Tag Archives: Perception

Perception Analysis and Consumer Behaviour on Purchasing Shell Helix Lubricate Oil Product by Pt. Tira Wira Usaha (Published)

At present most companies not only produce products and sell them,  but switch to consumers to meet their needs and wants. Environmental factors, technological developments and corporate competition will affect the value and consumer satisfaction towards the products offered. Marketing is a social and managerial process whereby individuals and groups get their needs and wants by creating, offering and exchanging something of value to each other. Products are things that can be offered to the market to be noticed, obtained, used or consumed that can meet the wants or needs of consumers.Consumer’s age of Shell Helix lubricants varies in meaning that can be used by all ages and the most user of Shell Helix lubricants are aged 26 – 30 years. Consumer perceptions towards product attributes on consumer behaviour towards Shell Helix lubricant oil purchasing turns out  to have a  significant effect.

Keywords: Consumer Behaviour, Perception, Product, Purchasing, Respondent

Alternative Options in Building Workers’ Incentives: Effects On Job Satisfaction and Performance in Local Context (Published)

Incentives are motivators and highly critical in determining positive feelings and work behaviour in different contexts and satisfaction often depends on its relevance to felt needs of workers. The uncritical adoption of foreign schemes in local contexts has distanced reward strategies from employees’ needs and demands alternative strategies. The study tested innovative incentives and relationships with satisfaction and performance of employees in a local enterprise using 50 participants (74% males). A reliable instrument, aggregate α=0.74 was used to gather information and inferential statistics used for analysis. Inferential statistics were used to run the analysis.  Results of the study showed that traditional and nontraditional incentives significantly determine employee job satisfaction, (p < 0.01). With regards to effects on performance, traditional incentive was significant, (p < 0.01), while nontraditional incentive failed to predict performance. Although results suggested that traditional and nontraditional incentives remain key determinants of satisfaction, only traditional incentives could influence performance. The test of positive feelings as a factor in performance was highly significant. The paper, therefore, suggests that additional studies should be carried out in order to validate the innovative model for best practices in incentives design and administration in local contexts.

Keywords: Compensation, Culture, Innovation, Perception, Work

Social Studies Pre- Service Teachers and their Lecturers Perception of Social Studies Apps in teaching Social Studies in the University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria (Published)

The aim of this descriptive study is to illustrate how University of Port Harcourt Social Studies Pre-Service teachers and their lecturers perceive the use of SOS App to enhance teaching and learning. The study made use of Social Studies Post National Certificate of Education (NCE), Master of Education (MEd) and Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) Students of the University of Port Harcourt Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of the five PhD students of 2015/2017 set, fifteen MEd students of 2015/2016 and two hundred and three Post NCE students of 2014/2015 set, five Social Studies Lecturers, and five lecturers that also teach Social Studies courses. Simple random sampling technique was used to select a sample of one hundred (101) post NCE students from the population, but the total population of PhD, MEd and lecturers were used.  A questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. Information gathered from the field were decoded and tallied, and the frequency counts determined. Percentage scores were computed. Tables were constructed in respect of the demands of the respective research questions. The result of the study indicated the following among other thing; both students and teachers except the Post NCE students are aware of SOS Apps and its importance in enhancing Social Studies content, they have similar challenges of low level of knowledge and skill in technology. The researcher therefore recommended that both Social Studies teachers and preservice teachers should be encouraged to use technology in their classrooms through motivation, constant and consistent training.

Keywords: Lecturers, Nigeria, Perception, Social Studies Apps, Social Studies Pre- Service Teachers, University of Port Harcourt

Traditional Boarding School Education Seulimum Aceh Besar (Published)

