Phytochemical And Antimicrobial Activity of Neem Seed Oil (Azadirachta Indica) On Bacteria Isolates (Published)
Antibacterial activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed oil extract was investigated using microbial growth inhibition zone. The neem seed oil was obtained by the cold extraction method using ethanol as an organic solvent of which 42ml of oil was obtained from 70g of neem seeds, with 40g (57%) of residue. Oil extracted was screened for its antibacterial properties and phytochemical components. The test organisms used were Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi had the highest zones of inhibition while Escherichia coli had the least zone of inhibition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The Phytochemical screening of the sample revealed the presence of Tannin, Alkaloid and Hydrogen cyanide.
Antimicrobial Activity of Methanol Extracts and Fractions of the Leaf and Stem Bark of Vitex Doniana Sweet (Lamiaceae) (Published)
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of leaves and stem bark of Vitex doniana Sweet (Lamiaceae) in vitro on clinical isolates of Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans. Fresh dried leaves and stem bark of Vitex doniana were extracted by cold maceration which yielded a mucilaginous methanol extract. Fractionation of the crude extract was done with hexane, ethyl acetate, butanol and water in that order. Phytochemical analysis and lethality tests (LD50) were carried out using standard procedures. Antimicrobial activity of the extracts and fractions at 50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml were evaluated using the agar well diffusion method. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, carbohydrates, steroids, cardiac glycosides. Lethality was not observed in the mice even at 5000 mg/kg. Results showed significant (P < 0.05) antimicrobial activity as well as a broad spectrum activity. This study therefore supports claims by traditional health practitioners.
Antioxidant Activity, Phytochemical and Antioxidant Levels of Musa Paradisciaca L. And Musa Sapientum L. At Various Ripening Stages (Published)
Musa paradisiaca L. (plantain) and Musa sapientum L. (banana) are tropical fruits that play a major role in the nutrition and health of people throughout the world. Analyses of the levels of antioxidants such as glutathione, caroteniods and vitamin E of two cultivars of Musa paradisaca and three cultivars of Musa sapientum revealed an increase in these antioxidants from the unripe to the overripe stage during ripening. The overripe stages of Musa paradisiaca L.cv. French (Bini plantain) and Musa sapientum L.cv. Bluggoe cacambou (Cooking banana) were found to contain the highest level of glutathione (54.10±0.60 μg/g fresh weight and 47.79±3.45 μg/g fresh weight, respectively). The highest level of lycopene occurred in the overripe stages of Musa paradisiaca L. cv. False horn (Auchi plantain) and Musa sapientum L.cv. Bluggoe cacambou (Cooking banana) with values 0.91±0.00 and 0.80±0.01 μg/gfresh weight, respectively. The highest level of vitamin E (20.20±1.99 μg/gfresh weight and 17.53±1.18 μg/gfreshweight) occurred in Musa paradisiaca L.cv False horn (Auchi plantain) and Musa sapientum L.cv Dwarf Cavendish (English banana). However β-caroetene was detected only in the unripe stage of Musa paradisiaca L.cv False horn (Auchi plantain) and the level of β-carotene was negligible. Phytochemical screening of the plantain and banana cultivars showed decreased levels of tannins, phenols and alkaloids but increased levels of saponins and flavonoids as ripening progressed except in Musa sapientum L.cv. Bluggoe cacambou (Cooking banana) where there was a decrease in the level of saponins. Antioxidant activity also increased with ripening in the plantain and banana cultivars, with their ripe and overripe stages having the highest values. Methanolic extracts of the plantain and banana cultivars showed higher antioxidant activity than that of aqueous extracts. The results obtained in this study showed that plantain and banana irrespective of the variety are good sources of antioxidants particularly when they are ripe and overripe.
Antimicrobial Efficacy of Guiera Senegalensis and Prosopis Africana Leave Extract on Some Bacterial Pathogens (Published)
The bioactive components of the leaves of Guiera senegalensis and Prosopis africana were extracted using ethanol, aqueous and crude extraction methods. Qualitative phytochemical analysis showed that extracts contain alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides and steroids, while glycosides and alkaloids were absent in P. africana and G. senegalensis respectively. Quantitative phytochemical analysis of G. senegalensis showed 1.352mg/100g of flavonoids and 14.59mg/100g of phenols. Prosopis africana quantitatively showed 3.041mg/100g flavonoids and 10.22mg/100g phenol content. The various extracts were investigated for their antibacterial activity using agar diffusion methods of susceptibility testing against the test organisms. The ethanolic extract of Prosopis africana demonstrated the highest activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhi (4.7mm, 4mm and 4mm zones of inhibition respectively) while the least activity was demonstrated by aqueous extract against Escherichia coli (1mm inhibition zone). The ethanolic extract of G. senegalensis also inhibited Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli with (3.5mm, 3mm, and 2.8mm of zones of inhibitions respectively). The crude and the aqueous extracts of both plants showed lower zones of inhibition against all the three organisms. This study shows that the use of G. senegalensis and Prosopis africana leaves as traditional medicine has a lot of potential in treatment of antimicrobial infections with further standardization.
