Heavy Metals pH-Mediated Microbial-Remediation in Septic Tank Effluents (Published)
This paper studied the role of pH in the microbial remediation of heavy metals in septic tank effluents from three sample locations in the south-south region of Nigeria. The region is famous for agriculture, industrial and auto-mechanic activities leading to the uptake and bioaccumulation of heavy metal contaminants through the food chain. Heavy metals concentrations, pH, and microbial analysis in effluent samples, were determined using standard methods. The material balance approach (see Supplementary Information) was adopted to account for analytes remediation and speciation in the system according to the Law of Conservation of Mass (Matter). The pH of the study area ranged from 6.5 to 7.7. The pH conditions in location A was alkaline, while locations B and C were slightly acidic. Iron was the most abundant metal with a concentration range of 0.01 to 0 9.41 mg/L. The order of magnitude of heavy metals in the septic tanks in the study area is Fe > Pb > Cr > Zn > Cd > Mn > Cu > Ni > V. Metal removal mechanism followed the metal-microbes adsorption and precipitation processes dictated by the in situ pH of the system. Total heterotrophic bacteria were the most dominant in the septic tanks. A removal coefficient of ≤ 0.33 (i.e, 0 < x ≤ 0.33 (where x ≠ 0)) was considered optimum. The percentage metal ion removal was inversely proportional to the removal coefficient and vice versa. Acidic conditions favoured the sequestration of more heavy metals from the effluent and the attainment of the 67.0 % and 0.33 removal efficiency thresholds. Finally, the heavy metals concentrations were indicative of bioaccumulation. Secondly, the pH conditions are not ideal enough to cause the efficient remediation of heavy metals from effluents. Further treatment of the sludge component before disposal is seriously advocated.
Assessment of the Impact of Gas Flaring on the pH, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn Concentrations in the Rainwaters of Jeddo Community, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
This paper is focused on the possible impact of gas flaring on the pH, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn concentrations in the rainwaters of Jeddo community, Delta State, Nigeria. The Rainwater samples were collected from two locations in the community. The samples were then taken to the laboratory for analyses. The result for the pH for both samples of Rainwater 1 (R1) and Rainwater 2 (R2) (which are 6.20 and 6.00 respectively) showed that their pH did not comply with the acceptable limits of World Health Organization (WHO, 2003), National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA, 2011), Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR, 2002) and Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality (NSDQW, 2007). The result also showed that Cd, Pb and Mn all complied with WHO (2003), NESREA (2011), DPR (2002) and NSDQW (2007) domestic/recreational water quality limits; while the values of Cu, Zn and Fe metals generally did not comply with the safety standards.
Utilization of Diluted Distillery Spentwash as Liquid Fertilizer for Enhancing Soil Fertility (Published)
India is a major producer and consumer of sugar in the world. Effluent originating from distilleries known as spentwash. The aqueous distillery effluent, spentwash is a dark brown highly organic effluent. It is one of the most complex, troublesome and strongest organic effluent. A huge amount of spent wash has been produced by the distilleries in India whose disposal into water bodies or land causes a number of environmental problems. Now-a-days emphasis is laid on waste minimization and revenue generation through byproduct recovery. The distillery spentwash can be utilized in agriculture for irrigation purposes, as fertilizer, a source of renewable energy and as manure. Hence a laboratory study was conducted at Department of Agronomy, Annamalai University to know the quality (pH and EC) of effluents for the purpose of proper treatment and dilution of effluent before discharge into water or field. The various dilutions of spentwash and water was taken in a ratio of 1:0, 1:10, 1:20, 1:30, 1:40, 1:50. The pH and EC were analyzed using pH meter and electrical conductivity meter. The dilution of spentwash and water at a ratio of 1:0 (untreated) showed a pH of 4.2 and EC of 38 dS m-1 which indicated as acidic in nature. A ratio of 1:50 showed pH of 7.57 and EC of 33.45 dS m-1 which is neutral and it is used in agriculture as fertigation and also served as fertilizers without any adverse effects.
Experimental Analysis of Chemical De-Emulsification Using Polymerization and Sulfonation Methods on Niger Delta Crude Oil (Published)
This technical paper evaluates the effects of salt concentrations and PH on water separation efficiency. The laboratory measurements were carried out on chemical de-emulsification using polymerization and sulfonation methods on the Niger Delta crude oil. Chemical de-emulsification was then carried out at the temperature of 65OC, using different salt concentrations for 120 minutes. And the results depicts that water separation increases with decrease in salt concentration but increases with the PH of the solution. Also, Heavy Alkyl Benzene Sulfonated (HAS) and Linear Alkyl Benzene Sulfonated (LAS) gave 90% and 88.3% of water separation respectively. PPA prepared by polymerization gave 75%. This shows that HAS is the best followed by LAS while PPA is the least in terms of water separation efficiency
Various parameters such as concentration of slurry, pH, moisture, total solids, temperature, and C/N ratio are among the main parameters affecting biogas production. The carbon and nitrogen contents of various biogas feedstocks were determined using standard methods and the volume of biogas produced by the substrates were measured using the graduated gas cylinder. The results show that carbon to nitrogen ratio affects the volume of the generated biogas. The production of biogas depends to a large extent, on the choice of feedstock and its carbon to nitrogen ratio.
Various parameters such as concentration of slurry, pH, moisture, total solids, temperature, C/N ratio are among the main parameters affecting biogas production. The carbon and nitrogen contents of various biogas feedstocks were determined using standard methods and the volume of biogas produced by the substrates were measured using the graduated gas cylinder. The results show that carbon to nitrogen ratio affects the volume of the generated biogas. The production of biogas depends to a large extent, on the choice of feedstock and its carbon to nitrogen ratio.