Status of Discharged Abattoir Effluent and Its Effects on the Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Orogodo River, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
The discharge of untreated wastewater into waterbodies results in water quality deterioration of the receiving waters. This study assesses the impact of abattoir wastewater discharge on the water quality of Orogodo River in Nigeria. Effluent discharges and water samples were collected from river at six points over a 6-month period. Physicochemical analyses were conducted using standard methods. The pH was within a fixed band of 5.56 – 8.04. The downstream biochemical oxygen demand of the receiving river water increased significantly to 75% in July and up to 192% in December. Suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus followed a similar trend. Dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrate, also increased appreciably. The downstream levels of these parameters were higher than their corresponding upstream values, indicating that the discharge of the abattoir wastewater into the river has negatively impacted the river water. The dilution of the waste in the river water was not enough to reduce them to acceptable levels. This study demonstrates that abattoir wastewater impacts Orogodo River water negatively. The abattoir effluent did not meet the National standard for effluent discharge into the environment leading to cross pollution of the receiving water based on the parameters investigated. This therefore, calls for the need to put an effective wastewater treatment and monitoring system in place to enforce existing legislations to curb water pollution and to safeguard both the environment and human health.
Physico-Chemical and Mineral Composition of Arun Stream in Idanre Community, Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)
Arun stream was evaluated for its physico-chemical properties and mineral composition to know its suitability for human comsumption. The results obtained from the physical characteristics like colour, odour, taste, turbidity, temperature, conductivity and total Dissolve solids were within the permissible limits of World Health Organization (WHO) for drinkable water.The results for the chemical analysis were total hardness (22.00±0.20mg/l), calcium hardness (16.00±0.10mg/l) magnesium hardness (22.00±0.10mg/l), Nitrate (0.32±0.10mg/l), Sulphate was absent, chloride (8.99±0.20mg/l), total Alkalinity (6.00±0.10) and PH (7.80±0.20) respectively.The mineral composition Analyzed were Iron (0.02mg/l), Manganese (0.015±0.01mg/l), Copper(0.01±0.01mg/l), calcium (6.4mg/l±0.10),Magnesium (1.46±0.10mg/l) and sodium (5.84±0.10mg/l) for Arun stream respectively. These values were below WHO specification for drinkable water.
Physico-Chemical, Antibacteriail Activity and Fatty Acid Composition of Oil Extracted From Sprouted Ackee Apple (Blighia sapida) (Published)
Blighia sapida seed has been reported to have some levels of toxic substances when consumed. Most of these substances can be transferred to the oil during extraction thereby increasing the health risk of the oil. Sprouted Blighia sapida seed oil was evaluated to see if the reactions that take place during germination could reduce this toxic effect and increase its industrial values. These results were obtained for the physico-chemical properties: Oil Yield (%)(15.500±0.02), Refractive index (1.4615±0.01), Specific gravity (0.9140±0.01), Acid value(mg/g)(25.10000.10), Iodine value(g/100g)(27.50100.20), Saponification value(mg/g)(225.30000.20), Peroxide value(mmol/kg)(4.24000.20) and Free fatty acid(mg/g)(oleic)( 7.07820.10) respectively. The Fatty acid composition of the oil were Palmitic Acid (C16:0)( 32.3349), Stearic Acid (C18:0)( 5.2555), Arachidic Acid(C20:0)(0.8528), Behenic Acid (C22:0)(0.6326) and Lignoceric acid(C24:0)(0.3061) as polysaturated fatty acid with abundance in Palmitic Acid respectively. The monounsaturated fatty acid were Oleic Acid (C18:1)( 45.7362), Palmitoleic Acid (C16:1)(0.7655), Erucic Acid (C22:1)(0.4601) and Linoleic Acid (C18:2)(11.6010) and Lenolenic Acid (C18:3)(0.9773) as polyunsaturated fatty acid. The antibacterial activity of the oil from Blighia sapida seed indicated that the oil is susceptible to some pathogenic organism like Escherichia Coli(4.00 0.01) and Staphylococcus aureus (2.00 0.02), but had no effect on Proteus, Pseudomonas Spp and Klebsiella pneumonia. These results indicated that the oil from sprouted Blighia sapida seed had industrial and pharmaceutical value than the raw Blighia sapida seed oil.
Physico-Chemical Analysis of Soils Proximate to Artisanal Refining Plants in Southern Nigeria (Published)
The physico-chemical analysis of the impacted soil in Bodo community was carried out due to severe degradation of the environment and the aesthetic destruction of the terrestrial environment, the need to access the effect of non-conventional refining plants on the physico-chemical parameters of the soil. The pH, conductivity, total nitrogen, phosphate, cation exchange capacity and so on were analyzed using the standard method. From the result, it was observed that the impacted soil recorded mean and standard error as 54.1258 and 24.162 respectively while the non-impacted soil recorded 18.4176 and 6.323 respectively. Amongst the physical parameters, soil textural analysis revealed that the soil is mainly sandy loamy and small percentage of clay loamy. This therefore requires appropriate remediation measures to avoid infiltration into the groundwater.
MODELLING AND SIMULATION OF SOIL AND SEDIMENT EXPORTED THROUGH STREAM FLOW, CHANGES IN THE RIVER FLOW AND IN EXPORTED PHYSICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS: LONG TERM ENVIRONMENTAL IMPLICATIONS AND MITIGATIONS STRATEGIES: CASE OF THE RIVER MEWOU (SOUTH MIFI) IN THE WESTERN TROPICAL HIGHLANDS OF CAMEROON (Published)
This study aims at determining the impact on water, agriculture and the environment of the soil constituents exported by the Mewou river on the southern Mifi through modeling of the changes in the river flow and in the exported physico-chemical constituents and to identify mitigate strategies. The average exported soils varied in t/km2 from 195.34 in 2011 to 256.02 in 2012. The flow variation of water and chemical constituents were each characterized by a general equation with a model:
Y = a*t9+b*t8+c*t7+d*t6+e*t5+f*t4+g*t3+h*t2+i*t+j
Environmental pollution was identified by water turbidity, 146.9 NTU, and in mg/l Organic matter 2.33, Cd2+ 11, Pb2+ 48.20, NH4+ 2.8, PT 0.84, Al3+ 0.593, NO2- 4.645. It is recommended that to mitigate soil loss, pollution and increase recharge of water table, the use of Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides) hedges and by installation of wastewater treatment plants by each industry and the Municipal council for the household wastes.
PRODUCTION OF FLOUR TYPES FROM BLACK BEAN (PHASEOLUS VULGARIS) AND EFFECT OF PH AND TEMPERATURE ON FUNCTIONAL PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF THE FLOURS (Published)
The Black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds were processed into full fat flour, defatted flour, protein concentrate and protein isolate. The physico-chemical and functional properties of some of the flour samples were investigated. The effects of pH and temperature on some functional properties of the samples were also examined. The protein content of the concentrate and isolate had a higher value of 47.50% and 78.01% respectively compared with full fat and defatted flour that had 22.70 ± 0.00% and 24.51± 0.01% respectively. The protein concentrate and isolate have no fat and fibre content. The protein, carbohydrate, moisture, fat and fibre content had significant difference on different flour samples at p<0.05. The water absorption capacity had significant difference on the defatted and full fat flour at p<0.05. The effect of temperature on the water absorption of the flours increased with increasing temperature. There is decrease in wettability with increase in temperature as well foaming capacity which increased with increasing temperature. The effect of pH had higher wettability and foaming capacity. pH lowered water absorption and swelling index of the defatted and full fat flour. The black bean flour had good functional properties and thereby can be used in the food system.