Tag Archives: Peace

The Role of Gender Equality and Good Governance in Peacestudies: The Nigerian Experience (Published)

Peace could be seen as an individual’s state of mind with ideal society that operates in understanding, security and unity. The content of peace education programme must be problem solving and related to the economic, political, cultural, or social conditions that constitute the conflicting issues. Conflict resolution is a set of principles applied to encourage warring parties to seek peace. This means that the conflict is resolved when the basic needs of the parties have been met or satisfied. Conflict management refers to effort made to change the perceptions and attitudes of the people involved (Odoh 2006) Gender Equality is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision making and the state of valuing different behaviour, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender. Good governance is measured by 8 characteristics of participation rule of law, transparency, responsiveness, consensus oriented, equity and inclusiveness, effectiveness and efficiency and accountability. Using descriptive and analytical approach with anecdotal evidence gleaned from qualitative and historical literature on peace. Gender discrimination, equality and governance from traditional delegate system to modern system of governance from textbooks, library materials, oral interview, participant observation and internet materials, key informant etc. The study revealed that gender gap reduces productivity and diminishes contribution and does not only affect women’s well-being and that of their families but also imposes high cost on the economy through productive losses. Development of a community or society is a collaborative effort of all citizens which can only be possible when there is peace in that community or society. It is an indisputable fact that development is about people and development is only sustainable to the extent to which human resources are developed. Gender gap reduces productivity and diminishes contribution and does not only affect women’s well-being and that of their families but also imposes high cost on the economy through productive losses. Strict adherence to the principles of good governance will ensure that peace reigns in Nigeria. Based on the finding, the study recommended amongst others that themes on good governance and peace studies should be part of primary, secondary and tertiary institutions curricular in Nigeria. Topics such as electoral rights and processes, and gender equality should be taught. This will help in raising individuals that are gender sensitive, individuals who see people in their own rights as human beings not males being superior to females. 

Keywords: Governance, Justice, Peace, Rule Of Law, equality

Respect for and Protection of Human Rights: An Imperative for Peace, Security and Development in Liberia (Published)

This Article analyses the role human rights culture plays in ensuring peaceful, secure and developed society, using Liberia as a case study. While it posits that human rights is subject to contestable philosophical underpinnings that there is seldom a universal consensus on its meaning, it adopts the United Nations definition which combines the perspectives of the natural law and legal positivism to form what it terms ‘inclusive legal positivism’. It accordingly defines human rights as those global standards of morality that are inherent in human beings by virtue of their humanity and protected by national governments and comity of nations through national laws and treaties. It argues that respecting the dignity of the human person is a recipe for peace, which in turn will enhance national security and sustainable development in the country. Example is when the State alleviates poverty which creates inequality and non-discriminatory tendencies, human rights is advanced, peaceful society is enthroned which can lead to development. It concedes that Liberia has adequate normative framework to respect human rights, but analysis of the three human rights obligations of Government namely – to respect, to protect and to fulfil human rights indicates that non-state actors like Liberia National Bar Association (LNBA) have crucial role to play in translating the dry letters of human rights in the constitution and other regional and international treaties into veritable tools  that will improve the lives and dignity of Liberians and residents alike including the women folks. It concludes that respect for human rights is indispensable for sustainable Peace, National Security and Development in any given society and calls on Liberian government to put in place structures and systems that are responsive in respecting and protecting human rights.

Keywords: Human Rights, Imperative, Peace, Protection, Security, development liberia

Revitalizing Counsellor Education for Peace and National Integration in Nigeria: Rehabilitating a Nation in Trauma. (Published)

In Nigeria, there are issues of terrorism, youth restiveness, hate speech, disintegration, lawlessness occasioned by kidnapping, ritual killings, banditry, armed robbery, as well as heightened corruption among other vices. Issues of this nature need the role of counsellors when stakeholders are formulating critical policies for national integration. Nigeria is currently in trauma having been besieged on all fronts by all manner of impunity in all facets of our national life. Hence, it is on this premise that this paper examined how counsellor education can be rebranded and revitalized to mitigate the scourge of all these threats to our nationhood. In this paper, the authors underscored the need to revitalize counsellor education to produce counsellors that can effectively use appropriate counselling skills and approaches to foster peace and national integration in Nigeria. virtues such as religious tolerance, patriotism, dignity of labour, peaceful co-existence, unity in diversity, honesty among others have been conceptualized as veritable instruments for peace and national integration through counsellor education in theory and practice. Consequent upon this, the authors recommended that well trained counsellors should enlighten students on the need for unity and integration among Nigerians. Seminars and workshops should equally be organized by counsellors in collaboration with the government, non-governmental organizations and other stakeholders in order to discuss and tackle contemporary issues for peace and national integration and stability.