This research is a qualitative research which aims to obtain various information and actual data about people’s perceptions of traditional pesantren education development in Aceh provision, as well as to explore information and ideas of the community towards the pesantren learning system, community opinion on the policies and support of the Aceh government and big aceh to pontren-pontren in Seulimeum aceh sub-district is big, and at the same time to explore and study internal and external factors that become supporters and inhibitors in conducting guidance on traditional pesantren educational institutions. The results of the study can show that: With the assistance program for the development of pontren development carried out by the Aceh government, the pontren education institutions can reorganize the formation of pesantren education in accordance with the expectations of society, so that traditional pesantren can progress according to the demands of the times. Learning that is done in pontren and life-long education conducted in traditional pesantren, Seulimeum subdistrict, can realize the intelligence and maturity of thinking of students. The various policies and support that the Aceh government has given to pontren, this can be motivated by the community to set up huts and prayer halls. With the availability of sufficient teaching staff in the Pontrenia and the establishment of good relations between the pesantren institutions and the Aceh government and the big Aceh and the good socio-economic conditions of the students, these conditions can support the formation of traditional mentoring education. Especially with regard to the lack of available facilities for some pontren in the big Seulimeum Aceh district and the weak condition of some socio-economic santri can hamper the formation of the pontren in question.

Keywords: Community, Perception, traditional pesantren

Perception of Teachers in Regular Schools towards Inclusive Education in Tano South District, Brong Ahafo Region, Ghana (Published)

This paper examines the extent of awareness of teachers on the concept of inclusive education, the perception teachers have on inclusive education and the perceived effects of inclusive education in the public basic schools towards the implementation    of inclusive education in the Tano South District in Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana.  Three research questions were formulated. Survey approach was adopted using questionnaire as the main data collection instrument. Forty (40) head teachers and one hundred and eighty five (185) teachers were selected from forty (40) basic schools for the study.  In all, a total of two hundred and twenty two (225) teachers and head teachers were randomly selected across the district and questionnaires administered to them. The questionnaires were semi-structured. Data was captured and analyzed.  The results presented in tables showed that most teachers and head teachers in Tano South District were aware of the concept of inclusive education but have no understanding on how the concept works. Teachers and head teachers alike disagreed inclusion of special needs children in regular classroom increase the child’s circle of friends, limit the child’s level of education or make a child well-adjusted socially among others. However, when the concept is implemented it would come with some benefits in the area of increase in the child’s circle of friends, limits the child’s level of education and also make a child well-adjusted socially. The study recommended that; teachers in regular basic schools in Tano South District be educated on the issues of the new policy of inclusive education concept. This, Ghana education service can achieve by organizing workshops at the district levels as well as regional levels for basic level teachers. Conscious effort should be made to make it visible and available to the schools in the district. Necessary equipment and instructional resources should be put in place for successful implementation of inclusive education

Keywords: Basic Education, Inclusive Education, Mainstream education, Perception, Regular Schools, Tano South District

Perception of Teachers on the Effectiveness of In-Service Education and Training at the Basic Schools in Akatsi District of Ghana (Published)

This study sought to investigate the perception of teachers on the effectiveness of in-service education and training (INSET) at the basic schools in Akatsi South District of Ghana. It also sought to find out how often in-service training programmes were organized in the district and how effective the training programme were. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used in carrying out the investigation using a sample of 60 teachers in Akatsi District of Ghana.  Also, stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used in selecting the respondents.  The main instruments for data collection were questionnaire and interview. The study revealed that majority of the teachers perceived or rated INSET programmes organized for them as being adequate and very effective with regards to teaching and learning in the district. On the other hand, most of the head-teachers (70%) debunk the assertion made by the teachers that INSET programmes were very effective with regard to teaching and learning in the district. They were of the view that most teachers who attend in-service training did not perform effectively in their work with regard to understanding pupils’ errors, enhancing teachers’ knowledge, preparing effective lesson notes, selection and use of appropriate TLMs and interpreting the curriculum concerning teaching and learning in the district. It was recommended among others that the organizers of in-service training programmes in Akatsi district look for qualified instructors who understand the needs of the teachers to handle the various subject areas during INSET programmes and place more emphasis on the professional skill development aspect of the teacher.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Perception, in-service training

Perception of Teachers on the Effectiveness of In-service Education and Training At the Basic Schools in Akatsi District Of Ghana (Published)

