Tag Archives: pesticides

Determination of Selected Pesticide Residues in Leafy Vegetables (Amaranthus Spinosus) Consumed In Donga, Taraba State (Published)

Pesticides are a numerous and diverse group of chemical compounds which are used to eliminate pests in crop yields and households. But owing to this and other injudicious practice related to pesticide usage, pesticides become the inner part of vegetables in the shape of residues, which could be consumed by consumers thus creating health hazards. Hence, we investigated the presence of selected pesticide residues in leafy vegetable (Amaranthus spinosus) samples consumed in Donga, Taraba state, Nigeria. Five samples of leafy vegetable 50g each (AmaranthusSpinosus) which is an extensively grown vegetable in Donga local government area were collected from a vegetable farm situated about Ten meters away from Donga River. Information on the types of pesticides used on the collected samples was obtained from the farmer via oral interview. After the samples were collected, dusts on the samples were removed by washing with distilled water prior to placing them into polythene nylons. The samples were double packed in order to prevent any other contamination from coming in contact with them. The packaged samples were then labeled properly. The samples were transported to the laboratory using a cold box for analysis. The Acetate-buffered QuEChERS sample preparation method for pesticides (AOAC official method 2007.01) was used for preparing the samples, while for liquid chromatography analysis; an Agilent 1100 HPLC system was used. Nineteen pesticide residues were found present in the leafy vegetable samples analyzed. The descending order of their concentrations in the analyzed samples read; Gamma-HCH ˃ alpha-HCH ˃ methoxychlor ˃ beta-HCH ˃ DDT ˃ DDD ˃ perthane ˃ cyclohexane ˃ toxaphene ˃ mirex ˃ cyclodienes ˃ chlordane ˃ aldrin ˃ heptachlor ˃ dieldrin ˃ endosulfan ˃ dicofol > hexachlorobenzene > pentachlorobenzene, with Pentachlorobenzene having the lowest mean concentration (0.360 ± 0.063μg/kg) and gamma- HCH having the highest mean concentration (1.866 ± 0.483μg/kg). The concentrations of all these pesticide residues detected in the analyzed samples were found to be above the maximum residue limits set by FAO and WHO. This study revealed the presence of various pesticide residues in the analyzed samples of Amaranthus spinosus with organochlorines being the most present. This confirms the wide use of organochlorine pesticides in the study area. It was also observed that all the pesticide residues found present in the analyzed samples exceeded the Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) and Acceptable Dietary Intake (ADI) which connotes the extensive use and prevalence of pesticides in the study area.

Citation: Moses A. Abah1, Otitoju Olawale, Emmanuel C. Okoli, Ozioma P. Emmanuel1, David C. Bando, Zephaniah H. Shenia (2021) Determination of Selected Pesticide Residues in Leafy Vegetables (Amaranthus Spinosus) Consumed In Donga, Taraba State, International Journal of Biochemistry, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology Studies, Vol.6, No.2, pp.9-16



Keywords: leafy vegetable, maximum residue limits, pesticide residues, pesticides, residue concentration

Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Fish Samples from River Donga in Donga, Taraba State, Nigeria (Published)

Organochlorine pesticides are a class of toxic compounds that are characterized by their relative chemical and biological stability, which is why they are persistent in the environment. As a result of this, organochlorine pesticides are listed as the highest level on the list of potential environmental hazards In this study, the levels of the pesticide residues (DDT, DDD, Dieldrin, Aldrin, dicofol, methoxychlor, endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, pentachlorobenzene, mirex, toxaphene, hexachlorobenzene, α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH) in river Donga, Taraba State, Nigeria were assessed using fish samples as a case study.  Five fish species (Synodotismembranaceus, Protopterusannectens, Clariasgariepinus, Heterotisniloticus and Tilapiazilli) were purchased from the fishermen at bank of River Donga and was packaged into different labeled polyethylene bags. The fish samples were transported to the Biochemistry Laboratory Federal University Wukari in a Cold box with ice on the same day. All fish samples were kept in the freezer at 0-4oC. The fish samples were then washed with de-ionized water and were allowed to thaw at room temperature. The fish samples were dissected and filleted to obtain the fish flesh. The fillets were dried at ambient room temperature.50 g of the dried samples were each homogenized using a house-hold mill. An Agilent HPLC system was used for the LC analysis.The result showed that α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH were the most abundant pesticide residues in the fish samples. The result also showed that levels of α-HCH, β-HCH, and γ-HCH in Synodotismembranaceuscupside were above the maximum residue limits (MRLs). In conclusion, Pesticides are hazardous to human health and exposure to them could result to a number of illnesses ranging from dizziness, abdominal pain to cancers, still birth and hormonal imbalance.