Keywords: National integration, Peace, Rehabilitation, Revitalization, counsellor education

Ashoka Gupta and the Riot Torn Noakhali: A Journey for Peace, Stability and Humanity (Published)

Ashoka Gupta was a renowned social worker who dedicated her life to social service. In 1946 a violent communal riot erupted in Noakhali in erstwhile East Bengal when Hindu life and property were targeted and conversion was undertaken under the threat of death. Assaults and molestation of women formed a significant feature of the riots. As soon as the news of the riots reached outside world, the members of the All India Women’s Conference formed a Relief Committee with Ashoka as its convenor. Initially they distributed relief materials to the fleeing villagers. But when Gandhiji arrived in Noakhali he advised the workers to set up their camps in interior villages to restore confidence among the terrified Hindus. On Gandhiji’s advice, Ashoka set up her base in an interior village, taking her little daughter with her. Ashoka’s tasks included restoring normalcy and communal peace between the two communities, urging the Hindus to return back, ensuring that the victims received their quota of government relief. She was particularly concerned about the fate of the molested and abducted women. However, she admitted that she could not do much for those helpless women. Nevertheless, she won many hearts through her self-less service in Noakhali and it remained the most memorable chapter in her life.


Keywords: Conversion, Molestation, Peace, Riot, abduction, normalcy.

An investigative study into the causes and effects of ethno-religious conflicts on women and children in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria, 1991 – 2020. (Published)

Conflict is a major problem in any given society and it is often inevitable. Since the re-introduction of democracy in Nigeria in 1999, Nigeria has become a permanent flashpoint of violent conflicts. These conflicts are political, ethnic, or religious in nature, and the consequences are devastating. Taraba State has not been an exception since its creation in 1991, witnessing incessant communal clashes across ethnic and religious lines. These ethno-religious conflicts have attendant debilitating consequences on life and property. The most disturbing aspect is their effects on women and children who are naturally the weaker proportion of any human population. The main thrust of this paper is therefore to isolate the effects of such conflicts on women and children for intense assessment. Thus, in order to do this, the article explores the ethno-religious conflicts in Southern Taraba State of Nigeria, particularly in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas. Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach, the article reveals that ethno-religious conflicts in the area of study have severe effects on women and children, causing not only deaths of husbands, children, siblings and loved ones, but destruction of their homes, amenities, social contracts, trusts and so on. The conflicts have also caused severe sufferings on the high number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), who are mostly women and children. However, the article suggests the need for restoration and sustenance of peace, not only in Wukari and Ibi LGAs, but Southern  Taraba, the State and Nigeria at large, through some immediate and long term solutions.

Keywords: Conflict, Death, Ethnic, Harmony, Hatred, Idps, Peace, Religion., Sustainable, Women, children, injury, refugees

Promoting peace and social stability through cultural values in Nigeria: the Social Studies perspective (Published)

Conflict, insurgency, terrorism and crime had become the prominent super war agents, waging dynamic war against Nigerian territorial integrity and economic boom. This study sought to examine how peace and social stability through cultural values in Nigeria from the social studies perspective. To achieve this, two research questions were raised to guide the study. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Data used for the study were generated through a questionnaire titled “Promoting Peace and Social Stability through Cultural Values Questionnaire” which was administered to 70 Social Studies Educators purposively selected from the study area. Their responses to the questionnaire were coded to identify recurrent themes and patterns and were tested using the simple percentages, means and statistical frequency. The result of the analysis showed that in respect to the first research question, a mean percentage ‘Yes’ responses 74.69% and ‘No’ responses of 25.31%  Where as in respect to research question two  a mean percentage ‘yes’ response of 78% against the mean percentage ‘no’ response of 22% was obtained. The implication of this is that cultural values significantly influence the promotion of peace and social stability in Nigeria. , it was therefore concluded that the peace and stability of the Nigerian society can be promoted if cultural values are revived, promoted, taught and applied in the country and  recommended that administrative leadership of Nigeria should be broaden to include traditional leaders and priests in the governance of the Nation.

Keywords: Cultural Values, Culture, Nigeria, Peace, Social Studies Perspective., social stability

The Place of Peace Education as a Panacea for Global Security (Published)

This paper explains the meaning of the following concepts: Peace, Violence and War, Global Security and Peace Education. It states that education despite being an instrument per excellence for achieving positive national and global goals, have been used by some nations to perpetuate hate instead of using it to instil a culture of peace. Peace education is therefore the only type of education required in creating a culture of peace in the minds of youths and as such should be used to achieve global security. The paper also suggested five ways global security could be achieved through peace education which are; raising global citizens, building a culture of peace, creating economic development and eradicating poverty, acquiring conflict resolution skills, and raising friends of the earth and environmental peace builders. The paper concludes by with some implications of the understanding of peace, violence and war, which include the need to ensure justice, welfare and access to education for all as necessary actions to ensure peace and global security.  

Keywords: Global Security, Peace, Peace Education, Violence

Philosophy of authentic humanism: the only way of curbing conflict and violence (Published)

The ultimate goal of Humanism is human flourishing; making life better for all humans, and as the most conscious species, also promoting concern for the welfare of other sentient beings and the planet as a whole. The focus is on doing good and living well in the here and now, and leaving the world a better place for those who come after. This paper aims at presenting Humanism and its policies if well applied  as a  way of not  only curbing violence, terrorism, genocide and all forms of social ills associated with our contemporary and global world of today, but also a way to  bring about the much needed peace, harmony and progress in this era that has been battered by these ills.