INVESTIGATION ON THE MEDICINAL AND NUTRITIONAL POTENTIALS OF SOME VEGETABLES CONSUMED IN EKITI STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
Nine medicinally important vegetables consumed in Ekiti State, Nigeria were analyzed to determine their proximate and phytochemical contents using standard analytical procedure. These vegetables are Corchorus. olitorious L., Cnidoscolus acontifolius Mill., Vernonia amygdalina L., Cucurbita pepo L., Ocimum gratissimum L., Senecio biafrae Olive & Heirn., Moringa oleifera L., Telfaria occidentalis Hook. F. and Hibiscus asper Hook. F.. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of reducing sugar in all the plant samples analyzed. Saponins and tannins were discovered in four of the plant samples. Seven of the nine plants have philobatannins and cardiac glycosides while alkaloids and steroids were detected in two samples. Anthroquinine was absent in all the vegetable plants. Quatitative phytochemical analysis further revealed reducing sugar, tannins, flavonoids, saponins alkanoids and phenols composition in different proportions, with values ranging from 141.88 mg/100g to 210.07 mg/100g, 44.05 mg/100g to 70.89 mg/100g, 11.71 mg/100g to 41.08 mg/100g, 0.76 mg/100g to 5.88 mg/100g, 163.77 mg/100g to 269.86 mg/100g, and 110.43 mg/100g to 116.68 mg/100g respectively. The percentage proximate values for moisture content, ash, crude fat, crude protein crude fibre and carbohydrate content in the leaves ranged from 50.20% to 88.30%, 7.67% to 10.17%, 1.53% to 4.99%, 13.70% to 24.90%, 10.10% to 21.81% and 40.99% to 53.04% respectively. The results of the study lend credence to the significance of the nine vegetables in the treatments and prevention of various ailments and diseases. Furthermore, high protein, fibre, carbohydrates and low fat contents justify their nutritional importance in human daily diet.
Comparative Studies of the Antimicrobial Activities of Different Chewing Sticks on Some Selected Pathogenic Microorganisms (Review Completed - Accepted)
The crude aqueous and methanol extract of the chewing sticks were assessed for antimicrobial activity and the active principles present in them. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol and aqueous extract of ten (10) different types of chewing sticks were determined against a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The extract was tested against bacteria likeStapylococcusaureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, βeta. haemolytic streptococcus, Bacillus subtilisATCC 6633, ShigellaflexneriATCC 12022, SerratiamarscenceATCC 39006, EnterobacteraerogensATCC 13045, Proteus mirabilisATCC 2598, and fungi such as Candida albicans, Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillusniger, and Aspergillusfumigatus. The methanol crude extract of the chewing sticks have greater zone of inhibition compare with the aqueous extracts. All plants tested displayed antimicrobial activityes against one or more of the tested organisms but Fagarazanthoxyloidesshows greater antibacterial against Escherichia coli 40mm, Stapylococcusaureus34mm, while Disthemonanthusbenthamianusdisplayed the highest antifungal activity against Candida albican with 11mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each active values were as well determined using agar well diffusion method. The chewing sticks contain antimicrobial agents though the concentration and composition of the bioactive substances may differ amongst the plants.The result showed that the extract of the plants also possessed some active principles such as tannin, phenol, steroid, saponin, alkaloid, anthraquinones. Thus, the chewing sticks extract may serve as sources for chemotherapeutic agents for the management of Orofacial infections caused by broad spectrum pathogenic organisms and could also be suitable for better dental care. It is concluded that methanol extract and aqueous extract of the chewing sticks exhibited significant amount of antimicrobial and trace amount of antifungal.
Hepatoprotective and Antidiarrhogenic Property of Aqueous Extract of Anacardium Occidentale (Linn.) (Review Completed - Accepted)
The aqueous extract from leaves of Anacardium occidentale was evaluated for inhibitory activity against Bacillus cereus and also the extent of damage to internal organs if consumed orally was investigated. The percentage yield of the extract was found to be 8% of the total mass. Phytochemical screening of the extract reveals the presence of bioactive molecules like alkaloids, tannin, saponin, anthraquinone, phenol and cardiac glycoside. The extract was found to inhibit the growth of the B. cereus in vivo. The extract was tested in-vivo against Bacillus cereus after determining the Infectivity dose 50 (ID50) of the organism on albino rats. The weights of the animals were found to be treatment dependent. The control group has constant weight increase throughout the days of the experiment while group infected with Bacillus has constant decrease in weight from the onset of infection. Haematological analysis of the blood revealed that an increase in the packed cell volume (PCV) of the infected animals but treated with the extract while there was reduction in the PCV of the untreated group. The total white blood cell (WBC) was also determined which was found to be higher in the group inoculated with the bacterium. The plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST) was also measured to liver disease in the infected group and also the group that were administered with drug. Histopathological analysis was also carried out on the major organs like the liver and intestine which showed the extent of damage on the organs pictorially. The extract was found to be toxic as indicated by the observed necrotic lesion in the organs of treated group coupled with the increase in the level of the enzyme markers. The study justifies the use of leaf of Anacardium in traditional medicine.