Vietnamese Cultural Conceptualization of Internal Body Organs in South East Asian Linguistics (Seals) (Published)
In the worldwide development of modern linguistics, ‘cognitivism’ tendency is a good example with the findings of the theory and applications. One of those is an attempt of linguistic scholars from various backgrounds to continue the tradition from W. von Humboldt in Europe, E. Sapir and B. Whorf in America, who emphasize the relationship among language, thought and culture. The evidence for that are the theoretical concepts such as ‘ethno-syntax’, ‘ethno-linguistics’, ‘ethno-psycho-linguistics’ ‘cultural linguistics’, ‘human factor in language’, ‘linguistic picture of the world’, ‘linguistic consciousness’. In light of cognitive perspective, linguists often use the terms and expressions ‘different views of the world’ or ‘worldviews’, and ‘the ways in which speakers of different languages think differently’, that is to say they conceptualize or categorize experience in different ways. This view has been supported by many empirical studies within the paradigm of cognitive linguistics in the past two decades. In this area of research, from the point of cognitive view a very interesting tendency is to understand how such conceptualizations are grounded in bodily cognition. In cultural perspective, an interest in studying those conceptualizations is to explore how they have their roots in culture and how they can be different from language to another. A good evidence is linguistic data referring the different ways of conceptualizing inner body parts which function as ‘container’, ‘seat’ or ‘locus’ for human emotional and mental states or spiritual activities. In this paper, the chosen concepts related to what they are denoted in English by HEART and MIND. Particularly, conceptualizations of Heart, Belly/Abdomen, Stomach, Liver, Bowels/Intestines will be taken into consideration with cross-cultural perspective and with examples from different languages families and groups (as well as within these families and groups) in Southeast Asia which have their representatives in Vietnam as Austro-Asiatic, Austronesian, Sino-Tibertan, Hmong-Mien(Miao-Dao), Tai-Kadai. This paper denotes the evidence from following languages: (i) Austro-Asiatic: Khmer, Vietnamese, Muong; (ii) Austronesian: Cham, Ede; (iii) Sino-Tibertan: Chinese; (iv) Hmong-Mien (Miao-Dao), Hmong; (v) Tai-Kadai: Tay-Nung. For showing clearer cultural and cognitive specificity these ‘Oriental’ linguistic data are compared with a ‘Western’ one – English. It demonstrates that if English maintains a Western cultural ‘dualism’ between rationalities (MIND/HEAD) and emotions (HEART), SEA languages tend to reveal an Oriental ‘monism’: BELLY, or STOMACH, or BOWELS, or LIVER primarily uses in locating human feelings and thoughts. The difference within SEA languages in which inner organ is chosen as the locus of emotional and mental life: Vietnamese people, for example, first of all, think of the ‘inside abdomen’, but Hmong ethnic group the ‘liver’. The results of cognitive and cultural comparisons of the way of conceptualizing such inner body parts in SEA languages can make two relationships much clearer: (i) one between the ways of conceptualization and genetic features of those language families and groups; (ii) and another between the cognitively universal of human conceptualization and the culturally specific of a language community.
This paper preoccupied itself with the assessment of special education service delivery to persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities, who are the subjects of special education, encounter difficulties that prevent or make it strenuous to use a part of their body completely or easily or that they cannot learn easily. Special education service delivery requires the expertise of special educators and para-professionals like the psychologists, social welfare workers, medical personnel and a host of others who are charged with the delivery of quality special education services to meet the needs of all persons with disabilities. Special education services include rehabilitation services, assessment/identification strategies, home/hospital based services, provision of materials/equipment and assistive technology for persons with disabilities etc. Globally, there are two paradigms for service delivery namely special school setting and general or regular school settings. The paper sampled trends of service delivery in India, Brazil, Kenya, Malaysia and of course Nigeria. The paper found that most countries have embraced the regular classroom as modality for service delivery for persons with disabilities. The paper identified challenges in the areas of teacher-pupil ratio, funding, failure of parental instruction, individualized education programme, special facilities, equipment and assistive technology, poor rehabilitation services, inclusion, attitudes to persons with disability amongst others that must be tackled to enable efficient service delivery for persons with disability. It was on this note that the paper was concluded.
The Contribution Made By Qualitative Research to Tesol (Teaching English To Speakers Of Other Languages) (Published)
Students and researchers of different disciplines — such as sociology, psychology, health care, nursing, education, arts and humanities, and so on — employ qualitative methods for their research project. In education, TESOL researchers increasingly use qualitative research enquiry. This study aimed to appraise the contributions of qualitative research to TESOL. In order to achieve this aim, the study demonstrated a critical understanding of theoretical debates in qualitative research. Then, two articles related to English language teaching to speakers of other languages were chosen with a view to arguing that qualitative research paradigm contributes to TESOL more than any other research paradigms. The key findings were characteristics of qualitative research: description-understanding-interpretation, dynamic, no single way of doing something- multiple realities, inductive thinking, holistic, in-depth study, words-themes-writing, and non-linear; existence of nexus between interpretivism and qualitative research; and positive impacts of qualitative research on TESOL.