Keywords: Genocide, Harmony, Humanism, Peace, Terrorism, Violence

Integrating Arab and Jewish Students in Colleges in Israel: Ohalo College as a Case Study (Published)

The present article attempts to check the possibility of integrating Arab and Jewish students in colleges in the state, the current integration at Ohalo College is used as a case study. Participants comprised thirty Jewish and Arab, male and female students at Ohalo College in Katzrin, Israel. The current study investigated whether such integration can promote peace between Jews and Arabs. Aspiration for peace is a significant value of life in Israel, and it appears in various contexts and in political discussions. Peace promotes tolerance, prevents violence, and creates dialogue among the parties. Education for peace, which is expressed in integrating Jewish and Arab students, increases the value of higher education in general and the value of education for the Arab community, in particular, due to the inferior status Arabs in the state.The current study discusses the existing types of integration besides the integration possibilities in various academic institutions along with the hardships and obstacles that prevent Arab students from integrating as equals in the Jewish community.

Keywords: Arab Student, Israel, Jewish Student, Peace

Effect of Behavioural Modification Therapy on Attitude of Youths towards Peace Building in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria (Published)

The study investigated the effect of Behavioural Modification Therapy on youth’ attitude towards peace building in Maiduguri metropolis, Borno State-Nigeria. Three null hypotheses were raised and tested using t-test and one-way ANOVA. Quasi-experimental design was adopted where participants were exposed to Behavioural Modification  Therapy for a period of four weeks training. Twenty youths with poor attitude towards peace building were selected for the study in Maiduguri metropolis.Attitude of youths, towards peace building questionnaires (AYTPBQ) was used for the study. Its Cronbach Alpha reliability obtained was .891. The results revealed that there were no significant age, gender and religious differences on attitude of youths towards peace building in Maiduguri  metropolis.  Effect of Behavioural Modification Therapy on the attitude of youths towards building were found to be significant. That is Behavioural Modification Therapy brought about significant change in youth’s attitude   toward peace building. Based on the findings, it was concluded that Behavioural Modification Therapy would change youth’s attitude towards peace building. It was recommended that counsellors should engage youths in counselling to change their attitude, violence, thereby reducing their participation in violent activities. That is, youths involvement with violent groups will be minimized when there is effective counselling.

Keywords: Building and Youths, Peace, attitude

Nomadic Education in Nigeria: Using English to Foster Communal Peace and Enhance the Education of the Herdsmen (Published)

The importance of nomadic education cannot be over-emphasized. The neglect of any segment of the population as experience has shown in the Niger Delta Region of the country is a potential time bomb. If they contribute significantly to the nation’s economy, only time can fuel discontent and ignite their agitation. Education is the birth right of any Nigerian child and this right has been enshrined in the nation’s constitution. This paper address the importance of the nomadic education in the country, their contributions to the nation’s economy, the importance of English language in the promotion of mutual understanding, reduction of communal clashes between nomads and their host communities and the enhancement of the National Policy on Nomadic Education.

Keywords: : Nomadic Education, Community, English, Lineage, Nigeria, Peace


The study analyses the Poverty Alleviation Programmes as an alternative to Peace and Conflict Resolution in Northern Nigeria; it links the frequency of Conflicts (insecurity) in the region the incidence of absolute and abject poverty. The study predominantly utilized secondary data. In the final analyses, it is shown that conflicts in the region are traceable to poverty. The study concludes that, peace, stability and security is the foundation for achieving the socio-economic development; therefore, preventing conflict, resolving conflict and for peace to be built, poverty has to be alleviated or eradicate the poverty tension that breeds ground for conflict, which requires a genuine commitment for poverty alleviation programmes and involvement of constituents people at every level–design, implementation and monitoring of poverty reduction programs

Keywords: Conflict, Conflict Resolution, Ethno-religious, Insecurity, Peace, Poverty

War And Peace In Eastern Yorubaland: Efon Alaaye And Her Neighbours (1815-1893) (Published)

Warfare was the most dominant theme of nineteenth century Yoruba history. During the period, Yorubaland was engulfed by bloody conflicts ranging from small and short wars to complex and protracted civil wars. Eastern Yorubaland was one of the major theaters of this “season of Anomie”. Aside the large scale destruction of lives and property, which is common in such situations, the wars bore significant social, economic and political consequences for the land and people. The disaster only terminated towards the end of the century as a result of the intervention by British colonial officials via a combination of diplomacy and military force. This paper is a historical documentation of the background, trajectory and aftermath of warfare and diplomacy between Efon Alaaye and her neighbours during the 19th century. The study seeks to interrogate the significant factors of causation, course and consequences of conflict in the area during the period under consideration. Data for the work comprise of primary sources such as oral evidence, archival materials etc, and secondary sources like books, journal articles, and so on.

Keywords: Eastern Yorubaland., Efon Alaaye, Ekitiparapo, Ibadan, Ijesa, Peace, War