This study sought to investigate the perception of teachers on the effectiveness of in-service education and training (INSET) at the basic schools in Akatsi South District of Ghana. It also sought to find out how often in-service training programmes were organized in the district and how effective the training programme were. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used in carrying out the investigation using a sample of 60 teachers in Akatsi District of Ghana.  Also, stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used in selecting the respondents.  The main instruments for data collection were questionnaire and interview. The study revealed that majority of the teachers perceived or rated INSET programmes organized for them as being adequate and very effective with regards to teaching and learning in the district. On the other hand, most of the head-teachers (70%) debunk the assertion made by the teachers that INSET programmes were very effective with regard to teaching and learning in the district. They were of the view that most teachers who attend in-service training did not perform effectively in their work with regard to understanding pupils’ errors, enhancing teachers’ knowledge, preparing effective lesson notes, selection and use of appropriate TLMs and interpreting the curriculum concerning teaching and learning in the district. It was recommended among others that the organizers of in-service training programmes in Akatsi district look for qualified instructors who understand the needs of the teachers to handle the various subject areas during INSET programmes and place more emphasis on the professional skill development aspect of the teacher.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Perception, in-service training

Perception of Teachers on the Effectiveness of Inservice Education and Training at the Basic Schools in Akatsi District of Ghana (Published)

This study sought to investigate the perception of teachers on the effectiveness of in-service education and training (INSET) at the basic schools in Akatsi South District of Ghana. It also sought to find out how often in-service training programmes were organized in the district and how effective the training programme were. A descriptive cross-sectional survey was used in carrying out the investigation using a sample of 60 teachers in Akatsi District of Ghana.  Also, stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used in selecting the respondents.  The main instruments for data collection were questionnaire and interview. The study revealed that majority of the teachers perceived or rated INSET programmes organized for them as being adequate and very effective with regards to teaching and learning in the district. On the other hand, most of the head-teachers (70%) debunk the assertion made by the teachers that INSET programmes were very effective with regard to teaching and learning in the district. They were of the view that most teachers who attend in-service training did not perform effectively in their work with regard to understanding pupils’ errors, enhancing teachers’ knowledge, preparing effective lesson notes, selection and use of appropriate TLMs and interpreting the curriculum concerning teaching and learning in the district. It was recommended among others that the organizers of in-service training programmes in Akatsi district look for qualified instructors who understand the needs of the teachers to handle the various subject areas during INSET programmes and place more emphasis on the professional skill development aspect of the teacher.

Keywords: Effectiveness, Perception, in-service training

Perceived Inter-Parental Conflict and Academic Achievement Motivation among Form Three Students’ In Ruiru Sub-County (Published)

This paper is part of a study that was conducted in Ruiru Sub-County. The aim of the study was to examine the extent to which perceived inter-parental conflict influence academic achievement motivation among form three students. Three theories guided the study namely; Martin Seligman’s Learned Helplessness Theory, Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Systems Theory and Grych and Finchams’s Cognitive Contextual Framework Theory. The study employed mixed method research design on a sample of 281 students, 7 guidance and counseling teachers and 10 parents. The target population comprised form three students, guidance and counseling teachers and parents of the students. Purposeful sampling was used to select the guidance and counseling teachers and parents while proportionate stratified sampling technique was used to select schools from 13 public and 18 private schools in the sub-county as well as to from which the students were randomly selected. Data was collected using four instruments: Children Perception of Inter-parental Conflict Questionnaire (CPIC) and Academic Motivation Survey (AMS) for Students, interview schedule for seven guidance and counseling master/mistress and focus group discussion for ten parents.  Data analysis was then done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient (r) was used to establish the relationship between perceived inter-parental conflict and academic achievement motivation at 0.05 significance level. The results provided evidence that there was a significant relationship between inter-parental conflict and students’ academic achievement motivation in qualitative data. A major implication and recommendation of the study was that, teachers, parents and all stakeholders in education should work together in creating conducive school and home environments for the development of academic achievement motivation. New intervention should be devised to make inter-parental conflict less afflicting to the children.

Keywords: Academic Achievement Motivation, Form three students, Inter-Parental Conflict, Perception, Ruiru Sub County

To Talk or Not To Talk: Perceptions of Yemeni Undergraduates Regarding Their Willingness to Communicate in English (Published)

Willingness to communicate (WTC) in a foreign language has gained much more attention as an important concept in improving students’ oral skills. The present study explored undergraduate students’ perceptions of their WTC in English across four types of contexts and three types of receivers. The exploratory design was employed with 100 college students who were involved in the current study. Data of the study were collected through using a self-reported questionnaire. Descriptive statistics including mean and standard deviations were run to analyze the data. Students were found to be more willing and less willing to communicate in classes in terms of both communication contexts and in terms of the three types of receivers. Some pedagogical implications for future research are provided by the end of the study.

