Implications of Employee Participation in Decision Making for the Performance of Local Government Administration in Nigeria: A survey of selected local governments in Enugu state (Published)
The paper is on the Implications of employee participation in decision making for the performance of local government administration in Nigeria. Three local governments in Enugu state were selected for the study. The paper is an empirical research using survey design approach with a population of 1972 drawn from Enugu East (526), Enugu North (746), and Enugu South (649) local government areas. A sample size of 331 employees was used. The instruments used for data generation was structured questionnaire and frequencies and percentages were used for analysis. The findings of the study include that employees’ participation significantly increases the quality of service delivery, reduces work error, increases job satisfaction, enhances better policy implementation, and better directs employees’ efforts towards organizational goals. Challenges facing employees’ participation include assumed poor knowledge and skill of employees; lack of trust of employees by top management that limit their participatory space; management unwillingness to share information with junior staff; and the traditional top-down decision making approach to management.
Correlation between Employees’ Job Performance and Management Leadership Style in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State (Published)
The study investigates the correlation between employees’ job performance and management leadership styles in tertiary institutions in Lagos state. Which comprises of university of lagos state, Akoka (UNILAG), Lagos state university, Ojo (LASU), Yaba college of Technology (YABATECH) and Adeniran Ogunsanya college of Education, Otto-Ijanikin (AOCEOD). The research design adopted is descriptive research design and was guided by four research questions and four research hypotheses. The population for the study comprised of all academic and non-academic staff in tertiary institutions owned and financed by both state and federal government in four tertiary institutions out of six (6) of both state and federal public tertiary institutions in Lagos state through purposive sampling technologies Fifty (50) academic and Fifty (50) non-academic staffs were selected through simple random sampling techniques from each of the four (4) tertiary institutions chosen for the study. In one hundred (100) respondents from each tertiary institution with the grand total of four hundred (400) respondents. The research instrument was structured questionnaire tagged “Questionnaire on Employees’ Job Performance and Management Leadership Style” (QEJPMLS) with the twenty (20) items. The data collected were analyzed using percentage and the pearson product moment correlation co-efficient test the significant correlation of the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. The findings of the study revealed that there is a correlation between employees job performance and autocratic leadership style at (R-cal value 0.097, R-table value 0.81, DF=4, level of sig. =0.05). And there is a correlation between employees’ job performance and democratic leadership style at (R-cal value 0.96, R-table value 0.81, level of Sig. = 0.05). Also, there is a correlation between employees’ style at (R-cal value 0.96, R-table value 0.81, level of Sig. = 0.05). Based on the findings of the study, recommendation were given. It was concluded that, autocratic democratic and laissez-faire management leadership style have an impact on the employees’ job performance in tertiary institutions in Lagos State.
Integrated Management System Implementation in SMEs: A Proposed model for Organisational Performance and Sustainability (Published)
Management systems are important for any organization especially to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that face limitations in areas that larger firms have stability. One of the approaches to overcome these challenges and maintain business growth is implementing and following an integrated management system (IMS), as a model for improving the organizational performance and to maintain sustainable growth in a business. SMEs are global leaders in providing employment opportunities – around 60-70 % in developed economies and 99% of all business in OECD countries, hence sustaining them and enhancing their performance in the business market over larger firms is critical to retain employment opportunities in the future. IMS provides internal and external benefits, especially being more feasible and appropriate for SMEs by increasing competitiveness, stability in business, effective resources management and resilience during market challenges. However, it’s important to focus on the specific characteristics and factors that determine SMEs effective implementation of IMS. To overcome the various barriers limiting their business growth and organizational performance, the proposed conceptional model developed through this research study in conjunction with the associated factors would enable SMEs to effectively implement IMS to achieve organizational performance and sustainability. SMEs in order to maintain a competitive nature in the emerging business markets must adopt different strategies and mechanisms to address the challenges in technology and innovation, which are the prime impacting factors that define a clear road map for sustainable growth.
