Comparative Analysis of Water Quality from Harvested Rain and Borehole Water in Owerri-West, Imo State (Published)
The growing global population in a bid to solve the challenge of water shortage has resorted to groundwater and rainwater considering their benefits. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the quality of harvested rainwater and underground water (borehole) in Owerri-west in order to ascertain their portability in the light of WHO (2010) drinking water standard. Groundwater and rainwater samples were collected from Ihiagwa, Obinze and Nekede and analysed for physicochemical and microbial quality. These samples were analyzed using laboratory analytical techniques as recommended by World Health Organization and American Public Health Association. The result from the analysis showed that the Heterotrophic Bacterial Counts (cfu/ml) of water samples were BH (6.58%), Aluminum (11.84%), Zinc (19.74%), Asbestos (28.95%) and Thatched (32.89%). Out of the four bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermis) observed in all the water samples, Escherichia coli had the highest number of occurrence of 126(82.89) cfu/ml. All the physicochemical parameters analyzed conformed to the recommended standard value apart from pH value from borehole, and the rainwater sample from thatched roofing sheet with turbidity (10.3 NTU), objectionable taste and odour, and a general appearance that was not clear. The results observed showed the sequence of quality of groundwater and rainwater as Borehole > Aluminum > Zinc > Asbestos > Thatched. Generally, groundwater was more potable than harvested rainwater within the study area. This study however suggests that drinking water sources should be properly treated especially harvested rainwater prior to consumption using appropriate method in order to reduce the occurrence of waterborne disease.
Relationship of Sodium Carbonate SRC with Some Physicochemical, Rheological and Gelatinization Properties of Flour and Its Impact on End Quality of Biscuit (Published)
Chemists are always in search of simple, rapid and inexpensive tests to replace time consuming, uneconomical and complex instrumental analysis. The present paper describes exploring possibilities of sodium carbonate Solvent retention capacity (SCSRC) test association with some physicochemical and rheological properties of flour in view of their sorption capacities. The results illustrated that SCSRC values based on flour’s multiple characteristics such as swelling power, water absorption, hydrophilicity and structural diversity of hydrophilic polymers affected rheological behaviour that predict end quality of biscuit. It was found that SCSRC was negatively correlated with flour moisture content and positively associated with water absorption capacity. Flour particle size (<125µm) also showed similar positive correlation. Farinograph’s other parameters were also significantly predictive considering only SCSRC value. Glutomatic proteins were not found associated with SCSRC. In conclusion it may be derived that SCSRC test stands parallel to some cumulative results achieved from Farinograph, MVAG and Kernelyzer.
Physicochemical and Microbiological Quality of Borehole Water Samples in Owerri North – West Local Government Area, Imo State, Nigeria (Published)
Assessment of the quality of borehole water samples from Federal Housing Estate and Sites and Services areas of Owerri North, Imo State, Nigeria was conducted to determine the suitability of these borehole water samples for human consumption. six samples of borehole water obtained from six different families living in these areas were analyzed for microbial, chemical and physicochemical parameters using standard analytical methods of Association of official Analytical chemists (AOAC). The result of microbial analysis revealed that all the water samples from Chuk’sresidence,Ebe’s residence, Uwuru’s residence,Okre’s residence, Agbu’s residence and Ngwe’s residence referred to as samples D, E, F, G, H, and M respectively had total coliform count of 64.0cfu/100ml, 5.0cfu/100ml, 41.0cfu/100ml, 16.0cfu/100ml, 124.0cfu/100ml and 0.0cfu/100ml respectively. This showed that sample D, F, G, and H exceeded the standard of 10 coliform counts/100ml. The entire samples resulted at 0 counts for Escherichia coli. Samples D, F, G and M tested negative for pseudomonas test, whereas samples E and H did not. The chemical analysis showed that all the samples did not meet up with the recommended standard of pH (6.5-8.5) by World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) and National Agency for Drug and Administration Control (NAFDAC).However, there was significant difference (p<0.5) between samples D and E. Samples F, G, J and M were not significantly different (p>0.5)from one another. Sample M was the least significant while sample D was the most significant at pH 4.6 and 6.4 respectively meaning that it is safe for consumption. The temperatures were not significantly different and did not exceed standard limit of 370C. The total dissolved solid also did not exceed the limit of 500ppm as recommended by World Health Organization /United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (WHO/UNICEF) and the conductivity limit was not exceeded. All the samples did not exceed limits for zinc, copper, lead, magnesium, cadmium and iron which are 3mg/l, 1mg/l, 0.01mg/l, 0.02mg/l, 0.03mg/l and 0.3mg/l respectively except for calcium, where samples D, E, G and H were beyond standard of 0.4mg/l. All the samples were significantly different for each parameter except for lead of which the entire sample were all the same. The depth of Sample G borehole was according to the regulatory standard of 150 ft., and from the analysis the entire parameters were within standard except for pH.The study concludes that increase in population in Federal Housing Area and Sites and Services Area in Owerri coupled with the rise in human activity pose a great pressure on provision of safe drinking water