Keywords: And Receiver- Type., Context- Type, Perception, Willingness to Communicate

Perception on the Naira Devaluation and Its Effects on Poverty Reduction in Nigeria (Published)

The crash of crude oil price has devastated Nigerian economy being a mono-product economy. The nation’s reserves have dropped and the Central Bank is finding it difficult to meet its import demands. There is agitation from investors and the IMF to devalue the currency to stimulate economic growth, encourage export and discourage import. The public thinks otherwise. The study revealed devaluation of the naira will not encourage significant demand for local goods but rather rise in the prices of local products which rise in direct proportion with imported substitutes thereby fuelling inflation. Also, the economy has remained neither diversified nor internationally competitive. It is recommended among others that government review the current import tariffs, promote incentives to encourage investment in local manufacturing, direct foreign direct investment (FDI) on manufacturing/productive industries with hundred per cent (100%) local raw materials and tax holidays.

Keywords: Devaluation, Inflation, Perception, Social Infrastructure, economic growth

Teachers Attitude towards Improvisation, Its Effects on the Study of Science at the Junior High Schools in Aowin Municipality-Ghana (Published)

Teaching science requires science teachers to provide enough materials to enable students to learn by using all their senses. Therefore, where the schools are isolated or inaccessible, materials can be improvised to enhance science teaching and learning.  This paper seeks to investigate the attitudes of teachers towards improvisation and its effects on the study of science and to suggest recommendations for school administrators. The instrument used was a structured questionnaire. Data for the study were obtained by administering 120 questionnaires to 120 teachers. Ten public Junior High Schools were selected. 12 teachers were sampled randomly from each Junior School making a total of 120. 120 questionnaires were fully answered and returned. The data were analyzed using frequency counts and percentages.  .

Keywords: Achievement, Improvisation, Learning, Perception, Teaching, attitude

Appraisal Practices In Pre-Tertiary Institutions: Evidence from Appraisees (Published)

Performance appraisal is regarded as an important tool that enhances improvement in staff performance and institutional efficiency and productivity. It has consequently become a routine practice for administrators and authorities of institutions. The study set out to examine teachers’ knowledge on rationales for performance appraisal, their perception of the practice, their attitude towards its implementation and their concerns about it. The descriptive study employed a questionnaire as a data collection tool. The data was analysed descriptively and the results are presented in means and standard deviations. The results showed that the teachers had little knowledge on the objectives for conducting performance appraisal. Again, they held a negative perception about it and also had an unfavourable attitude towards it. The study also unveiled concerns that the participants had about performance appraisal, which need to be addressed to enhance its implementation. Recommendations have been proffered for policy and practice.    

Keywords: Appraisal Results., Challenges, Objectives, Perception, Performance Appraisal, attitude

Differential Thresholds of Farmers’ and Public Extension Agents’ Perceptions Of Benefits of Cost Sharing in Extension Service Delivery in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria. (Published)

The study was carried out in Benue and Nasarawa States, Nigeria to assess perceived benefits of cost-sharing among farmers and public extension agents. Data was collected from a sample of 346 respondents using interview schedule/questionnaire as well as Focus Group Discussion. Descriptive statistics such as frequency and percentage as well as Mann-Whitney U test were used for data analysis. Majority of the farmers (61.4%) and all (100%) the public extension agents were males, middle aged, having formal education which enabled them to understand possible benefits of cost-sharing in agricultural extension service. Farmers’ and public extension agents’ perceived benefits of cost-sharing practices were observed in the areas of equity participation of stakeholders (18.4%), result orientation of scheme (14.2%), effective monitoring of project (13.9%), demand driven of extension service (12.1%) and meeting of targets of extension service delivery (10.8%), among others. There was a significant difference between Benue and Nasarawa States in terms of perceived benefits of cost-sharing practices by respondents. This was due to the higher average work experience of farmers in Benue State as opposed to their counterparts in Nasarawa State implying that the longer the work life of an individual the better exposed he is to work experiences that would enhance his sense of perception and judgment. The study recommends that farmers be encouraged towards consistency in their primary occupation of farming to improve their cognate experience while efforts are made by service providers to ensure that extension services provided for end users are demand driven and result oriented in order to achieve the objectives of extension service delivery. The need for adequate measures for effective monitoring of extension services for greater efficiency was considered necessary as it will help to encourage stakeholders to participate in cost-sharing.

