The study investigated teachers’ instructional practices in senior high schools at Bantama in the Kumasi metropolis. The objectives of the study were to identify instructional practices mostly used, established whether significant association exist between number of years taught and instructional practices, assess whether significant difference exist between gender and teachers’ instructional practices. One research question and two hypotheses were formulated to direct the study. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The schools and teachers were chosen using purposive sampling technique. Ninety-six teachers constituted the sample size for the study. Questionnaire was the main data gathering instrument used for the study. Pre-test conducted yielded reliability coefficientof 0.82. Data were analyzed using means and standard deviations, Pearson Chi-Square (x2) of Independence and Independent Sample T-test. Findings indicated that teachers mostly studied the performance of students. Significant and positive association was established between teachers’ instructional practices and number of years taught. It was therefore, recommended among others that there is a continuous need for teachers to reinforce the practice of studying performance of students to enable them modify methods of teaching to benefit all manner of students. Ghana Education Service needs to organise workshop on effective instructional practices every academic year for teachers to update their knowledge on instructional practices they ought to apply.
Man is not just a physical being but also has several other dimensions which include the spiritual (soul and spirit), social, cognitive and emotional aspects; the proper development of all these listed aspects of man can be viewed under the scope of holism. It is not only the intellectual and vocational aspects of human development that need guidance and nurturing, but also the physical, social, moral, aesthetic, artistic and spiritual aspects. As a result, this paper looks at how holistic education can be used in developing Literature-in-English curriculum in Nigeria, the interconnectedness of all aspects of human life vis-a-vis Literature-in-English, its implication on teaching and learning. This paper draws ample instances from two texts from the present West African Examination Council (WAEC) 2016-2020 Literature-in-English syllabus. It concludes by stating that education should be based on experiential learning and should empower all citizens to participate in meaningful ways in the life of the immediate community and society at large. It also advocates that holistic education as an approach to pedagogy meets the needs of all types of learners, serves as a source of fulfilment and gratification for teachers and parents which should therefore be integrated into the Nigerian education at all levels.
Pedagogy for Teaching and Promoting Social Justice and Human Rights in Early Childhood Educational Institutions in Nigeria (Published)
Every state is desirous of quality and meaningful development where empowerment, emancipation and liberation of the citizens is key. Achieving and enjoying a state where empowerment, emancipation and liberation of the citizens are norms can only be possible through education especially one that is provided to citizens in their early childhood days and in an atmosphere where the fundamental human rights of the citizens and the citizens’ pursuit of other socio-moral and socio-political ideals are guaranteed. An educational provision that promises the Nigerian society such value-laden ideals is one that is deep-rooted in social justice and human rights. Using the philosophical method, this paper focuses on the pedagogy for promoting social justice and human rights among early learners in Nigeria. The study is strongly anchored on the position that early and sound foundations of Nigerian learners on issues that border on social justice and human rights (individual welfare, public welfare or national interests) have potentials to challenge learners into indulging in abstract, creative and critical thinking that revolve around human welfare and the welfare of the state. The study concludes by raising pedagogical signposts through which the ideals of social justice and human rights can be inculcated in early childhood learners in Nigeria.
Integrating English Language Skills at Under-Graduation Level through Principled Eclecticism Method (Published)
According to academic research, linguists have demonstrated that there is not one single best method for everyone in all contexts, and that no single teaching method is good or bad or inherently superior to the others. The ground reality is that it is not always possible and appropriate to apply the same pedagogy to all learners, who have different objectives, environments and learning needs like Jazan University, Saudi Arabia. The modern teacher, in fact needs to use a variety of methodologies and approaches, choosing techniques from each method that he considers more effective and applies them according to learning context and objectives. A professional EFL teacher follows what is described as the Principled Eclecticism approach, where students are also encouraged to be autonomous in their learning. The teacher can integrate and develop all four skills of English, i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing. English language learners should not expect the teacher to deliver everything to them ready-made but should realize their own sense of responsibility with self-motivation, self-direction and spirit of self-learning English as a second language through the techniques that suits to their needs of learning the target language. The present critical situation of teaching-learning English in Jazan University has been interrogated through questionnaire and opinionnaire developed for the teachers and the students for valid and reliable data.