Effect of Environmental Cost on Performances of Quoted Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2007-2016 (Published)
The study examined the effect of environmental costs on performances of quoted firms in Sub Saharan Africa. The study adopted longitudinal/panel ex-post facto research design and random sampling technique while quantitative secondary data covering 2007 to 2016 were obtained for sixty-four extractive and industrial firms quoted in the Stock Exchanges of four Sub-Sahara African countries namely South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania. The models for the study were estimated using Ordinary least square regression (OLS) built on panel data analysis. In the regional level analysis as well as in South Africa and Nigeria specific country analyses, the study revealed that environmental costs represented by employee health and safety, waste management and community development costs have no significant effect on return on capital employed, earnings per share and return on equity. The study showed that in Ghana, the predictor variables demonstrated significant effect on return on capital employed and return on equity while only waste management cost has significant effect on return on capital employed and return on equity in Tanzania. The implication of the preponderance of the findings, save for the aforementioned exceptions in Ghana and Tanzania, is that quoted firms in the region are yet to adequately indulge in environmental responsibility or their environmental engagements are not adequately captured and disclosed to the extent that can cause significant swings in the measures of firm performance. The implication of the exceptions found in Ghana and Tanzania is that of comparative improvement in environmental responsibilities, compliances and disclosures by quoted firms in the two countries. The study recommended among other things that firms in Sub Saharan Africa should give greater attention to environmental responsibility, cost recognition, classification and disclosures in the annual, integrated and sustainability reports.
More than ten commercial banks have collapsed in Uganda in the last two decades due to problems such as frauds, insider lending by dominant shareholders, weak boards of directors, non-performing loans portfolios, and managerial opportunism. This paper aims to investigate the impact of corporate governance on commercial banks’ performance in Uganda. The study adopted a survey-based approach to purposively collect data from the respondents of all licensed commercial banks in Uganda at the time of the study. Data was collected using a self-administered research instrument on the most emphasized corporate governance variables of board composition, board size, capital adequacy ratio, and the independent audit committee for the performance of banks. The data quality control was ensured by establishing the internal consistency of the research instrument that resulted in an overall Cronbach’s reliability coefficient of 0.78. The data was analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis statistical technique after controlling for bank size and leverage. Using an alpha level of 0.05, the study found that the change in R-squared was 27.9% with a non-significant change in F (4,14) = 1.64, p = 0.219. Secondly, for the whole model F (6,14) = 1.587, p = 0.223 which signified that was no significant impact of corporate governance on commercial banks’ performance in Uganda while controlling for bank size and leverage. In order to improve bank performance in Uganda, the central bank should step up the supervisory and regulatory policies. This would involve proactive strategies such as regular review of corporate governance instruments like the Financial Institutions Corporate Governance Regulations (2005) so as to counteract any new threats to the banking sector which could render these instruments ineffective.
This paper examines the impact of private secondary school on examination malpractices in Nigeria. It also explain the impact of the school management, teachers, parents, government agents and students on examination malpractices in Nigeria. However, it also discussed the causes and effects of Examination Malpractices on the academic achievement of the private secondary schools students. Yet, it emphasis the factors that influence the students on examination malpractice in private secondary schools. Similarly, it states the outcomes of examination malpractices on the academic performance of the secondary schools students in Nigeria. Thus, the implications of examination malpractice on the student’s academic achievement were thoroughly discussed.
Relationship between Total Quality Management Practices and Profitability: Case of Small Hotel Sector London (UK) (Published)
The rise of competition has inclined various small-scale businesses to incorporate a robust strategy in order to increase profitability. Therefore, in the contemporary enterprise sector, exceptional importance has been given to the concept of Total Quality Management by both local and multinational organisations, considering the associated benefits of continuous improvement, increased efficiency, and the overall efficacy of the organisation. Thus, the main aim of this study is to assess the impact of TQM implementation into small scale hotels in terms of financial growth (profitability); and to develop a comprehensive and feasible quality framework for managers to adopt the best TQM practices that enhance profitability through quality improvement and to achieve expected results. The researcher has applied quantitative method by recruiting 141 participants (managerial level) to achieve the overall aim and objectives of this study, Therefore, survey questionnaires by using Likert scale has been conducted leading towards descriptive, correlation and chi-square analysis of the data collected. The results showed that various TQM practices have positive impact on the profitability of small hotels, such as continuous improvement, quality improvement, role of top management, training and education, employee empowerment and technological innovation, Finally, this research makes an original contribution in the academic and practical field as it enhances the knowledge of TQM among the managers and quality practitioners. Besides presenting some recommendations for small hotels, the study also puts some suggestions for future research in this area with limitations.
