Training and development is essential to any firm that wants to retain employees and realize better performance. Current businesses are forced to establish training and development programs that assist in attaining required skills and competencies in the organization. But without competent employees, firms grapple with challenges of poor output and dismal performance. This conceptual study paper presents a synopsis of the linkage of training, employee retention and performance. Theories underpinning the study are human capital theory, social learning theory and theory of human resource management. Drawn from wide theoretical assumptions, opportunity to training is one of the greatest reasons to why workers stay in the organization. Employees need noble training opportunities to improve their performance and demand in the labour market. Training is seen as a major factor in contributing to employee improved performance and reduction of work related accidents. Various scholars have alluded to the fact that retained employees master the art of delivering excellent goods and services to consumers. There is need for establishment of better employee retention strategies to bond trained employees with the firm. The paper contributes to body of knowledge by providing a conceptual framework of the linkage of training, employee retention and performance which would be of beneficial to human resource practitioners and human resource policy makers. It further builds a model that will assist researchers in exploring employee retention as a mediating role in training and performance.
Principals’ Leadership Styles as Determinants of Business Studies Teachers’ Job Performance In Junior Secondary Schools in Edo State, Nigeria (Published)
The study focused on principals’ leadership styles as determinants of business studies teachers’ job performance in Junior Secondary Schools in Egor Local Government Area (L.G.A.) of Edo State. Four research questions were raised and answered. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population comprised 46 business studies teachers (34 females and 12 males) from thirteen junior secondary schools in Egor L.G.A. All the population was used as sample for the study since the population was manageable. A 21-item structured questionnaire was used to collect data. A 4 point rating scale of Very High Extent (VHE), High Extent (HE), Low Extent (LE) and Very Low Extent (VLE) with assigned values of 4, 3, 2, and 1 respectively were adopted. The instrument was subjected to face validity by three experts. A reliability coefficient of 0.76 was obtained using Cronbach alpha statistics. The research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation. The study revealed that business studies teachers’ job performance in Egor L.G.A. is low. It was recommended among others, that principals should employ and vary diverse leadership styles to suit different situations, as the needs arise, use appropriate leadership styles to influence the government for provision of instructional facilities/materials for the teaching of Business studies subjects which is practically oriented instead of teaching it theoretically; that business studies teachers should be given opportunity to undergo in-service training to enable them acquire new knowledge and skills for effective performance of their jobs, among others.
Investors in the manufacturing companies expect that managers entrusted with the responsibility of managing the operational activities of the companies are competent and optimally utilize the resources, including the cash management to ensure quality returns to the equity holders. Studies have shown that most managers of the manufacturing companies are desirous of reporting robust and plausible performance reports, rather than ensuring effective and optimal cash management to avoid disruption of production process. Consequently, achieving these expectations of investors and ensuring good return on assets and impressing earnings per share, remain a major problem facing the managers. This study therefore investigated the impact of cash management on performance of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The study adopted ex-post facto research design, using population of 47 listed manufacturing companies on the Nigerian Stock Exchange as at 31st December 2016. Fifteen companies were selected using a combination of stratified and purposive sampling technique. Data were extracted from published financial statements of the sampled manufacturing companies, the validity and reliability of the data were premised on the scrutiny of the external auditors. Descriptive statistics and inferential (Regression) statistics were used for data analysis. The result revealed that cash management had significant positive effect on performance on the following: Cash management had a positive and significant effect on Return on Asset with Adj R2=0.09, F- Stat(3.146) = 10.32, P-value= 0.032: Cash management had positive and significant effect on Tobins Q with Adj R2=0.16, F-Statistics (3.146) = 20.38 and P-value = 0.00, cash management with control variables had positive and significant effect on Return on Assets with Adj R2= 0.0137, F-stat (3.146) = 16.86 and P-value = 0.00. The result further revealed that cash management with control variable had positive and significant effect on Tobins Q with Adj R2-0.1086, F-Stat(3.146) = 23.26 and P-value of 0.00. The study concluded that, cash management has effect on performance of listed manufacturing companies in Nigeria. The study recommended that shareholders, managers, policy makers, financial regulators and market participants should pay more attention to quality of earnings, returns on equity and assets of the companies. Managers should aggressively engage in optimal cash conversion cycle, currents assets and liquidity management and their optimal utilization in achieving their short and long term goals and safely satisfy shareholders objective.