Teachers’ Perception towards the Use of Communicative Language Teaching in Enhancing Secondary School Students’ Communicative Competence in English Language (Published)
ABSTRACT: English language which is the second and unifying language in Nigeria is taught at all educational levels in the country mainly to ensure that students have a grasp of it and should be able to communicate effectively in it in various contexts. This study investigated the perception of English language teachers towards the use of Communicative Language Teaching in enhancing secondary school students’ communicative competence in English language. This study is a descriptive research of the survey type which focuses on how secondary school students in Ibadan South –West Local Government Area of Oyo State can use English Language in real life situations. Fifty English Language teachers randomly selected from some secondary schools constituted the sample for the study. A self- constructed questionnaire consisting of fifteen items was used to collect the data for the study. Test-retest method was used to determine the reliability of the instrument and a reliability coefficient of 0.74 was obtained. The study found out that schools lack the material that can promote communicative language teaching in schools and that most teachers considered classroom interaction a time consuming activity. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the government should provide gadgets and necessary materials needed for effective utilization of communicative language teaching so that students’ confidence in speaking and communicative competence can be improved. Teachers should endeavor to make their classes interactive and employ activities that can facilitate English Language usage in real life situation.
Influence of Teachers’ Gender and Age on the Integration of Computer Assisted Instruction in Teaching and Learning of Social Studies among Basic Schools in Tamale Metropolis (Published)
This study was conducted in Tamale Metropolis to explore the influence of teachers’ variables (gender and age) on the level of integration of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in the teaching and learning of Social Studies. Three research questions and two hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. Quantitative research design was employed for the study. Data for the research was collected from 20 Junior High Schools randomly sampled from Tamale Metropolis using Krejcie & Morgan table for sample size determination. Data was collected by means of structured questionnaires administered to 60 Social Studies teachers from the 20 sampled schools. The questionnaire was designed with a 5-point Likert scale using closed ended questions. The questionnaire was pre-tested in a pilot study to guarantee its reliability using Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient formula. It yielded an alpha of .78 which was good and was applied for the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Frequencies were used to analyze data on teachers’ perceptions on the integration of CAI, extent of integration and challenges encountered. Chi-square was used to test the hypothesis to determine whether there is a significant difference between male and female teachers and young and old teachers’ implementation of CAI in teaching and learning of Social Studies. The findings discovered most teachers have positive attitude towards the integration of CAI in teaching and learning of Social Studies. Some of the teachers also incorporate CAI into their Social Studies instructions. However, the Social Studies teachers encounter a number of challenges such as limited number of computers, lack of time, lack of technical support, lack of internet among others. It was also discovered that more male teachers use video and radio in their instructions than their females’ counterparts. Old teachers also integrate video and radio in their lessons than the younger ones. However, generally, there was no significant difference between old and young teachers’ application of CAI in Social Studies teaching and learning. Based on the findings, it has been recommended that there should be periodic training of teachers on how to incorporate CAI in their lessons, reform of teacher training curriculum to allow technology integration, and supplying of laptops to teachers and students to enable them effectively incorporate CAI in their lessons to improve students learning outcomes. Government of Ghana in partnership with private sector and NGOs should design and implement intervention to eliminate all barriers to integration of CAI in all schools.
With the tremendous advancement in computer-assisted language learning (CALL), English language instructors have started an exciting journey of utilizing modern technological applications to equip students with the necessary tools to boost their language skills. The current study aimed at exploring the university English language instructors’ perceptions of the optimal use of technology in an EFL context as many teachers misconceive the philosophy behind the integration of technology and overestimate the value of using technology without considering its relevance, necessity and applicability. Therefore, Technology, Pedagogy and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model was used to investigate the instructors’ beliefs and practices relevant to language teaching through technology. Data were collected through a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview. One hundred and sixty-four English instructors, from different Saudi universities, participated in the study. The findings of the study revealed that instructors who merely seek the blind application of technology regardless of content, students’ needs, learning styles, and methodology will cease to be pedagogically effective. The findings will pave the way for reshaping the instructors’ teaching beliefs, practices and approach of integrating technology in an EFL class. The study highlighted the importance of developing the instructors’ technological skills that are needed to launch new applications and providing concrete examples of how to successfully integrate technology in language instruction.
Performing Arts pedagogy courses have not been the choice of pre-service generalist teachers in Wesley College of Education in the city of Kumasi, Ghana between 2010/2011 and 2016/2017 academic years. At the beginning of the 2017/2018 academic year, six students selected the course as their elective for study. This study explores the motivation behind these pre-service teachers selecting the Performing Arts pedagogy courses for study. Prior engagement in the performing arts, expectation of ability to teach, and achieving good examination results emerged as the main themes from the analysis of qualitative semi-structured interview data. Findings suggest that there is a relationship between prior experiences in the performing arts and motivation to continue engagements in the arts. Further research with pre-service teachers to identify their needs, interests, abilities and background experiences in the performing arts will help teacher educators to train students to be effective practitioners in their future classrooms.
