This report tends to focus on human-animal relationship by discussing how subversively the protagonist, David Lurie’s attitude toward animals changes, and how his attitude reflects life and ecological philosophy in Disgrace, which presents the chaos and complicated phenomena in South Africa society involving male-female, father-daughter, white-black, city-country, and human-animal relationship. Referring to life philosophy, there is no option but submission in living beings’ route to death. In other words, there is no apparent difference between the existence of animals and human beings especially when facing formidable or unavoidable external forces. Through writing materials concerning animals as creatures abjectly suffering from pain, captivity and death at the hands of humans, Coetzee provides readers space to imagine how animal beings might feel at the moment of torture instead of delectation. However, transition of David’s attitude toward animals from indifference to solicitude, and from solicitude to euthanasia elucidates how animal living and dying could be looked upon in human society and logic of ethic.
Religious Philosophy of Tipu Sultan (Published)
The religious philosophy of Tipu Sultan has not been examined in a truthful and objective manner by the historians who have developed caste based prejudices in India. Tipu was a great patron of Hindu religion and provided financial assistance to several Hindu and other religious institutions and activities. He recruited a good number of Hindu officials to manage the revenue, defence and other branches of administration. He carried out the administration of Mysore state with due respect to nationalism and secularism. Several Hindu scholars have observed that Tipu had endeavored his best for the unity of the Muslims and the Hindus. He had used the state power for social reforms. He carried out social reformation on the basis of humanity and rationality. There are several historical evidences which prove that Tipu had tolerated the practice of Hindu religion within his own territory and became popular with all his subjects. Tipu’s religious policy assumes great significance in the present times since the ruling class has posed series of threats to secularism, pluralism, humanism and other values of life.
Philosophical Issues in Yoruba Proverbs (Published)
This paper is a philosophical analysis of Yoruba proverbs. It argues that Yoruba proverbs have philosophical issues that cut across epistemology, metaphysics, ethics, logic, aesthetics and so on. Western philosophy has basically been classified into metaphysics, epistemology and ethics. In the same vein, Yoruba proverbs though, oral in nature, when critically analyze points to basic philosophy- to metaphysics, to ethics to epistemology and to socio-political character of the Yoruba people. An inquiry into Yoruba proverbs gives an insight to various philosophical issues. It also substantiates the fact that despite the absence of writing tradition, certain traditional thoughts justify the existence of African philosophy. Thus, like various issues of concern in Western philosophy intends, Yoruba proverbs provide philosophical means by which, unity, peaceful co-existence and good virtue can be promoted in the individual and this will lead to the attainment of social order in the society.
The focus of this paper is not to ascertain the reality of Ifa among the Yoruba, but to examine the philosophical relevance of Ifa corpus from epistemological and metaphysical points of view. The paper employs a critical and analytical methods to expose various philosophical issues in Ifa corpus. The paper argues that the metaphysical and epistemological relevance of Ifa corpus is enormous and the effect is fundamental in showing that true knowledge can be acquired through the empirical and transcendental means. The ability of Ifa corpus in this regard underscore the traditional claim of existence of basic relationship between epistemology and metaphysics.
The constructivism philosophical paradigm is an efficient tool that can yield many benefits when implemented in the carrying out of research in diverse field of study as well as in undertaking teaching and learning activities at any educational level. There was the need to adopt the qualitative research’s powerful tool thus, document analysis to present a literature review on the subject to enlighten researchers and teachers of the great imports, rich and useful information that they can glean from this vibrant paradigm of philosophy. The paper projects, how researchers can be coached with this philosophical paradigm in their selection of research design, instrumentation, theoretical framework and data analysis procedures. It recommends viable instructional strategies that teachers can employ for instructing learners in the constructivist approach. The paper contends strongly that the constructivism philosophical paradigm provides a firm foundation for researches, especially in humanities, education and other behavioral researches while maximizing students’ learning outcomes when employed in teaching and learning activities.
Restorative justice represents a new paradigm against the criminality, born and developed in the ground of the failure of punitive justice. As such, it brings a new ideology in the fight against crime, revealing a new perception for the offense, upon which takes life the restorative philosophy. The latter brings a very complex mechanism of action, whose ideals are manifested in the restorative programmes. Thus, the restorative justice satisfies its framework, in the theoretical viewpoint, as well as in the practical one, prompting its way to success. However, it remains a new ideology, still not affirmed and therefore it needs more promotion. In this regard, this paper aims to realize a framework of restorative justice, in the theoretical point of view, as well as in the practical one, to further highlight its problems and needs in the future.
This paper attempts to examine the representation of theme of hope and optimism in Dickenson’s poetry by showing some comparisons and contrasts among different of her poems. This theme is motivated by poet’s own life and her judgments of life respectively. The purpose of analyzing this theme has been to explore how poet has used different contrastive associations in order to define her theme each time differently in her poems. The focus was on a specific term “optimism”, considering hope: its loose synonym as a focal point to analyze. The perspectives of hope described in the poems have been studied with reference to characteristic features of hope mentioned according to the, contexts, choice of words, stylistic features, and intentions of the poet herself.
Nissim Ezekiel is known as father of modern Indian English Poetry and also Post-independence Indian English Poetry. Displaying a dedication of heroic dimension to his vocation, he has created an oeuvre remarkable for its range and depth. He is the source of inspiration for the contemporary Indian English Poets. In his poems we find a wide range of religious and spiritual values, philosophical thought and east –west encounter with some oriental attitude. His poems are a piece of perfection as he rises above his personal limitations and his vision surpasses the surrounding limitations. He is against hypocrisy and dilemma as shown in his poetry. In this paper, I have tried to show his phenomena of mind and matter with psychological and oriental bent of mind through some of his everlasting verse.
As human beings, the first social group by which we are identified is culture. Being a way of life that brings out the uniqueness in a people, it is meant to be progressive. Philosophy is a tool that is necessarily needed to fine-tune culture in order to raise it to certain level of objectivity. Notwithstanding the influence of western civilization on Africa, critically analyzing certain concepts, we aver that the preservation of culture is hinged on progressive intellectual discourse, lest our cultures face threat of extinction and remains a dormant tradition.