Keywords: Cost sharing., Farmers, Perception, public extension agents

Assessing Employees’ Perception of Conflict Management (Causes, Effects) an Empirical Study at Employees’ Working on Malathik for Real Estate Development and Installments Company (Published)

The concept of conflict has been treated as a general social phenomenon, with implications for the understanding of conflict within and between organizations. (Mike Amuhaya Iravo 2011). Employee conflict in the workplace is a common occurrence, resulting from the differences in employees’ personalities and values. Dealing with employee conflict in a timely manner is important to maintaining a healthy work environment. There are different causes and effects of conflicts has been investigated by academic researchers from 1978 till now, however still no agreement between researchers for causes and effects of conflicts. The purpose of this study is to assess employees’ perception of conflict management (Causes, Effects) for employees’ working on Malathik for real estate development and Installments Company. The research design was a descriptive survey. This design was adopted because it is most appropriate and helpful in determining and describing the perception of respondents on the variables studied (Gay, 1992; Newman, 2003). The target population comprised employees who had worked at Malathik for real estate development and Installments Company. The researcher designed and distributed (40 ) questionnaire forms and excluded (11) forms due to the lack of information which means overall sample is (29) employee . The data for the study was collected between September and November 2016. The data collected were edited, coded and processed with the Statistical Package for Science Solutions (SPSS), and discussed in narrative style for clarity and better understanding. Pearson correlation coefficient value was significant at the (0.05) level in dimension one (causes of conflict) and dimension two (effects of conflict) which reflect high validity for data to be used for analysis. Also alpha coefficient greater than the minimum acceptable 60% which was 69%, indicating a high reliability. The SPSS results for causes of conflict indicated that employee’s strongly agree about cause of conflict in their company come from ego problems and salaries & wages .The results also indicated that total mean of question number 2 is (2.34) which reflect that employees did not agree about poor organizational structure at Malathik Company while the total mean for question number three is 2.83 which reflect neutral answer. The SPSS results for effects of conflict indicated that employee’s agree about effect of conflict lead to low morale, low quality and lack of direction .The results also indicated that total mean of question number 8 is (2.34) which reflect that employees did not agree about low productivity at Malathik Company while the total mean for question number ten is 2.90 which reflect neutral answer. Finally, Based on research results and literature review, researcher has developed guidelines to avoid conflict not only suitable for Malathik Company but also can be applied in any organizations.

Keywords: Causes of Conflict, Conflict, Effects of Conflict, Employees, Perception

Perception of Quality Service among Customers of Deposit Money Banks in Dutsinma Local Government Area, Katsina, Nigeria (Published)

The study sought to determine Perception of quality service among customers of Deposit Money Banks (DMBs) in Dutsinma Local Government Area, Katsina, Nigeria. The objective of the study is to determine customers’ perception of quality service from the point of view of; tangibility and reliability of the services; responsiveness and assurances of the banks to their customers.  Secondary and primary sources were used in generating data for the study. Using stratified and random sampling techniques, the primary data was collected by means of a structured questionnaire administered to 380 customers of the three DMBs in the study area. Descriptive as well as inferential statistics (Regression Analysis) were used in analyzing the data collected from the respondents. The study found that the responsiveness aspect of the banking services has the highest impact on perception of quality service among customers of DMBs in the study area. This is followed by tangibility and reliability aspects of the services. The assurance aspects of the said banking services have the least impact on perception of quality service among the customers. Based on the findings, the study recommended that the three DMBs in Dutsinma Local Area should place more emphasis on the aspects of responsiveness and tangibility in their advertisement and physical interaction with their customers.