Performance and costs of grass carp in controlling aquatic weeds compared to mechanical control in some Egyptian canals (case study) (Published)
During the recent years, biological weed control in Egypt has faced questioning for its ability to submerged weeds control; and its application does not reduce the costs of canals maintenance. Therefore, the study aims to verify the performance and costs of grass carp in controlling submerged aquatic weeds and compared to mechanical control in some earthen and lined canals in Aswan governorate. Six earthen and lined canals with a high rate of submerged aquatic weeds growth were selected in the irrigation administration of Aswan governorate. The results of the study showed that the biological control of submerged weeds by grass carp led to decrease the percentage of submerged weeds infestation in the canals that subjected to biological control compared to the similar canals that subjected to mechanical control. Grass carp prefer to feed on submerged aquatic weeds types in the studied canals as follows: Vallisneria spiralis, followed by Ceratophyllum demersum and finally Myriophyllum spicatum. The value of the condition factor for grass carp was above 1, indicated good condition of the fish growth. Water quality was good and valid for grass carp growth. The average decreasing in the costs per kilometer for the canals and reaches that subjected to biological weed control was 7880 LE, with a decreasing percentage of 38% compared to mechanical control. It is recommended to control submerged aquatic weeds using grass carp in suitable Egyptian canals through applying an integrated management program. The program is combination of mechanical removal process of weed a one-time before stocking fish, then, stocking rates of 100 kg/ha.
Effect of Instructional Conversation Strategy on Secondary School Student’s Academic Performance in Chemistry (Published)
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of instructional conversation strategy on student’s academic performance in chemistry in Edo State, Nigeria. Three research questions and three corresponding hypothesis were raised and formulated to guide the study. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The design used for this study is the pre-test post-test control group quasi-experimental design. The Chemistry Achievement Test was the instrument used for data collection The instruments’ validity and reliability were properly determined before they were used. The reliability of the CAT instrument was found to be 0.88 using Kunder-Richardson 21 formula. The sample consist of 60 science students drawn from two public schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo State. Data collected were analyzed using statistic of the mean, standard deviations, student’s independent sample t-test and ANOVA. The major findings of the study included the following (i) instructional conversation strategy group students significantly performed better than the lecture method group students. (ii) the study showed a non-significant difference in the performance of male and female students taught with instructional conversation strategy. (iii) the study showed a non-significant interaction effect of method and sex on chemistry students’ achievement. Based on the findings of the study, it was therefore recommended that instructional strategy which encourages social interaction should be used in the teaching and learning of chemistry in this 21st century.
Moderating Role of Portfolio Risk Management on Performance of Water Service Boards in Kenya (Published)
The majority of water service boards are investing millions of money in different portfolios with the objective of profit maximization. However, delays in projects are a global phenomenon and have become a typical part of the project manager’s concern. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of project portfolio management practices on the performance of water service boards in Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were; to determine the effect of project evaluation, project selection, and prioritization, to establish the moderating effect of contextual factors on the relationship between project portfolio management practices and performance of water service boards in Kenya. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey research design. The population of this study targeted the employees of water boards in Kenya which include coast water service board (CWSB), Rift valley water service board (RVSB), Lake Victoria North(LVNSB), Tana water, TanaAthi water service board, Athi water service board. The unit target constituted Engineers, senior management, middle management, and project team. The study targeted a population of 1310 people. The study found that project selection and prioritization as a project portfolio management practice influenced the performance of water service boards in Kenya; and that there is a significant influence of project evaluation as a project portfolio management practice on the performance of water service boards in Kenya. The study also found that portfolio risk management does moderate the relationships between project portfolio management practice and performance of water service boards in Kenya.
Influence of Strategic Orientation on Performance of Publicly Owned Hotel Enterprises in Kenya (Published)
Firm’s strategic orientation enables a firm to develop optimal performance and sustain competitiveness in the market. Publicly owned hotels have however been faced with many challenges which affects their performance. These challenges included change in technology, competitive environment, social-cultural and economic challenges. The main objective of the study was to establish the influence of strategic orientation on performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya. The study was guided by three theories namely; Resource-based view, Goal-setting theory and Dynamic Capabilities View. A descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. The targeted institutions for the study were all the 9 existing public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya. Stratified sampling technique was used to select the sample. A total of 54 respondents formed the sample size. The study adopted the use of a questionnaire for middle level managers and an interview schedule for the general managers as the main research instruments. Content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Both correlation and multiple linear regression analysis was carried out. The study established that resource orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya; entrepreneurial orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya; market orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya and that technological orientation positively and significantly influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises in Kenya. The multiple regression findings further showed that all measures of strategic orientation combined (resource orientation, technology orientation, market orientation, entrepreneurial orientation) influences performance of public owned hotel enterprises. This study recommends that the public owned hotel enterprises should widely adopt information technology (IT) to reduce costs, enhance operational efficiency, and most importantly to improve service quality and customer experience. Public owned hotel enterprises should collect information about their current and potential guests’ desires continuously. The study also recommends that public owned hotels should be keen to generate innovations that are then converted into better performance.
