Tag Archives: Physico-chemical parameters

Environmental Impact of Microbes on Awba Dam: It’s Effect on Ecotourism (Published)

Recreational use of water is often given inadequate consideration and care. This is of particular concern as the recreational use of water is becoming  popular in Nigeria . Many of these are increasingly contaminated by domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study is therefore relevant in assessing the environmental impact of microbes on ecotourism in Awba dam. A total of nine water (n=9) and soil (n= 9) samples were collected at entry, middle and the end of the Awba dam for heavy metal analysis and microbial assay. Samples were assessed for heavy metals using an official procedure and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total aerobic plate count, Isolation and characterization of strains was done using standard methods. For enumeration of E. coliO157:H7, colonies were characterized using standard methods. The direct slide agglutination technique was utilized for serology. The presumptive E. coli isolates  were subjected to agglutination tests with specific E. coli O157:H7 . For the antibiotic sensitivity test, the Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion method was used to test the sensitivity of the isolates. Statistical analysis of ANOVA was used  and Duncan multiple range test was used to separate the means. All the values obtained for the total aerobic count and total coliform count for soil and water  were higher than EPA recommended value for recreational waters. For the antibiotic Sensitivity Profile, isolates from Awba dam showed the highest sensitivity (16.17mm) to ciprofloxacin while lowest was with Augmentine (8.25mm).Furthermore the isolate from the control point showed highest sensitivity to  CPR and NIT ( 14mm) and least for AUG (5mm) Generally, E.coliO157:H7 isolates were highly sensitive to Oflatoxin and Ciproflaxin(93.3%) while the isolate was completely resistant to Ampicilin and Cefuroxime.  The presence of E.coliO157:H7 in the dam can make the dam unfit for recreational activities and also for the community household chores, if not well treated . The University management should device means of controlling waste water that enters into the dam by providing alternate channels of discharge .This will reduce the growth and spread of the microbes in the soil and water of the dam.

Keywords: E. coli O157:H7, Ecotourism, Heavy Metals, Microbes, Physico-chemical parameters, Total Coliform Count

Environmental Impact of Microbes on Awba Dam; Its Effect on Ecotourism (Published)

Recreational use of water is often given inadequate consideration and care. This is of particular concern as the recreational use of water is becoming  popular in Nigeria. Many of these are increasingly contaminated by domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study is therefore relevant in assessing the environmental impact of microbes on ecotourism in Awba dam. A total of nine water (n=9) and soil (n= 9) samples were collected at entry, middle and the end of the Awba dam for heavy metal analysis and microbial assay. Samples were assessed for heavy metals using an official procedure and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total aerobic plate count, Isolation and characterization of strains was done using standard methods. For enumeration of E. coliO157:H7, colonies were characterized using standard methods. The direct slide agglutination technique was utilized for serology. The presumptive E. coli isolates  were subjected to agglutination tests with specific E. coli O157:H7 . For the antibiotic sensitivity test, the Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion method was used to test the sensitivity of the isolates. Statistical analysis of ANOVA was used  and Duncan multiple range test was used to separate the means. All the values obtained for the total aerobic count and total coliform count for soil and water were higher than EPA recommended value for recreational waters. For the antibiotic Sensitivity Profile, isolates from Awba dam showed the highest sensitivity (16.17mm) to ciprofloxacin while lowest was with Augmentine (8.25mm).Furthermore the isolate from the control point showed highest sensitivity to  CPR and NIT ( 14mm) and least for AUG (5mm) Generally, E.coliO157:H7 isolates were highly sensitive to Oflatoxin and Ciproflaxin(93.3%) while the isolate was completely resistant to Ampicilin and Cefuroxime.  The presence of E.coliO157:H7 in the dam can make the dam unfit for recreational activities and also for the community household chores, if not well treated . The University management should device means of controlling waste water that enters into the dam by providing alternate channels of discharge .This will reduce the growth and spread of the microbes in the soil and water of the dam.

Keywords: E. coli O157:H7, Heavy Metals, Physico-chemical parameters, Total Coliform Count

Environmental Impact of Microbes on Awba Dam; Its Effect on Ecotourism (Published)

