Working Capital Management –Performance Relationship: A Study of Small and Medium Enterprises in Akure, Nigeria (Published)
Despite the available potentials for sustainable growth and development of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) especially in developing economies, poor management of working capital has continued to deny most SMEs the optimum performance needed to annex the inherent potentials in the business. The study therefore seeks to investigate the relationship between management of working capital and Performance of small and medium enterprises; assess various sources of financing working capital; evaluate working capital management and identify problems associated with the management of working capital of SMEs in Akure, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey with primary source of data collection through a well-structured questionnaire, to elicit information from randomly selected respondents. Both the descriptive and inferential statistics were used for the analysis. The study discovered a significant and positive relationship between working capital and performance of SMEs; identified bank loan, loan from family members and friends, and personal savings as major sources of financing working capital. The study also revealed cash as mostly used of all other working capital components while ineffective management of cash appeared to be most worrisome of all the problems associated with working capital management in the study area. The study concluded that effective working capital management ensures that SMEs have enough funds for day to day running of the business, which suggests consideration for other sources of financing working capital such as cooperative societies among others, for optimum performance needed by SMEs to annex the potentials for sustainable growth and development.
The capacity of any organisation to function in line with its strategic objectives depends largely on its employees. But employees are not needed for themselves, rather, for their skills and competences which have limits but can be enhanced through training and development for efficient organisational performance. However, some organisations are reluctant to invest in staff training and development under the assumption that they can price skilled employees from their competitors to solve their immediate performance needs rather than invest long term in staff training and development. Consequently, the role of staff training and development tends to be downplayed. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether organisations can do without staff training and development. Using the exploration of secondary data from relevant previous studies in a mainly qualitative method, this study found sufficient evidences that strongly link staff training and development to employee and organisational performance. The study asserted that although organisations are at liberty to determine when, how and to what extent they embark on staff training and development, they inevitably have to in their pursuit of organisational success.
Examining the Adequacy of Past Performances and Teacher Judgments to Estimate GCSE and A-Level Grades During the Pandemic Crisis (Published)
On the 17th March, 2020, the British government announced that due to school closures during the height of the pandemic, GCSE and A–Level grades would be determined on the basis of teachers’ assessments and evidence of students’ hitherto attainments. England’s Education Secretary, Gavin Williamson, emphasised that “grades awarded this summer will accurately reflect students’ abilities and will be as valid this year as any other“.To test this assertion, this quantitative research study independently examined the predictive accuracy of using past performances and teacher judgments to anticipate students’ final grade outcomes among 84 third–year university students at a private university located in the outskirts of Bangkok. After assessments were formally graded, the mean end-of-year English score for 2018-2019 was calculated at 59.94%, which was significantly different to the average standard attained previously in 2017-2018 (54.36%; sig, p <0.05). Nonetheless, in disagreement with prior literature, teacher judgments proved to be statistically reliable (57.98%, not sig, p <0.05). Further implications, research recommendations and policy considerations are also discussed in this paper.
Tutors’ Perception about Teacher Trainees’ Appraisal of Tutors’ Performance as Part of Quality Teaching and Learning in the Colleges of Education in Ghana (Published)
The study intended to explore the perception of the college tutors about the performance appraisal of tutors by the student teachers as part of quality teaching and learning in the Colleges of Education in Ghana as well as improving the tutors’ performance and development. . Sixty seven (67) tutors were randomly selected from three Colleges of Education to constitute the sample for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The study found that college tutors generally acknowledged the relevance of performance appraisal to their job goals and development. Secondly, college tutors perceived performance appraisal feedback as irregular and unconstructive and did not reflect their actual performance. Thirdly, college tutors perceived the performance appraisal processes as being unfair because they were left out in the discussion of the assessment procedures claiming that performance appraisal by the student teachers alone is not enough, Fourthly, college tutors perceived that the student teachers judgment were affected by hallo and horn effect. Last but not least, college tutors somehow did not take their performance appraisal by the student teachers alone very seriously. It was recommended that assessment procedures and items leading to appraising the performance of the college tutors should be discussed with them to enable them state their positions openly in order to satisfy their needs. Also, there should be the need for triangulation of the assessment processes leading to appraising the performance of the college tutors to ensure checks and balances as well as validity of the results. Finally, performance appraisal feedback should be made regular, constructive, fair and useful to enable college tutors receive and support the programme as genuinely helping them to improve their performance and development.
