Phytochemical Screening, Proximate and Mineral Compositional Analyses of Phyllanthus Niruri Leaves (Published)
Potent antimalarial effectiveness of aqueous leaf extract of P. niruri plant was recently demonstrated in this laboratory. As a prelude to detailed mechanistic studies of this aqueous leaf extract, an in-house phytochemical, proximate and mineral compositional analyses of P. niruri leaf samples, by AOAC procedures were hereto undertaken. Results of phytochemical screening of the leaf samples revealed the presence of alkaloids, tanins, antraquinones, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids. Proximate analysis showed percentage values of moisture, ash, crude fibre, ether extract, crude protein, nitrogen free extract and carbohydrate contents. Mineral compositional analysis revealed the presence (mg/l) of major and minor elements, Zn, Fe, Na, Mn, K, Mg, Ca, and Cu, in natural blend. These results show potentials of P. niruri leaf samples and suggesting it as a good source for mineral supplementation. These findings may also explain some basis of antimalarial properties of aqueous extract of P. niruri leaves.
Keywords: Phytochemical screening, aqueous leaf extract, phyllanthus niruri, proximate and mineral analyses
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE PLANT EXTRACT OF ALTERNANTHERA REPENS (Published)
Methanolic extract of the plant Alternanthera repens was obtained using the cold method of extraction. The bioactivity of the extracts was tested against bacterial isolates namely: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Proteus mirabilis. The agar well diffusion method was used for the in-vitro antibacterial bioassay and it revealed that the extract was able to inhibit the growth of the test organisms at a concentration of 25.0 mg/ml except Escherichia coli, Streptococcus faecalis, and Salmonella typhi which were resistant. The extract had the highest zone of inhibition (30mm) on Staphylococcus aureus, followed by Klebsiella pneumonia and Bacillus subtilis with 26.0 mm and 25.0 mm respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the plant extract ranged from 25.0 to 3.125 mg/ml. The antibacterial activity of the methanolic plant extract compared favourably well with commercial antibiotics. The rate of killing of the plant extract on the isolates showed a decrease in the bacterial count with an increase in the exposure time to the extract. Phytochemical screening tests showed the presence of saponins, alkaloids, salkowski, and keller killianie in the plant extract
Keywords: Antibacterial, Phytochemical screening, Rate of killing, Zone of inhibition