Professional Updates for Language Teachers in A Digitally Infected Clime: The ICT Utilization Sensibility (Published)
The teaching profession in Nigeria is faced with a lot of problems which militate against the integrity of the profession. This is because educators have come to realize that any meaningful improvement in the education that students receive is highly dependent on the quality of the instruction that the teacher provides. The paper looks into the training and retraining needs of English language teachers for effective utilization of ICT in secondary schools in Ekiti State. The research design was descriptive. The population for the study comprised all English Language teachers (571) in the senior secondary schools in Ekiti State. Multistage random sampling technique was utilized in selecting the sample. In all, all (20) English Language teachers in the selected schools were used as the sample. A research instrument titled “Teachers’ Assessment of the Need for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in English Language (TANICTENG)” was tested for both validity and reliability procedures and used for data collection. Reliability coefficients of 0.67was obtained. Conclusion was drawn and recommendations were made among which are that teachers should engage in personal development; Teacher Training institutions should see to effective teacher education programmes; government at all levels should create an enabling environment that could help the teachers to perform optimally, among others.
A 3-Way Paradigm of Lesson Study Strategy on Teachers’ Productivity, Teaching Profession and Trainee Proficiency: A Contemporaneous Paradigm (Published)
This paper is showcasing a tripartite interwoven interactions in Education, that sychronously run to address a-3Way-Paradigm through the Lesson Study Strategy in the new millenium classroom. The quest for professionality and functionality will continue to make all educational stakeholders dive for strategies that will pave way for maximum productivity in the ocean of knowledge economy of the world. Lesson Study is a pedagogical strategy that is capable of producing productive interactions that revolve roundabout the 21st Century Classroom Teachers, the acts of Teaching and the Trainees. The process opens with a team of concerned teachers collaborating on a common discipline of interest. The goals of teaching and learning, how and what to employ in order to achieve the identified goals in the classroom are discussed. Classroom presentation is a collective resposibility of everyone in the team. One of the team members presents the teaching interactions with tthe students while others are in the classroom as observers. The team reviews and scrutinises the classroom interactive outcomes outside the classroom thereafter and effective remidiation is put in place for the overall achievement of the identified goals. In this paper therefore, the productivity of the teacher, process of teaching and proficiency of the trainees are independently focused. Lesson Study as a teaching strategy is capable of producing professionalism in the Teacher, productivity in Teaching and proficiency in the Trainees.
The Pronunciation Component in the Competence-Based EFL Curriculum in Cameroon Secondary Education (Published)
The shift from the objective-based approach to the competence-based approach in English at the secondary level in Cameroon places too much emphasis on real life situations and the vocabulary thereof, in its current field implementation. Apart from vocabulary, the other structural components are very shallowly dealt with, not only grammar, but, much more the teaching of pronunciation and speech sounds. Using the contents analysis theory, the paper brings up the shallow presence of English sounds, paramount element in pronunciation and ipso facto in oral communication in the curriculum. The paper justifies the need to stress the sounds of English in actual EFL pedagogy. It argues that the sounds of English must be significantly present in the classroom implementation of the curriculum and prescribes recordings, audio visual materials specially designed for the purpose of supporting and concretising the constitutional official bilingualism policy that is most current in the nation presently on the one hand, and worldwide intelligibility on the other hand.
Education is considered a prerequisite for all individuals to make meaningful impact in their society. It enlightens the individuals and engrains in them the capacity to develop critical ability that would enable them transform their society in the best way they can. However, the actual teaching method and the structure of the curricula across the tiers of learning seem to have defeated this basic purpose of education. In most cases, education has been designed as an instrument of conservatism, where the learner becomes a passive receptor of certain knowledge. This makes the learner unproductive and sterile so much so that rather than the learner utilizing the knowledge acquired, the learner gives value to the certificate awarded. Paulo Freire considers this method of education as a banking system of education, which for him is a dangerous approach to impacting knowledge. He suggests problem-posing as the alternative model to the banking system of education. This alternative model engrains in the learner the liberty to develop thinking abilities, which aid such person to contribute in the learning process. This model conceives education as a kind of symbiotic method of learning. While we appreciate Freire’s alternative model, our work assesses it as inadequate. This paper therefore aims at exposing the limitations and pragmatic bankruptcy of a problem-posing pedagogy as espoused by Freire in contradistinction to a problem-solving type of education, which our paper strongly advocates. Our study also underscores the fact that it is not enough for a learner to participate in the learning process, which only results in posing problem. Adopting the constructivist approach, this paper strongly argues that the most appropriate model that gives the learner that huge independent capacity to transform the society is the problem-solving type. Through this model, the learner develops critical abilities to address societal and contextual problems.
