Testing the Environmental Kuznet curve in selected West African countries: Empirical Evidence Estimation (Published)
Environmental economics studied has become increasingly most popular in local and international communities. This is due to the fact that we are currently facing pressing issues about climate change effects in our planet. In this paper we empirical testing the environmental kuznet curve hypothesis by analysis the relationship between environmental quality (Proxy carbon (VI) oxide (CO2) emission per capita) and per capita income. The panel estimation such as fixed effect and random effect were applied. From the results, the fixed effect model for CO2 revealed that population density, per capita income, per capita income squared, trade openness, exchange rate(real effective exchange rate proxy), and agriculture were statistically significant. The negative coefficient indicated in the following variables-agriculture, exchange rate, and trade openness. Any percentage increases in those variables, reduces the Environmental quality (proxy CO2) in selected West African countries. The results further indicated that trade openness lead to an increases in environmental pollution by improving key economic activities such as mining, which may reduce CO2 per capita emission in the selected West Africa countries. For the population density has positive and significant effects on environmental quality and has the a-priori expectation in our model.
Economic Implications of Environmental Degradation in Nigeria: Is the Environmental Kuznets Curve Relevant to Nigeria (Published)
Challenges of environmental degradation have been an impediment to the level of economic progress in Nigeria. The major objective of the paper is to establish the economic consequence of environmental degradation drawing from the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) framework. The research covered the period between 1986 and 2017. The Ordinary Least Squares and Granger Causality were used to analyze the data. The result indicates that per capita income has a positive and insignificant relationship with carbon emission. An indication of the absence of the EKC. The square of the per capita income has a positive and insignificant relationship with carbon emission. A further confirmation of the absence of the EKC in Nigeria. Population has a significant and positive impact on the level of carbon emission. Openness and FDI have positive and significant impact on carbon emission. The result of the granger causality test indicates no causal relationship between carbon emission and per capita income. Increase in per capita income that is not followed by a rise in inflation rate as well as strong regulatory measures are recommended.