The competitive nature of our business environment requires innovativeness and creativity to achieve performance. Being innovative and creative is important but being competent is very vital for any business growth. These can be achieved through training, learning new skills, attitudes, personal relationships, being initiative, information seeking and the rest to achieve entrepreneurial objectives. The paper therefore examines the competencies required for entrepreneurial performance, as influenced by personal traits and leadership skills. The paper adopted a theoretical approach and reviewed the relevant literature as a basis for the examination of entrepreneurial competencies and performance. Finding shows that engaging in entrepreneurial core competencies, personal traits and learners skills are positively related to business success. Engaging in managerial role, entrepreneurs require organizing and relationship competencies which are positively related to business success. The study recommended that government should be devoted to allocating resources for training and education. Entrepreneurs should desire entrepreneurship training and be more proactive. The study concluded that though entrepreneurial competencies are learnable through entrepreneurial training programmes and education they also serve as yardstick for formulating appropriate strategies and which when implemented enhance the attainment of business goals.
Working Capital Management –Performance Relationship: A Study of Small and Medium Enterprises in Akure, Nigeria (Published)
Despite the available potentials for sustainable growth and development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) especially in developing economies, poor management of working capital has continued to deny most SMEs the optimum performance needed to annex the inherent potentials in the business. The study therefore seeks to investigate the relationship between management of working capital and Performance of small and medium enterprises; assess various sources of financing working capital; evaluate working capital management and identify problems associated with the management of working capital of SMEs in Akure, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey with primary source of data collection through a well-structured questionnaire, to elicit information from randomly selected respondents. Both the descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the analysis. The study discovered a significant and positive relationship between working capital and performance of SMEs; identified bank loan, loan from family members and friends, and personal savings as major sources of financing working capital. The study also revealed cash as mostly used of all other working capital components while ineffective management of cash appeared to be most worrisome of all the problems associated with working capital management in the study area. The study concluded that effective working capital management ensures that SMEs have enough funds for day to day running of the business, which suggests consideration for other sources of financing working capital such as cooperative societies among others, for optimum performance needed by SMEs to annex the potentials for sustainable growth and development.
The capacity of any organisation to function in line with its strategic objectives depends largely on its employees. But employees are not needed for themselves, rather, for their skills and competences which have limits but can be enhanced through training and development for efficient organisational performance. However, some organisations are reluctant to invest in staff training and development under the assumption that they can price skilled employees from their competitors to solve their immediate performance needs rather than invest long term in staff training and development. Consequently, the role of staff training and development tends to be downplayed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether organisations can do without staff training and development. Using the exploration of secondary data from relevant previous studies in a mainly qualitative method, this study found sufficient evidences that strongly link staff training and development to employee and organisational performance. The study asserted that although organisations are at liberty to determine when, how and to what extent they embark on staff training and development, they inevitably have to in their pursuit of organisational success.
Examining the Adequacy of Past Performances and Teacher Judgments to Estimate GCSE and A-Level Grades During the Pandemic Crisis (Published)
On the 17th March, 2020, the British government announced that due to school closures during the height of the pandemic, GCSE and A–Level grades would be determined on the basis of teachers’ assessments and evidence of students’ hitherto attainments. England’s Education Secretary, Gavin Williamson, emphasised that “grades awarded this summer will accurately reflect students’ abilities and will be as valid this year as any other“.To test this assertion, this quantitative research study independently examined the predictive accuracy of using past performances and teacher judgments to anticipate students’ final grade outcomes among 84 third–year university students at a private university located in the outskirts of Bangkok. After assessments were formally graded, the mean end-of-year English score for 2018-2019 was calculated at 59.94%, which was significantly different to the average standard attained previously in 2017-2018 (54.36%; sig, p <0.05). Nonetheless, in disagreement with prior literature, teacher judgments proved to be statistically reliable (57.98%, not sig, p <0.05). Further implications, research recommendations and policy considerations are also discussed in this paper.