Assessment of Teacher Competence in Pedagogical Knowledge in the Implementation of Secondary School Curriculum in North Rift Region, Kenya (Published)
The purpose of this study was to investigate teachers’ competence in pedagogical knowledge in teaching in secondary schools in the north rift region of Kenya. The study used descriptive survey design and a mixed methods research. Simple random sampling and stratified sampling was used to select the sample. Data instruments were structured and unstructured questionnaires, observation schedule and semi-structured interviews. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study revealed that a majority of teachers did not use learner centred methods for example demonstration, enquiry and discussion. It was concluded that a significant number of teachers were not competent in pedagogical knowledge for the implementation of the secondary school curriculum. The study recommended revision of teacher education curriculum and the recruitment of more teachers to relieve on workload to enable them prepare effectively for the implementation of the secondary school curriculum
Towards A Critical Thinking-Based Curricular and Pedagogical Innovations for Sustaining Democracy in Nigeria (Published)
Democracy, in addition to being a political system is also a way of life that is so admired that it has become a global model. Unfortunately those ingredients and flavour that make democracy the global ideal are terribly lacking in Nigeria, in addition to democracy not having any stronghold in Nigeria. Using the philosophical method, the paper raises sign posts on how critical thinking based curricular and pedagogical innovations can be a relief in reinventing and sustaining democracy in Nigeria. The position of the paper is that there is no substitute to positive thinking and positive thinking especially at the evaluative, insightful and critical thinking levels, can proffer solutions for resolving the pessimism that surrounds democracy in Nigeria. The paper makes recommendations, part of which include developing learners’ curiosity for participation in the democratic processes, the development of learners autonomous moral thinking as well as identifying live problems that threaten democracy and making such the subjects of arguments, dialogues and deliberations
This paper sees corruption generally as a condemnable behaviour and particularly identifies corruption in the education industry as a practice that has multiple capabilities for undermining the national development of Nigeria. Corruption in the education industry terribly creates infrastructural deficits that result in poor instructional delivery and making many people not to have access to education which in addition to being a fundamental human right is a spring board for their empowerment and emancipation infrastructural deficits and inability of a people to have access to education systematically renders useless the ability of the people to engineer national development as generations of citizens are left frustrated, disgruntled and disenchanted in addition to manifesting terrible immorality in the forms of militancy and insurgency. Embrace of militancy and insurgency as a result of lack of access and infrastructure owe their sources to corruption, which disastrously has multiplier effects on the economy and the national development of the Nigerian state: potential human beings who ideally are great assets for the development of Nigeria are lost to actions/activities that are not investor and investment friendly. The paper recommends among other things the teaching of skills that can promote greater transparency and accountability in managing issues in education, stronger and implementable in managing issues in education, stronger and implementable social justice measures for the citizens to developing curricular and pedagogical measures for sensitizing citizens to rise up to kill corruption in Nigeria.
Needed Urgently: A Pedagogy for Boosting the Interests of Youths in Citizenship and Civic Education in Nigeria (Published)
Policies and policy directions in Nigeria are terribly shallow in terms of welfare considerations for the youths and the sustainable development of the Nigerian state. Adults who have been at the helm of affairs have been superlatively self-centered and this has consequently retarded general development in the Nigerian state in general and detrimentally hampered the development of the youths in particular. This paper makes a case for citizenship and civic education for the youths as a viable option for reversing this unfortunate trend. The paper extols the values of citizenship and civic education as needed innovations to affect the necessary changes and makes a case for urgent pedagogical re-engineering where the interests of the youths can be boosted in citizenship and civic education as a strategy to reverse the ugly trend. The paper proposes and recommends that such pedagogical strategies can focus on sensitizing the youths on the dangers that are inherent in their continued marginalization, making youths to think critically and analytically especially on how their participation in civic and democratic processes can reverse the trends in their favour, making social justice and good governance the focus of educational provision for youths and translating theory into practice by inculcating democratic norms of participation, commitment to learning, agreeing with others and accommodating divergent views of others.