Evaluation of Internal Control System on the Performance of Cooperative Societies in Selected Tertiary Institutions in Ondo State, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the internal control systems on performance of cooperative societies in some selected tertiary institutions in Ondo States, Nigeria. A stratified sampling technique was adopted for the study. The data were collected from members of registered cooperative societies in the selected tertiary institutions in the study area using structured questionnaire. The statistical tools used include de, Likert ratings, regression analysis and paired sample t-test. Results revealed that the selected cooperative societies often use all the key internal control measures which influence their performance, which include authorization measure (p = 0.027), arithmetic and accounting measures (p = 0.000), as well as budgetary measures (p = 0.001. The study recommended that cooperative societies in the tertiary institutions should strengthen their internal controls to ensure good performance
Comparative analysis of the influence of teachers’ motivation on academic performance of students in selected private and public schools in Oredo Local Government Area, Edo State. (Published)
The study examined the influence of teachers’ motivation on academic performance of students in selected private and public schools in Oredo local government area, of Edo state. The design of the study was the causal comparative design. The population of the study was the twenty-six (26) public secondary schools and two hundred and forty-five (245) private secondary schools in Oredo local government area. A sample of 300 teachers was selected for the research using the stratified, simple random and cluster sampling techniques. Mean and standard deviation, Pearson’s Correlation as well as Fishers Z were used for data analysis. The findings of the study among other showed that the motivation of teachers in selected public and private schools in Oredo Local Government area of Edo state was very efficient, the level of academic performance of selected public and private secondary school students in Oredo local government area was moderate.And a significant relationship existed between academic performance of students and teachers’ level of motivation in Oredo Local Government area of Edo state. Teachers’ level of motivation accounted for about 6% of students’ academic performance in selected private and public secondary school in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State it was therefore recommended that there is the need for all stake holders in education to always motivate teachers through regular payment of salaries, regular promotion as this have a huge influence on students’ academic performance and the urgent need for government to monitor effectively private sector participation education so as to impact in them proper motivation technique as against the slave labour they give to their staff.
The ambidextrous leadership and its impact on organizational performance in the Jordanian government schools from the viewpoint of teachers (Published)
The current study aimed at identifying the skillful leadership behaviors and measuring their impact on organizational performance in Jordanian government schools from the teachers point of view, and to achieve the goals of the study the researcher followed the descriptive analytical approach, in terms of applying the study tool, which was represented in a questionnaire consisting of (30) paragraphs, On the sample, which amounted to (356) male and female teachers from government schools in the Directorate of Jerash Education, the study reached a number of results, the most important of which were: The degree of availability of ingenious leadership behaviors among administrative leaders in Jordanian educational institutions is high, and the degree of organizational performance indicators in educational institutions Jordanian women are also high, and there is a statistically significant effect of adept leadership behavior in Jordanian educational institutions on organizational performance from the point of view of male and female teachers in Jordanian government schools, and the study recommended a number of recommendations, the most important of which were: the need to educate administrators in various fields The Kingdom’s governorates by adopting an ingenious leadership style in management, as it has positive benefits for the education process in Jordan.
This article is based on a qualitative oriented methodology to examine the written performance of six MA students majoring in English as Foreign Language (EFL) in the MA Program at one of the recently established universities in Saudi Arabia. Students’ final exam sheets were thoroughly looked at for the description of the syntactic structures in the students’ writing performance. The sampling process was selective and purposeful in the sense that it comprises three outstanding and the three poor performances out of a total of fourteen students’ exam sheets. Deviated structures together with the correct ones were analyzed and described with the aim of mapping common issues in writing performance in targeted university and assumingly which might help the targeted university and other similar contexts inside Saudi Arabia and other neighboring countries, two major sources of the unacceptable performance is lack of knowledge of the target language together with mother tongue influence. Additionally; diagnosing a remedy for the deviated forms was proposed. More reinforcement and support for those who were successful were too recommended.