Effect of Dry Land Strength Training on Front- Crawl Swimming Performance Among Undergraduate Trainees of Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria (Published)
Swimming performance is a multi-factorial phenomenon involving energetic, biomechanics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics and strength parameters. Strength, endurance and speed are major factors determining performance of swimmers. Muscle power output is also an important issue in sport performance; it is also a reliable predictor of swim speed in front-crawl performance. Therefore, different training methods have been devised to improve performance. Several studies have been done on swimming performance but little effort has been directed towards improving performance using dry land as a tool. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of dry land strength training on front-crawl swimming performance among undergraduate trainees of Lead City University, Ibadan, Nigeria. Pretest-posttest/control group experimental research design using 2x2x3 factorial matrix was used for this study. Twenty two participants were used for the study using total enumeration sampling method. The participants were placed into two groups; experimental and control group. Participants were exposed to eight weeks training using the manual developed by the researcher. Data were collected before and after the intervention programme. Data was analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The descriptive statistics used were frequency count and simple percentage while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was the inferential statistics used to determine the main as well as the interaction effects of the independent, dependent and moderating variables.Participants were male and female with a mean age of 19.6±1.7. There was significant main effect of treatment (F(1, 20) =20.217; partial ƞ2=.822) and gender (F(1, 20) =10.773; partial ƞ2=.366) on swimming performance of swimmers in Lead City University, Ibadan. Participant in experimental group obtained a lower posttest mean (10.649) than control (13.972). There was significant interaction effect of treatment and gender (F(1, 20) =64.907; partial ƞ2=.671), treatment and body weight (F(1, 19) =16.394; partial ƞ2=.222). There was no significant main effect of body weight and the interaction effect of gender and body weight was also not significant. There was significant 3-way interaction effect of treatment, gender and body weight (F(2, 19) =52.099; partial ƞ2=.471). Dry-land training was effective on swimming performance among swimmers. It was therefore recommended that there is need for swimming coaches to be educated on the benefits of using dry-land exercises to improve swimming performance.
Fraudulent Practices in Nigerian Banks: Implications on the Performance of Deposit Money Banks, 1994 -2015 (Published)
This study investigates fraudulent practices in Nigeria banks and the implications on the performances of Deposit Money Banks in Nigeria. Secondary data were obtained from the annual reports of the Nigerian Deposit Insurance Cooperation (NDIC) covering 1994 to 2015 and analyzed using econometric techniques. Data obtained were tested for co-variance using Johansen Co-Integration and thereafter the four hypotheses postulated were tested using Ordinary Least Square Regression (OLS) and Vector Auto Regression Estimates. The study revealed significant negative relationships between fraud variables and bank performances represented by earnings before tax. The study therefore recommended that directors of Deposit Money Banks should invest in cyber controls and also conduct a thorough review of the existing internal control measures in the banks to ascertain the weaknesses of the existing controls and to strengthen them toward checking fraud. Further, the regulatory agencies such as the National Deposit Insurance Cooperation should rise above their present reactive posture of reporting fraud cases and proactively take up measures to monitor and safeguard depositors’ funds in the Deposit Money Banks. The study also suggested a strong synergy/collaboration between National Deposit Insurance Corporation and Central Bank of Nigeria for effective and proactive monitoring and regulation of the Deposit Money Banks to check fraudulent tendencies and by so doing forestall collapse of the banks. Furthermore, the study strongly recommended that all necessary prosecution measures as well as the evidence enactments should be amended and updated by the Federal Government to ensure that fraud investigation and prosecution are sped up for positive results and justice as deterrent to others.