Recreational use of water is often given inadequate consideration and care. This is of particular concern as the recreational use of water is becoming popular in Nigeria. Many of these are increasingly contaminated by domestic sewage and industrial effluents. This study is therefore relevant in assessing the environmental impact of microbes on ecotourism in Awba dam. A total of nine water (n=9) and soil (n= 9) samples were collected at entry, middle and the end of the Awba dam for heavy metal analysis and microbial assay. Samples were assessed for heavy metals using an official procedure and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total aerobic plate count, Isolation and characterization of strains was done using standard methods. For enumeration of E. coliO157:H7, colonies were characterized using standard methods. The direct slide agglutination technique was utilized for serology. The presumptive E. coli isolates were subjected to agglutination tests with specific E. coli O157:H7 . For the antibiotic sensitivity test, the Bauer-Kirby disc diffusion method was used to test the sensitivity of the isolates. Statistical analysis of ANOVA was used and Duncan multiple range test was used to separate the means. All the values obtained for the total aerobic count and total coliform count for soil and water were higher than EPA recommended value for recreational waters. For the antibiotic Sensitivity Profile, isolates from Awba dam showed the highest sensitivity (16.17mm) to ciprofloxacin while lowest was with Augmentine (8.25mm).Furthermore the isolate from the control point showed highest sensitivity to CPR and NIT ( 14mm) and least for AUG (5mm) Generally, E.coliO157:H7 isolates were highly sensitive to Oflatoxin and Ciproflaxin(93.3%) while the isolate was completely resistant to Ampicilin and Cefuroxime. The presence of E.coliO157:H7 in the dam can make the dam unfit for recreational activities and also for the community household chores, if not well treated . The University management should device means of controlling waste water that enters into the dam by providing alternate channels of discharge .This will reduce the growth and spread of the microbes in the soil and water of the dam.

Keywords: E. coli O157:H7, Heavy Metals, Physico-chemical parameters, Total Coliform Count

EFFECTS OF ANTIBIOTIC ON BACTERIAL FLORA IN MRIGAL FISH (CIRHINUS CIRHOSUS, BLOCH, 1795) UNDER LABORATORY CONDITION (Published)

The Study was conducted on the effects of antibiotic on bacterial flora under laboratory condition. Oxytetracycline (OTC), the most widely used antibiotic, was fed to the Mrigal (average body weight 25g) at the rate of 2g/kg through fish diet and bacterial content was estimated for a period of 20days.Total 8 aquariums were used, where 3 aquariums for control and 5 aquariums for replication of the treatment. Physico-chemical parameters of aquarium water were determined where temperature,of culture aquariums were more or less similar.Before antibiotic treatment dissolve oxygen (DO), pH and total hardness was 7.80±0.10mg/l, 4.10±0.10, and890.00±10.00ppm, respectively which reached a value 9.90±0.10mg/l, 5.90±0.10and 710.00±10.00ppm, respectively indicating the changes after 20 days. Prior to antibiotic treatment,bacterial load was 2.90±0.06×103cfu/ml in aquarium water, 6.90±0.20×105cfu/g in fish gills, 4.70±0.10×107cfu/g in fish intestine,and 85.25±3.38×105in fish skin respectively which was Significantly reduced to 1.25±0.03×103cfu/ml in water, 5.42±0.20×105cfu/g in gills, 3.33±0.05×107 cfu/g in intestine, and 11.24±0.01×105in fish skin respectively after 20 daystreatment period. Water and fish samples were also analyzed for bacteria were completely absent before and after antibiotic treatments

Keywords: : Antibiotic, Bacterial load, Cirhinus cirhosus, Physico-chemical parameters

Effects of antibiotic on bacterial flora in mrigal fish (Cirhinus cirhosus, Bloch, 1795) under laboratory condition (Review Completed - Accepted)

The Study was conducted on the effects of antibiotic on bacterial flora under laboratory condition. Oxytetracycline (OTC), the most widely used antibiotic, was fed to the Mrigal (average body weight 25g) at the rate of 2g/kg through fish diet and bacterial content was estimated for a period of 20days.Total 8 aquariums were used, where 3 aquariums for control and 5 aquariums for replication of the treatment. Physico-chemical parameters of aquarium water were determined where temperature,of culture aquariums were more or less similar.Before antibiotic treatment dissolve oxygen (DO), pH and total hardness was 7.80±0.10mg/l, 4.10±0.10,

and890.00±10.00ppm, respectively which reached a value 9.90±0.10mg/l, 5.90±0.10and 710.00±10.00ppm, respectively indicating the changes after 20 days. Prior to antibiotic treatment,

bacterial load was 2.90±0.06×103cfu/ml in aquarium water, 6.90±0.20×105cfu/g in fish gills, 4.70±0.10×107cfu/g in fish intestine,and 85.25±3.38×105in fish skin respectively which was

Significantly reduced to 1.25±0.03×103cfu/ml in water, 5.42±0.20×105cfu/g in gills, 3.33±0.05×107 cfu/g in intestine, and 11.24±0.01×105in fish skin respectively after 20 daystreatment period. Water and fish samples were also analyzed for bacteria were completely absent before and after antibiotic treatments.

 

Keywords: : Antibiotic, Bacterial load, Cirhinus cirhosus, Physico-chemical parameters