The German Shakespeare (Published)
Over The past four hundred years, Shakespeare has played a significant role within a European framework, particularly, where a series of political events and ideologies were being shaped. The birth of the nation during the late 18th and 19th centuries, the first and second world wars, the process of European unification during the 1990s, are a case in point. This part challenges the idea of an all-encompassing universal Shakespeare by demonstrating that Shakespeare and his plays transmitted across different histories, languages, and traditions meant something significantly different in these geographical contexts. Rejecting the existence of a universally absolute and singular Shakespearean meaning, I attempt to demonstrate that Shakespeare is always what he is imagined to be in a cultural and historical context. The various local and national appropriations and the universality of the cultural icon, “Shakespeare”, clash in the daily practice of interpreting, performing, and teaching his plays. This paper discusses Shakespeare’s appropriation and performance in East Germany. It focuses on the theatrical production and its cultural context in this country.
Capital Structure and Firm Performance Nexus in Nigeria: A Case Study of Aluminum Extrusion Company PLC (Published)
This study investigated the link between capital structure and firm performance in Nigeria using Aluminum Extrusion Company PLC (ALEX), a company listed under the Basic material sector of the Nigerian Stock Exchange as a case study. The study adopted return on capital employed as proxy for firm performance (response variable), while capital structure components such as debt to equity ratio, debt to capital employed ratio and equity to capital employed ratio were used as the explanatory variables. Secondary data were collected from the annual published financial reports of the company for the period 2009 to 2018. The study employ descriptive statistics and multiple regression technique based on the E- view 9.0 Software as the methods of data analysis. The results revealed that debt to equity ratio has significant positive effect on return on capital employed, debt to capital employed ratio has negative influence on return on capital employed and equity to capital employed ratio has no influence on return on capital employed. Overall, capital structure has no significant effect (at 5% level) on firm performance. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that the company should finance her activities with retained earnings and use debt as the last option as this is in agreement with the perking Order theory; that the indirect effect of capital structure on firm performance be analyzed by future researchers and that the company managers are advised to be extremely conscious in the use of debt financing as an option in their capital mix up to the optimal limits, as debt to equity ratio provides positive effect though not significant on performance.
Analyzing the Link between Budgetary Control and Performance: A Case Study of Bayelsa State of Nigeria (Published)
Government at all levels prepares budget annually, however there are inconsistencies in budgetary implementation as government failure to stick to its appropriation bill is always clearly evident. This has resulted in the failure government to meet budgetary obligations as planned such as delay in payment of staff salaries, execution of capital projections to mention a few. This study examined the link between budgetary control and performance with a focus on Bayelsa State of Nigeria as a case study. The study adopted actual expenditure (AEX) representing performance as the dependent variable, while capital expenditure budget (CEB) and recurrent expenditure budget (REB) were used as the independent variables. Time series data on the variables were obtained from the Budget Department of the Ministry of Budget covering the period 2007 to 2016. The type of research design adopted in the study was ex-post facto research design. Data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis based the E-view version 10 computer software. Based on the findings the study concluded that the two independent variables have no statistical effect on actual budget performance. This means that there was no link between budgetary control and performance in Bayelsa State. The study recommended among others that government should encourage budgetary participation, consider resource availability in budgeting, strive to improve the state internally generated revenue, and employ qualified and highly skilled personnel in budget administration to ensure that budgetary control would bring about improved performance.
Analysis of the Influence of Management of Resources on Performance of National Hospital Insurance Fund, Kenya (Published)
This study was about the analysis of the influence of management of resources on performance of National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF), and the objective of the study was to establish the influence of management of resources on performance of NHIF. This study adopted mixed methodology, utilizing descriptive survey research design. This study utilized a sample size of 86 respondents arrived at by use of Slovin’s formula. Regression analysis was carried out to test the relationship between variables. The findings indicated that management of resources influenced performance of NHIF.Management of resources influenced the performance of NHIF according to the findings, with competent human resources having the highest mean score of 3.87, followed by adequate strategic resources at mean score of 3.66; however adequate financial resources had the lowest mean score of 2.40.