Strategic Marketing Practices and Non- Financial Performance of Selected Manufacturing Firms in Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)
Manufacturing companies in Lagos State has been experiencing unprecedented challenges in the globalized working surroundings that result in organisation recording low business turnover which is leading to the closure of the companies or relocating to neighboring African Country. The study, therefore, seeks to examine the strategic marketing practices and non-financial performance of selected manufacturing firms in Lagos State. A descriptive research design was adopted. The population of the study was fifty – six (56) manufacturing companies in Lagos State, out of which five (5) manufacturing companies that were strictly into food and beverages, who have reputation for making products of the best quality were selected. Each of the five (5) companies selected, an average of twenty (20) that has information to provide was used except Unilever Nigeria plc that has total numbers of twenty-one (21) staff in strategic position giving the total number of one hundred and one (101), consisting strategic managers and subordinates of food and beverages companies were used as sample size. The study hence employed the purposive sampling technique to arrive at tenable sample size. Multiple Regression and Correlation Analysis were used to analyse the data obtained. Findings show that there was a positive relationship between strategic marketing practices and the performance of selected manufacturing companies in Lagos State. Furthermore, with variables statistically significant at 95% confidence limit and sig 0.000, meaning that there was a significant correlation between the environmental scanning and business expansion of manufacturing companies in Lagos State and with R2 value = (0.505), segmentation strategy has an impact on business expansion in the selected firms. Therefore, the study recommended that manufacturing companies should have a clear understanding of both the internal and external environments through constant monitoring and evaluation of the environment. Also, manufacturing companies are expected to focus on their segmentation marketing strategy activities.
The Effect of Stress on Academic Staff Job Performance in Private Universities In Southwestern Nigeria: Bowen University as a focal point. (Published)
This study investigated sources and types of stress and their impact on academic performance of lecturers in a private university in Southwestern Nigeria with a view to devising a more pragmatic approach to the management of stress in such institutions for optimal performance. The study was carried out through survey method by administering structured questionnaire on respondents randomly selected from the academic staff of Bowen University Iwo in September, 2019. One hundred and twenty (120) copies of the questionnaire were prepared and randomly distributed by hand to respondents drawn from various colleges and programs. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in the analysis of the data collected. It was found out that both sources and types of stress have significant impacts on academic performance of lecturers when performance is considered from the points of view of teaching, publication and community service.
Implications of Employee Participation in Decision Making for the Performance of Local Government Administration in Nigeria: A survey of selected local governments in Enugu state (Published)
The paper is on the Implications of employee participation in decision making for the performance of local government administration in Nigeria. Three local governments in Enugu state were selected for the study. The paper is an empirical research using survey design approach with a population of 1972 drawn from Enugu East (526), Enugu North (746), and Enugu South (649) local government areas. A sample size of 331 employees was used. The instruments used for data generation was structured questionnaire and frequencies and percentages were used for analysis. The findings of the study include that employees’ participation significantly increases the quality of service delivery, reduces work error, increases job satisfaction, enhances better policy implementation, and better directs employees’ efforts towards organizational goals. Challenges facing employees’ participation include assumed poor knowledge and skill of employees; lack of trust of employees by top management that limit their participatory space; management unwillingness to share information with junior staff; and the traditional top-down decision making approach to management.
Correlation between Employees’ Job Performance and Management Leadership Style in Tertiary Institutions in Lagos State (Published)
The study investigates the correlation between employees’ job performance and management leadership styles in tertiary institutions in Lagos state. Which comprises of university of lagos state, Akoka (UNILAG), Lagos state university, Ojo (LASU), Yaba college of Technology (YABATECH) and Adeniran Ogunsanya college of Education, Otto-Ijanikin (AOCEOD). The research design adopted is descriptive research design and was guided by four research questions and four research hypotheses. The population for the study comprised of all academic and non-academic staff in tertiary institutions owned and financed by both state and federal government in four tertiary institutions out of six (6) of both state and federal public tertiary institutions in Lagos state through purposive sampling technologies Fifty (50) academic and Fifty (50) non-academic staffs were selected through simple random sampling techniques from each of the four (4) tertiary institutions chosen for the study. In one hundred (100) respondents from each tertiary institution with the grand total of four hundred (400) respondents. The research instrument was structured questionnaire tagged “Questionnaire on Employees’ Job Performance and Management Leadership Style” (QEJPMLS) with the twenty (20) items. The data collected were analyzed using percentage and the pearson product moment correlation co-efficient test the significant correlation of the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significant. The findings of the study revealed that there is a correlation between employees job performance and autocratic leadership style at (R-cal value 0.097, R-table value 0.81, DF=4, level of sig. =0.05). And there is a correlation between employees’ job performance and democratic leadership style at (R-cal value 0.96, R-table value 0.81, level of Sig. = 0.05). Also, there is a correlation between employees’ style at (R-cal value 0.96, R-table value 0.81, level of Sig. = 0.05). Based on the findings of the study, recommendation were given. It was concluded that, autocratic democratic and laissez-faire management leadership style have an impact on the employees’ job performance in tertiary institutions in Lagos State.
