Assessment of Physicochemical parameters in crude oil contaminated water samples of three communities of Ikpokpo, Atanba, and Okpele-ama of Gbaramatu Kingdom, along the Escravos River in Warri South West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
Background: Water plays a significant role in maintaining the human health and welfare. Due to increase in industrialization, urbanization and various human activities has increase the pollution of surface water and ground water (WHO, 1997). The aim of this study was to carry out the physicochemical analysis of crude oil contaminated water samples obtained from the crude oil contaminated sites of the three communities of Ikpokpo, Atanba and Okpele-ama of Gbaramatu Kingdom of Warri South West L.G.A of Delta State, Nigeria and determine its effects on the aforementioned communities and also to compare the results obtained with other sources of normal drinking water. Results: WHO maximum permissible limits for all the parameters are being presented in Table 1. The results of all the physicochemical parameters analysed using different analytical methods can be summarised as follows: From Table 3, pH of water has mean of 6.8, standard deviation of ±0.147 and the range value is from 6.0 to 7.0. Also, from table 5, the mean is 5.7 and range value is from 5.2 to 6.1, with standard deviation of ±0.354 respectively. Decrease or increase in pH values of water below or above the WHO permissible limits can result in a serious health related complications such as vomiting, cholera, diarrhoea, kidney and liver diseases, stomach cramps and nausea upon consumption. In table 3, the average value is 1.39NTU, the standard deviation is ±0.103NTU and the range is from 1.21NTU to 1.5NTU. The range of the results in Table 5 is from 27NTU to 40NTU and the mean or average value is 31NTU with standard deviation ±3.488NTU. Increased turbidity level in water is not desirable and can lead to some health related issues such as gastrointestinal diseases e.g. perianal abscesses, colitis. More so, from table 3, the mean value of temperature is 28.3˚C and the range is from 28oC to 28.7oC with standard deviation of ±0.248˚C. Furthermore, the results in table 5, has the standard deviation of ± 1.472˚C, the mean value is 32oC with ranges from 30˚C to 34oC respectively. The average value of electrical conductivity from Table 3 is 187µs/cm and the range is from 180µs/cm -193µs/cm with standard deviation of ±5.269 µs/cm, meanwhile, in Table 5, the standard deviation is ±3889.3µs/cm, average value of electrical conductivity is 24197.2µs/cm and the range is from 16871 to 27300µs/cm. These values are higher than the maximum permissible limits of electrical conductivity in water. The range of TSS values in Table 3 is from 17mg/L to 23mg/L and the mean value is 20.3mg/L with standard deviation of ±2.160mg/L. Upon comparison with the values of TSS from table 5, with mean 35.8mg/L, while the range is from 31mg/L to 40mg/L and standard deviation of ±1033.9mg/L, which were all above the ranges of WHO TSS limit in normal drinking water. This can serve as a growth medium for bacteria and other microorganisms. TDS in Table 3 has the mean value of 118mg/L, the range values from 110mg/L-125mg/L and the standard deviation is ±5.138. Also from table 5, the mean value of 17796.7mg/L and the ranges from 16400mg/L to 19500mg/L with standard deviation of ±2.898mg/L. High content of TDS values produces an unwanted taste and diluted colour in water, indicating that the water is mineralised as such; upon consumption of the water with high TDS limits, can result in health related complications like kidney and heart diseases. Conclusion: On the basis of findings, it was concluded that the crude oil contaminated water samples collected from the crude oil contaminated sites of the three communities aforesaid were all above the permissible limits (WHO, 1997). Meanwhile, the normal drinking water samples obtained within Kano Metropolis, used in benchmarking were consistent with WHO standards.
Study of Supplemented Yoghurt Production with Different Vegetables: Qualificationally and Sensationally (Published)
Yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, probiotic and organoleptic properties. This study was conducted to prepare vegetables yoghurt fortified with 10 % of different vegetables (fresh cucumber and garlic, cucumber and dried mint leaf, fresh green pepper and dried mint leaf, fried eggplant and garlic, cucumber-garlic and mint leaf, and all mixed vegetables as cocktail), compared with plain yoghurt without any addition. Physicochemical, sensory evaluation and microbiological properties were analyzes to assay the quality of yoghurt products. The total solid, pH and the acidity of vegetable yoghurts supplemented products were increased significantly than plain yoghurt. Statistical analysis showed that yoghurts supplemented with 10% of fried eggplant and garlic, and then cucumber mixed with garlic were more acceptable than others vegetables comparing all quality properties. Sensory evaluation of the yoghurt products was improved due to supplementation of 10 % of both eggplant and cucumber supplementation. The flavor, texture and consistency, acidity, appearance and the total of the yoghurt products were very good acceptable by the panelists. The period storage of supplemented yoghurt did not affect the quality significantly, which was a good index for producing those healthy dairy products. The microbiological determination of the vegetable yoghurt products was also acceptable and lay within the Iraqi quality standard, due to the increased acidity content of those dairy products. The findings of this study may give an overall idea about manufacturing of vegetables yoghurt supplementing 10% concentration and appropriate technology of vegetable preparation side to side with plain yoghurt.