Keywords: Customers, Perception, Quality Service

Perception of Health Hazards Associated With Agro-Chemicals Use among Arable Crop Farmers’ In Mubi Agricultural Zone, Adamawa State, Nigeria (Published)

Unsafe use and handling of agro-chemicals among Nigerian farmers continue to constitute health hazards and environmental degradation. The study investigated respondents’ socio-economic characteristics; agro-chemicals use; awareness of safety practices; information sources and perception of health hazards in agro-chemicals use. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 251 respondents. Data was analyzed using frequency, percentages and correlation. Respondents’ mean age was 40 years; 68.1% were male; 70.1% were married; and 69.9% had 1-5 persons per household. Most respondents (48.6%) attained only primary school, 69.8% had farming experience of ≥10 year, 96.3% used agrochemicals, 74.5% were unaware of safety precautions and 43.4% perceived agrochemical use as hazardous. Farm associates/friends and radio were the most used information sources.  Perception of health hazards in agrochemicals use was positively correlated to educational attainment(r=-0.82), farming experience(r=0.35), age(r=0.20) and household size(r=0.16). Agricultural extension outfits/agents should educate farmers on safe use of agrochemicals.

Keywords: Arable Crop Farmers and Agro-chemicals, Health Hazards, Perception

Consumer Perception and Factors Influencing In Adapting Of Bottled Water Consumption in Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka (Published)

The bottled water consumption pattern shows an increasing trend in Batticaloa District for the past decade. Development activities and tourism promotion play an important role in the development of bottled water sales and consumption in the District which is visible in increased number of bottled water distributors and sales points. A survey was conducted to examine the factors influencing the bottled water consumption and how they influence in the consumers’ preference in selected DS divisions of Batticaloa District. The study also aims to find the significant relationship of consumption behavior spatially. The analysis of the responses shows that some of demographic and marketing factors are significantly associated with the consumption pattern and provide a significant contribution to the consumer perception towards bottled water. The consumption pattern also shows a strong relationship with the geographical locations in the District.

Keywords: Bottled water, Consumers, Perception, Spatial, consumption pattern

Perception of Health Hazards Associated With Agro-Chemicals Use among Arable Crop Farmers’ In Mubi Agricultural Zone, Adamawa State, Nigeria (Published)

Unsafe use and handling of agro-chemicals among Nigerian farmers continue to constitute health hazards and environmental degradation. The study investigated respondents’ socio-economic characteristics; agro-chemicals use; awareness of safety practices; information sources and perception of health hazards in agro-chemicals use. Multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 251 respondents. Data was analyzed using frequency, percentages and correlation. Respondents’ mean age was 40 years; 68.1% were male; 70.1% were married; and 69.9% had 1-5 persons per household. Most respondents (48.6%) attained only primary school, 69.8% had farming experience of ≥10 year, 96.3% used agrochemicals, 74.5% were unaware of safety precautions and 43.4% perceived agrochemical use as hazardous. Farm associates/friends and radio were the most used information sources.  Perception of health hazards in agrochemicals use was positively correlated to educational attainment(r=-0.82), farming experience(r=0.35), age(r=0.20) and household size(r=0.16). Agricultural extension outfits/agents should educate farmers on safe use of agrochemicals.

Keywords: Arable Crop Farmers and Agro-chemicals, Health Hazards, Perception

Consumer Perception and Factors Influencing in Adapting of Bottled Water Consumption in Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka (Published)

The bottled water consumption pattern shows an increasing trend in Batticaloa District for the past decade. Development activities and tourism promotion play an important role in the development of bottled water sales and consumption in the District which is visible in increased number of bottled water distributors and sales points. A survey was conducted to examine the factors influencing the bottled water consumption and how they influence in the consumers’ preference in selected DS divisions of Batticaloa District. The study also aims to find the significant relationship of consumption behavior spatially. The analysis of the responses shows that some of demographic and marketing factors are significantly associated with the consumption pattern and provide a significant contribution to the consumer perception towards bottled water. The consumption pattern also shows a strong relationship with the geographical locations in the District.

Keywords: Bottled water, Consumers, Perception, Spatial, consumption pattern