Integrated Management System Implementation in SMEs: A Proposed model for Organisational Performance and Sustainability (Published)
Management systems are important for any organization especially to small and medium enterprises (SMEs) that face limitations in areas that larger firms have stability. One of the approaches to overcome these challenges and maintain business growth is implementing and following an integrated management system (IMS), as a model for improving the organizational performance and to maintain sustainable growth in a business. SMEs are global leaders in providing employment opportunities – around 60-70 % in developed economies and 99% of all business in OECD countries, hence sustaining them and enhancing their performance in the business market over larger firms is critical to retain employment opportunities in the future. IMS provides internal and external benefits, especially being more feasible and appropriate for SMEs by increasing competitiveness, stability in business, effective resources management and resilience during market challenges. However, it’s important to focus on the specific characteristics and factors that determine SMEs effective implementation of IMS. To overcome the various barriers limiting their business growth and organizational performance, the proposed conceptional model developed through this research study in conjunction with the associated factors would enable SMEs to effectively implement IMS to achieve organizational performance and sustainability. SMEs in order to maintain a competitive nature in the emerging business markets must adopt different strategies and mechanisms to address the challenges in technology and innovation, which are the prime impacting factors that define a clear road map for sustainable growth.
Effect of Environmental Cost on Performances of Quoted Firms in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2007-2016 (Published)
The study examined the effect of environmental costs on performances of quoted firms in Sub Saharan Africa. The study adopted longitudinal/panel ex-post facto research design and random sampling technique while quantitative secondary data covering 2007 to 2016 were obtained for sixty-four extractive and industrial firms quoted in the Stock Exchanges of four Sub-Sahara African countries namely South Africa, Nigeria, Ghana and Tanzania. The models for the study were estimated using Ordinary least square regression (OLS) built on panel data analysis. In the regional level analysis as well as in South Africa and Nigeria specific country analyses, the study revealed that environmental costs represented by employee health and safety, waste management and community development costs have no significant effect on return on capital employed, earnings per share and return on equity. The study showed that in Ghana, the predictor variables demonstrated significant effect on return on capital employed and return on equity while only waste management cost has significant effect on return on capital employed and return on equity in Tanzania. The implication of the preponderance of the findings, save for the aforementioned exceptions in Ghana and Tanzania, is that quoted firms in the region are yet to adequately indulge in environmental responsibility or their environmental engagements are not adequately captured and disclosed to the extent that can cause significant swings in the measures of firm performance. The implication of the exceptions found in Ghana and Tanzania is that of comparative improvement in environmental responsibilities, compliances and disclosures by quoted firms in the two countries. The study recommended among other things that firms in Sub Saharan Africa should give greater attention to environmental responsibility, cost recognition, classification and disclosures in the annual, integrated and sustainability reports.
More than ten commercial banks have collapsed in Uganda in the last two decades due to problems such as frauds, insider lending by dominant shareholders, weak boards of directors, non-performing loans portfolios, and managerial opportunism. This paper aims to investigate the impact of corporate governance on commercial banks’ performance in Uganda. The study adopted a survey-based approach to purposively collect data from the respondents of all licensed commercial banks in Uganda at the time of the study. Data was collected using a self-administered research instrument on the most emphasized corporate governance variables of board composition, board size, capital adequacy ratio, and the independent audit committee for the performance of banks. The data quality control was ensured by establishing the internal consistency of the research instrument that resulted in an overall Cronbach’s reliability coefficient of 0.78. The data was analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression analysis statistical technique after controlling for bank size and leverage. Using an alpha level of 0.05, the study found that the change in R-squared was 27.9% with a non-significant change in F (4,14) = 1.64, p = 0.219. Secondly, for the whole model F (6,14) = 1.587, p = 0.223 which signified that was no significant impact of corporate governance on commercial banks’ performance in Uganda while controlling for bank size and leverage. In order to improve bank performance in Uganda, the central bank should step up the supervisory and regulatory policies. This would involve proactive strategies such as regular review of corporate governance instruments like the Financial Institutions Corporate Governance Regulations (2005) so as to counteract any new threats to the banking sector which could render these instruments ineffective.