This study examined the impact of board activism on performance of quoted insurance companies in Nigeria. The study evaluates the effect of board meetings on the financial performance of 15 listed insurance companies existing on the Nigeria stock exchange between the period 2006-2017.Panel data regression and descriptive analysis was used to analyze the data obtained from the annual report of the sampled companies. The result of the study revealed a negative relationship with no significant impact between the board meeting and performance of insurance firms in Nigeria with emphasis on Return on Equity, Return on Asset and Tobin’s Q. It was suggested that regulatory authority focus their attention more on the skill and experience of directors at meeting of the board for good performance.
This study investigated the effect of capital structure on firm performance using a sample of seven companies listed under the consumer goods sector of the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The study adopted return on assets as proxy for performance (the response variable), while capital structure components such as debt to equity, debt to capital employed and equity to capital employed were used as the explanatory variables. Secondary data were collected from the annual published financial reports of the sampled consumer goods sector companies for the period 2009 to 2018. The study employed descriptive statistics and multiple regression technique based on the E-view 9.0 software as the methods of data analysis. The results revealed that debt to equity has insignificant positive impact on return on assets, debt to capital employed and equity to capital employed had negative but insignificant effect on return on assets. Over all, capital structure has no significant effect (at 5% level) on firm performance in the consumer goods sector. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that the management of consumer goods sector companies should exercise caution in considering the use of debt finance (following the Pecking order theory) in their capital mix up to the optimal limits, as debt to equity ratio provided insignificant positive effect on performance; and that further studies be conducted on other sectors of the economy to provide more robust generalized inferences.
The Role of Cooperative Model as Moderation on Effect of Corporate Governance on Performance (Published)
The research objective analyzes the effect of corporate governance, entrepreneurship, and the culture of innovation on the performance that is moderated by the cooperative business model. The object of research in the small business (SMEs) in the Kenjeran tourist area of Surabaya in Indonesia. The research samples, of sixty-three SME respondents from four types of businesses. Primary data were analyzed using structural equation modeling – partial least squares (SEM–PLS) software. The results showed that the cooperative business model strengthens the effect of entrepreneurship and a culture of innovation on performance. The effect of corporate governance is not directly on performance but through entrepreneurship. While the culture of innovation does not directly affect the performance of SMEs.
Influence of Teaching Methods on Students’ Performance in Kiswahili Poetry in Secondary Schools in Lugari Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
The 2002 revised curriculum for Kiswahili for secondary school education in Kenya incorporated content on poetry. Students have continually performed poor in Kiswahili paper 102/3 in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) with the poetry section being the most failed. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of instructional methodology on students’ performance in poetry in Kiswahili in Kenyan secondary schools, taking a case of Lugari Sub-County. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the research findings on the methods and teaching resources used by teachers of Kiswahili in teaching poetry. The study was based on Dale’s cone of experience theory which states that learners retain more information by what they ‘’do’’ as opposed to what they ‘’hear’’, ‘’read’’ or ‘’observe.’’ The study adopted a survey research design. It targeted secondary schools in Lugari Sub-County, Kakamega County in Kenya. The researcher used stratified sampling to place schools into three strata; four schools per strata were sampled making a total of twelve schools with twelve teachers of Kiswahili from the sampled schools. Purposive sampling was used to sample Form Three students. Data were collected using two sets of questionnaires, observation checklist, and document analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the obtained data and findings placed under themes. It was found that oral questioning and lecture methods dominated poetry in Kiswahili lessons. Therefore, the research recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should explore a variety of interactive teaching methods to enhance students’ mastery of content.