Pedagogical Issues Facing Teachers of Music in the Implementation of Music Curriculum Content: A Case of Selected Secondary Schools in Nairobi County, Kenya (Published)
The process of curriculum implementation involves helping the learner, who is central in curriculum implementation, acquire knowledge or experience. Implementation takes place as the learner acquires the planned experiences, knowledge, skills, ideas and attitudes that are aimed at enabling the learner to function effectively in a society (Delport and Dhlomo, 2010). However, the KNEC reports (2005-2012) reveal that a number of music candidates perform dismally and it may be inferred that they cannot function effectively in the music career. In producing proficient musicians that can be absorbed in the labor market, teachers are identified as agents in curriculum implementation process. With a focus on the teachers of music, this paper identifies pedagogical issues they face through implementation of the curriculum content. Form three music teachers and students in Nairobi County was the target population. A descriptive survey was conducted on both groups. Purposive sampling was used to select 23 schools that offer music and 23 music teachers that teach music in Nairobi County. Music students were selected using simple random sampling. A total of 180 out of 360 form three music students and 23 teachers participated in the study. Data was collected using questionnaires, classroom observation schedule and focus group discussions. Data was then analyzed using descriptive statistics and computation of the empirical data done using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS). Theoretical instructional methods, inadequate pre-service training in specific content areas and negative attitude towards music among others were some of the pedagogical issues faced by music teachers in the implementation of the music curriculum.
This paper explores the emergence of the concept of education and its ideological roots vis-s-vis Islamic principles and pedagogy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Hence, a general description of the Saudi Arabian educational system and a general account of how and when education was first introduced into the KSA is a necessary step to provide a complete picture the system of education and its rapid developments towards E-learning and/or distance learning status. In fact, all legal decisions within the Kingdom; however, are based on the Sharia Law-Islamic law as set forth by the Holy Qur’an, as stated in the Education Policy document. Therefore, according to Islamic studies constitute a major portion of the curriculum at the educational levels, and even science textbooks emphasize Islamic notions. This, in turn, may propose some obstacles in learning and teaching distance education from a Western ideological perspective. Therefore, the paper will lay out some of these hindrances and pedagogical implication in how to transition from traditional towards a more modern pedagogical education paradigm within the KSA.
ORALITY, LITERACY AND PEDAGOGICAL IMPLICATIONS IN TRADITIONAL AFRICAN SOCIETIES: THE BAKOR EXPERIENCE IN CROSS RIVER STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)
Knowledge acquisition, like all human interaction in the world depends on and is enhanced through verbal or written forms which, today, exist at parallels but are never dichotomous, yet oral cultures seem to be more pervasive than written cultures in many parts of the world. History and knowledge systems are located in memory, the personal lives, traditions and the mythical past of all communities in the world. Today, literature has commonly been associated with written forms yet most other cultures of the world, apart from western cultures, have produced a wide range of literary material all encoded in verbal or non-written genres. Oral discourses are, therefore, predominant in most indigenous communities all over the world and knowledge systems have as such been constructed and communicated through these oral discourses or verbal systems, with emphasis on graphic contextual performances. African verbal forms, perhaps, constitute the largest stock of literary material performed, sung or spoken in numerous social or ritualistic contexts. These enhance encoding of new meaning and knowledge through the transmission of ideas and in most contexts, oral or verbal communication surpasses all other forms of communication. Despite this importance of orality, the supposed supremacy of a scientific consciousness which is enhanced by writing has become coterminous with the relegation of verbal performances leading to the failure to understand the nature and function of oral literature and its pedagogical content amongst oral cultures. Literacy is consequently emphasized over orality and contextuality. Recent developments in the academia, however, have tended to emphasize the supremacy of orality as a preferred mode of socialization and pedagogical functions. Anthropologists, literary critics, folklorists, creative writers and even psychologists all attest to the dynamism of oral literature in the production and transmission of knowledge systems not only in Africa but generally in pre-literate societies all over the world. This paper, therefore, examines the extent to which Oral literature can serve as a base for the development of a pedagogical model for instruction of our younger generations in African knowledge systems using the Bakor experience as an example.
The Christian philosophy of education is directly opposed to the public philosophy of education. Due to this philosophical difference, the goals, objectives and purposes of Christian schools (Education) are different from those of the public schools. It is important that pastors, teachers, parents and stakeholders in education fully understand the basis for the Christian philosophy of education and its implications. The Christian philosophy of education calls for an educational process that puts the Bible at the centre and asks the student and the teacher to evaluate all they see in the world through the eyes of God. It is purposed to return both learners and instructors to God’s honour in their lives, for the purpose of education is to build character; it is to mould a life that honours the Lord (‘a vessel unto honour, meet for the master’s use and prepared for every good work’ -II Tim. 2:21). In this sense realizing Christian Education in modern pedagogy primarily brings instructors and learners to the knowledge of God. The teaching of good character, qualities and moral principles provides a framework for successful life, skills, social well-being and protection from certain behavioural consequences. True education, most simply stated, is teaching about God’s creation and His providence.