Tutors’ Perception about Teacher Trainees’ Appraisal of Tutors’ Performance as Part of Quality Teaching and Learning in the Colleges of Education in Ghana (Published)
The study intended to explore the perception of the college tutors about the performance appraisal of tutors by the student teachers as part of quality teaching and learning in the Colleges of Education in Ghana as well as improving the tutors’ performance and development. . Sixty seven (67) tutors were randomly selected from three Colleges of Education to constitute the sample for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The study found that college tutors generally acknowledged the relevance of performance appraisal to their job goals and development. Secondly, college tutors perceived performance appraisal feedback as irregular and unconstructive and did not reflect their actual performance. Thirdly, college tutors perceived the performance appraisal processes as being unfair because they were left out in the discussion of the assessment procedures claiming that performance appraisal by the student teachers alone is not enough, Fourthly, college tutors perceived that the student teachers judgment were affected by hallo and horn effect. Last but not least, college tutors somehow did not take their performance appraisal by the student teachers alone very seriously. It was recommended that assessment procedures and items leading to appraising the performance of the college tutors should be discussed with them to enable them state their positions openly in order to satisfy their needs. Also, there should be the need for triangulation of the assessment processes leading to appraising the performance of the college tutors to ensure checks and balances as well as validity of the results. Finally, performance appraisal feedback should be made regular, constructive, fair and useful to enable college tutors receive and support the programme as genuinely helping them to improve their performance and development.
Evaluation of Internal Control System on the Performance of Cooperative Societies in Selected Tertiary Institutions in Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the internal control systems on performance of cooperative societies in some selected tertiary institutions in Ondo States, Nigeria. A stratified sampling technique was adopted for the study. The data were collected from members of registered cooperative societies in the selected tertiary institutions in the study area using structured questionnaire. The statistical tools used include de, Likert ratings, regression analysis and paired sample t-test. Results revealed that the selected cooperative societies often use all the key internal control measures which influence their performance, which include authorization measure (p = 0.027), arithmetic and accounting measures (p = 0.000), as well as budgetary measures (p = 0.001. The study recommended that cooperative societies in the tertiary institutions should strengthen their internal controls to ensure good performance
Comparative analysis of the influence of teachers’ motivation on academic performance of students in selected private and public schools in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State. (Published)
The study examined the influence of teachers’ motivation on academic performance of students in selected private and public schools in Oredo local government area, of Edo state. The design of the study was the causal comparative design. The population of the study was the twenty-six (26) public secondary schools and two hundred and forty-five (245) private secondary schools in Oredo local government area. A sample of 300 teachers was selected for the research using the stratified, simple random and cluster sampling techniques. Mean and standard deviation, Pearson’s Correlation as well as Fishers Z were used for data analysis. The findings of the study among other showed that the motivation of teachers in selected public and private schools in Oredo Local Government area of Edo state was very efficient, the level of academic performance of selected public and private secondary school students in Oredo local government area was moderate.And a significant relationship existed between academic performance of students and teachers’ level of motivation in Oredo Local Government area of Edo state. Teachers’ level of motivation accounted for about 6% of students’ academic performance in selected private and public secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State it was therefore recommended that there is the need for all stake holders in education to always motivate teachers through regular payment of salaries, regular promotion as this have a huge influence on students’ academic performance and the urgent need for government to monitor effectively private sector participation education so as to impact in them proper motivation technique as against the slave labour they give to their staff.
The ambidextrous leadership and its impact on organizational performance in the Jordanian government schools from the viewpoint of teachers (Published)
The current study aimed at identifying the skillful leadership behaviors and measuring their impact on organizational performance in Jordanian government schools from the teachers point of view, and to achieve the goals of the study the researcher followed the descriptive analytical approach, in terms of applying the study tool, which was represented in a questionnaire consisting of (30) paragraphs, On the sample, which amounted to (356) male and female teachers from government schools in the Directorate of Jerash Education, the study reached a number of results, the most important of which were: The degree of availability of ingenious leadership behaviors among administrative leaders in Jordanian educational institutions is high, and the degree of organizational performance indicators in educational institutions Jordanian women are also high, and there is a statistically significant effect of adept leadership behavior in Jordanian educational institutions on organizational performance from the point of view of male and female teachers in Jordanian government schools, and the study recommended a number of recommendations, the most important of which were: the need to educate administrators in various fields The Kingdom’s governorates by adopting an ingenious leadership style in management, as it has positive benefits for the education process in Jordan.
This article is based on a qualitative oriented methodology to examine the written performance of six MA students majoring in English as Foreign Language (EFL) in the MA Program at one of the recently established universities in Saudi Arabia. Students’ final exam sheets were thoroughly looked at for the description of the syntactic structures in the students’ writing performance. The sampling process was selective and purposeful in the sense that it comprises three outstanding and the three poor performances out of a total of fourteen students’ exam sheets. Deviated structures together with the correct ones were analyzed and described with the aim of mapping common issues in writing performance in targeted university and assumingly which might help the targeted university and other similar contexts inside Saudi Arabia and other neighboring countries, two major sources of the unacceptable performance is lack of knowledge of the target language together with mother tongue influence. Additionally; diagnosing a remedy for the deviated forms was proposed. More reinforcement and support for those who were successful were too recommended.