Investigating the Instructional Effect of TBLT on Business Students’ English Language Performance (Published)
The aim of this research paper was to explore the instructional impact of Task-Based Language Teaching on English language attainments among 81 second-year university business studies students. The participants were studying a private university located in the surrounding areas of Bangkok, and were introduced to a TBLT learning environment for the duration of one English course (16 weeks). To test the effectiveness of TBLT, t-tests analyses (0.05) were utilised to compare resulting end-of-term performances with prior achievements attained under the conventional form of instruction. Overall, the findings indicated that TBTL positively influenced English language performances when compared to conventional methodologies (TBLT: 60.9 = Grade C+; CONV: 54.93 = Grade C; p [0.0195] = sig <0.05). Nevertheless, the bulk of progress was concentrated in speaking skills (p = sig <0.05), as no significant difference was noted in formal comprehensive examinations. Furthermore, variability analyses highlighted that upper-quartile students showed significant improvements in both major sets of assessments (speaking and formal examinations); while speaking scores for the lower-quartile remained stagnant, and formal examination scores exacerbated altogether. This led to the unequivocal conclusion that learners’ response to TBLT is governed by linguistic potential.
Influence of Social Media on Communication Skills and Academic Performance of Business Education Students in Colleges of Education in Southwest, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed the influence of social media on communication skill acquisition and academic performance of business education students. The study had two specific purposes, three research questions and two hypotheses. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population consisted of 461 respondents. A structured questionnaire tagged Influence of Social Media on Communication Skills and Academic Performance Questionnaire (ISMCSAPQ) was used to collect data from the respondents. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by three experts with a Cronbach reliability coefficient of 0.87. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data to answer the research questions while linear regression statistic was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed among others that social media use significantly positively influence communication skills and academic performance of business education students in colleges of education. It was concluded that social media when used effectively for academic purposes is capable of improving communication skills and academic performance of Business Education students in colleges of education. The study is potentially of great significance to teachers and students, enabling them to recognize, accept and deploy social media as implements of teaching, learning and skill acquisition. It was recommended among others that students should be encouraged to use social media to acquire necessary information while government provide conducive learning environment such as e-library for academic excellence.
Performance and Nutrient Utilization of Pullet Grower Chickens Fed Diets Containing Prosopis Africana Seed Coat Meal Treated With Polyzyme (Published)
The study evaluated the effect of prosopis africana seed coat meal (PASCM) on the performance and nutrient utilization of three hundred (300) Nera brown pullet grower birds that were fed for 12 weeks. The birds were randomly allotted to 5 experimental diets with 3 replications of 20 birds each. The diets were formulated with the inclusion of PASCM at 0, 15, 20, 25 and 30% levels, respectively and the data collected were subjected to analysis of Variance in a completely randomized design. Results obtained indicated that the experimental diets significantly (P < 0.05) affected the average feed intake, while body weight gain, final weight of birds, FCR and PER were not affected (P > 0.05). Mortality was not observed. The Nutrient digestibility of CP and NFE did not showed significant (P > 0.05) effect, but CF and EE were affected by the dietary treatments. It is therefore suggested that 20% PASCM inclusion level could be adopted for optimum growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pullet growers’ diets.
Gender Differences in English Language and Science Related Subjects in the Context of Higher Education in Thailand (Published)
This study was conducted at a university in the surrounding areas of Bangkok to cross-compare academic performances between female (n = 406) and male (n = 496) students in both English language skills and GPA scores in science-based subjects. 902 second-year students were selected from four separate faculties to examine the interaction of the gender variable across a broader spectrum of academic backgrounds; faculty subgroups were clustered accordingly: business studies (n = 315), engineering (n = 317), computer science (n = 178) and veterinary medicine (n = 92). T-tests calculations indicated that female students’ level of attainment was significantly higher in both academic spheres: English (females: 56.85, males: 47.87; [sig: p = <0.05]); GPA (females: 70.5, males; 63.75; [sig: p = <0.05]). Furthermore, according to faculty subgroup comparisons, females consistently outperformed their male counterparts in both English language and science related subjects, and also outnumbered their male peers in the top-100 achievers in both domains.