This paper examines the impact of private secondary school on examination malpractices in Nigeria. It also explain the impact of the school management, teachers, parents, government agents and students on examination malpractices in Nigeria. However, it also discussed the causes and effects of Examination Malpractices on the academic achievement of the private secondary schools students. Yet, it emphasis the factors that influence the students on examination malpractice in private secondary schools. Similarly, it states the outcomes of examination malpractices on the academic performance of the secondary schools students in Nigeria. Thus, the implications of examination malpractice on the student’s academic achievement were thoroughly discussed.
Relationship between Total Quality Management Practices and Profitability: Case of Small Hotel Sector London (UK) (Published)
The rise of competition has inclined various small-scale businesses to incorporate a robust strategy in order to increase profitability. Therefore, in the contemporary enterprise sector, exceptional importance has been given to the concept of Total Quality Management by both local and multinational organisations, considering the associated benefits of continuous improvement, increased efficiency, and the overall efficacy of the organisation. Thus, the main aim of this study is to assess the impact of TQM implementation into small scale hotels in terms of financial growth (profitability); and to develop a comprehensive and feasible quality framework for managers to adopt the best TQM practices that enhance profitability through quality improvement and to achieve expected results. The researcher has applied quantitative method by recruiting 141 participants (managerial level) to achieve the overall aim and objectives of this study, Therefore, survey questionnaires by using Likert scale has been conducted leading towards descriptive, correlation and chi-square analysis of the data collected. The results showed that various TQM practices have positive impact on the profitability of small hotels, such as continuous improvement, quality improvement, role of top management, training and education, employee empowerment and technological innovation, Finally, this research makes an original contribution in the academic and practical field as it enhances the knowledge of TQM among the managers and quality practitioners. Besides presenting some recommendations for small hotels, the study also puts some suggestions for future research in this area with limitations.
The competitive nature of our business environment requires innovativeness and creativity to achieve performance. Being innovative and creative is important but being competent is very vital for any business growth. These can be achieved through training, learning new skills, attitudes, personal relationships, being initiative, information seeking and the rest to achieve entrepreneurial objectives. The paper therefore examines the competencies required for entrepreneurial performance, as influenced by personal traits and leadership skills. The paper adopted a theoretical approach and reviewed the relevant literature as a basis for the examination of entrepreneurial competencies and performance. Finding shows that engaging in entrepreneurial core competencies, personal traits and learners skills are positively related to business success. Engaging in managerial role, entrepreneurs require organizing and relationship competencies which are positively related to business success. The study recommended that government should be devoted to allocating resources for training and education. Entrepreneurs should desire entrepreneurship training and be more proactive. The study concluded that though entrepreneurial competencies are learnable through entrepreneurial training programmes and education they also serve as yardstick for formulating appropriate strategies and which when implemented enhance the attainment of business goals.
Working Capital Management –Performance Relationship: A Study of Small and Medium Enterprises in Akure, Nigeria (Published)
Despite the available potentials for sustainable growth and development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) especially in developing economies, poor management of working capital has continued to deny most SMEs the optimum performance needed to annex the inherent potentials in the business. The study therefore seeks to investigate the relationship between management of working capital and Performance of small and medium enterprises; assess various sources of financing working capital; evaluate working capital management and identify problems associated with the management of working capital of SMEs in Akure, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey with primary source of data collection through a well-structured questionnaire, to elicit information from randomly selected respondents. Both the descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the analysis. The study discovered a significant and positive relationship between working capital and performance of SMEs; identified bank loan, loan from family members and friends, and personal savings as major sources of financing working capital. The study also revealed cash as mostly used of all other working capital components while ineffective management of cash appeared to be most worrisome of all the problems associated with working capital management in the study area. The study concluded that effective working capital management ensures that SMEs have enough funds for day to day running of the business, which suggests consideration for other sources of financing working capital such as cooperative societies among others, for optimum performance needed by SMEs to annex the potentials for sustainable growth and development.