Citation: Emmanuel C. Okoli, Otitoju Olawale1, Moses A. Abah1, Ozioma P. Emmanuel, David C. Bando, Zephaniah H. Shenia (2021) Ecological Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Fish Samples from River Donga in Donga, Taraba State, Nigeria, International Journal of Biochemistry, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology Studies, Vol.6, No.2, pp.1-8

Keywords: Risk Assessment, maximum residue limits, pesticide residues, pesticides, residue concentration

Assessment of Farmer’s Usage of Pesticides on Cocoa Farms at Sefwi Wiawso District in the Western Region of Ghana (Published)

Cocoa is the most important agricultural export crop in Ghana, and the country has an enviable reputation of producing high quality cocoa. Pests of cocoa are mostly controlled by the application of conventional insecticides. The study investigated farmers’ knowledge, pesticide use pattern and practices along the cocoa production chain. Descriptive survey design was used for the study since the researchers wanted to find out farmers opinion on the use of pesticides at Sefwi Wiawso in the Western Region.  Purposive sampling technique was used because it captures the area which was relevant to the study. Questionnaires were administered to 84 cocoa farmers. The findings of the study revealed that majority of the farmers had indepth knowledge and skills in all aspect of farming since cocoa farming is their main vocation. Cocoa farming is their main source of income, hence are not able to follow the recommended pesticide usage regulation before harvesting. Consequently, it could lead to higher pesticide residue levels of the cocoa beans. With regard to the recommendation, there should be a lot of training programme for the farmers which should be organized by Ghana Cocoa Board and CODAPEC programme should be restored to regulate the use of pesticide by farmers.  This is to ensure that the pesticides residue levels in the country’s cocoa beans are within the permissible levels to avoid the rejection of beans from Ghana with its associated international sanctions and loss of substantial revenue.

Keywords: Cocoa, Knowledge, maximum residue levels, permissible levels, pesticides

Les pratiques d’utilisation des pesticides par les maraîchers au Bénin : perspectives sociologiques (Published)

The populations of Benin, a country in the West Africa, have incorporated vegetable products into their diets since several decades. To satisfy the growing demand and to cope with the various factors of crop losses, the country’s truck farmers resort to pesticides. The objective of this research is to make an inventory of the practices of pesticide use by truck farmers in Benin. For so doing, an interdisciplinary sociological reflection has been conducted. A methodological approach focusing on investigations (interviews, questionnaires and documentary review) was carried out nearby 245 truck farmers distributed throughout the whole national territory. The analysis of these different data allowed us to make several observations.Although market gardening is practiced throughout the national territory, a strong inconstancy appears in the production from year to year. The phytosanitary products based on Lambda Cyhalothrin, very numerous on the markets, are widely used by the truck farmers of Benin. The majorities of chemical pesticides identified are not permitted and are aggravating sources of risk factors for the use of chemicals. The lack of control over the distribution channels by the State favors this situation. Truck farmers often omit to protect themselves before the chemical pesticides use.The numerous sensitizations on the risks linked to these products have led to changes in behavior towards the self-consumption of organic production but the marketing of non-organic products.

Keywords: Agriculture, Benin, Vegetables, fruits, market gardening, pesticides