The German Shakespeare (Published)
Over The past four hundred years, Shakespeare has played a significant role within a European framework, particularly, where a series of political events and ideologies were being shaped. The birth of the nation during the late 18th and 19th centuries, the first and second world wars, the process of European unification during the 1990s, are a case in point. This part challenges the idea of an all-encompassing universal Shakespeare by demonstrating that Shakespeare and his plays transmitted across different histories, languages, and traditions meant something significantly different in these geographical contexts. Rejecting the existence of a universally absolute and singular Shakespearean meaning, I attempt to demonstrate that Shakespeare is always what he is imagined to be in a cultural and historical context. The various local and national appropriations and the universality of the cultural icon, “Shakespeare”, clash in the daily practice of interpreting, performing, and teaching his plays. This paper discusses Shakespeare’s appropriation and performance in East Germany. It focuses on the theatrical production and its cultural context in this country.
Capital Structure and Firm Performance Nexus in Nigeria: A Case Study of Aluminum Extrusion Company PLC (Published)
This study investigated the link between capital structure and firm performance in Nigeria using Aluminum Extrusion Company PLC (ALEX), a company listed under the Basic material sector of the Nigerian Stock Exchange as a case study. The study adopted return on capital employed as proxy for firm performance (response variable), while capital structure components such as debt to equity ratio, debt to capital employed ratio and equity to capital employed ratio were used as the explanatory variables. Secondary data were collected from the annual published financial reports of the company for the period 2009 to 2018. The study employ descriptive statistics and multiple regression technique based on the E- view 9.0 Software as the methods of data analysis. The results revealed that debt to equity ratio has significant positive effect on return on capital employed, debt to capital employed ratio has negative influence on return on capital employed and equity to capital employed ratio has no influence on return on capital employed. Overall, capital structure has no significant effect (at 5% level) on firm performance. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that the company should finance her activities with retained earnings and use debt as the last option as this is in agreement with the perking Order theory; that the indirect effect of capital structure on firm performance be analyzed by future researchers and that the company managers are advised to be extremely conscious in the use of debt financing as an option in their capital mix up to the optimal limits, as debt to equity ratio provides positive effect though not significant on performance.
Analyzing the Link between Budgetary Control and Performance: A Case Study of Bayelsa State of Nigeria (Published)
Government at all levels prepares budget annually, however there are inconsistencies in budgetary implementation as government failure to stick to its appropriation bill is always clearly evident. This has resulted in the failure government to meet budgetary obligations as planned such as delay in payment of staff salaries, execution of capital projections to mention a few. This study examined the link between budgetary control and performance with a focus on Bayelsa State of Nigeria as a case study. The study adopted actual expenditure (AEX) representing performance as the dependent variable, while capital expenditure budget (CEB) and recurrent expenditure budget (REB) were used as the independent variables. Time series data on the variables were obtained from the Budget Department of the Ministry of Budget covering the period 2007 to 2016. The type of research design adopted in the study was ex-post facto research design. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis based the E-view version 10 computer software. Based on the findings the study concluded that the two independent variables have no statistical effect on actual budget performance. This means that there was no link between budgetary control and performance in Bayelsa State. The study recommended among others that government should encourage budgetary participation, consider resource availability in budgeting, strive to improve the state internally generated revenue, and employ qualified and highly skilled personnel in budget administration to ensure that budgetary control would bring about improved performance.
Analysis of the Influence of Management of Resources on Performance of National Hospital Insurance Fund, Kenya (Published)
This study was about the analysis of the influence of management of resources on performance of National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF), and the objective of the study was to establish the influence of management of resources on performance of NHIF. This study adopted mixed methodology, utilizing descriptive survey research design. This study utilized a sample size of 86 respondents arrived at by use of Slovin’s formula. Regression analysis was carried out to test the relationship between variables. The findings indicated that management of resources influenced performance of NHIF.Management of resources influenced the performance of NHIF according to the findings, with competent human resources having the highest mean score of 3.87, followed by adequate strategic resources at mean score of 3.66; however adequate financial resources had the lowest mean score of 2.40.