles such as tannin, phenol, steroid, saponin, alkaloid, anthraquinones. Thus, the chewing sticks extract may serve as sources for chemotherapeutic agents for the management of Orofacial infections caused by broad spectrum pathogenic organisms and could also be suitable for better dental care. It is concluded that methanol extract and aqueous extract of the chewing sticks exhibited significant amount of antimicrobial and trace amount of antifungal.
Hepatoprotective and Antidiarrhogenic Property of Aqueous Extract of Anacardium Occidentale (Linn.) (Review Completed - Accepted)
The aqueous extract from leaves of Anacardium occidentale was evaluated for inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and also the extent of damage to internal organs if consumed orally was investigated. The percentage yield of the extract was found to be 8% of the total mass. Phytochemical screening of the extract reveals the presence of bioactive molecules like alkaloids, tannin, saponin, anthraquinone, phenol and cardiac glycoside. The extract was found to inhibit the growth of the B. cereus in vivo. The extract was tested in-vivo against Bacillus cereus after determining the Infectivity dose 50 (ID50) of the organism on albino rats. The weights of the animals were found to be treatment dependent. The control group has constant weight increase throughout the days of the experiment while group infected with Bacillus has constant decrease in weight from the onset of infection. Haematological analysis of the blood revealed that an increase in the packed cell volume (PCV) of the infected animals but treated with the extract while there was reduction in the PCV of the untreated group. The total white blood cell (WBC) was also determined which was found to be higher in the group inoculated with the bacterium. The plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST) was also measured to liver disease in the infected group and also the group that were administered with drug. Histopathological analysis was also carried out on the major organs like the liver and intestine which showed the extent of damage on the organs pictorially. The extract was found to be toxic as indicated by the observed necrotic lesion in the organs of treated group coupled with the increase in the level of the enzyme markers. The study justifies the use of leaf of Anacardium in traditional medicine.