An investigative study into the causes and effects of ethno-religious conflicts on women and children in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas of Taraba State, Nigeria, 1991 – 2020. (Published)
Conflict is a major problem in any given society and it is often inevitable. Since the re-introduction of democracy in Nigeria in 1999, Nigeria has become a permanent flashpoint of violent conflicts. These conflicts are political, ethnic, or religious in nature, and the consequences are devastating. Taraba State has not been an exception since its creation in 1991, witnessing incessant communal clashes across ethnic and religious lines. These ethno-religious conflicts have attendant debilitating consequences on life and property. The most disturbing aspect is their effects on women and children who are naturally the weaker proportion of any human population. The main thrust of this paper is therefore to isolate the effects of such conflicts on women and children for intense assessment. Thus, in order to do this, the article explores the ethno-religious conflicts in Southern Taraba State of Nigeria, particularly in Wukari and Ibi Local Government Areas. Adopting a multi-disciplinary approach, the article reveals that ethno-religious conflicts in the area of study have severe effects on women and children, causing not only deaths of husbands, children, siblings and loved ones, but destruction of their homes, amenities, social contracts, trusts and so on. The conflicts have also caused severe sufferings on the high number of Internally Displaced Persons (IDPs), who are mostly women and children. However, the article suggests the need for restoration and sustenance of peace, not only in Wukari and Ibi LGAs, but Southern Taraba, the State and Nigeria at large, through some immediate and long term solutions.
Promoting peace and social stability through cultural values in Nigeria: the Social Studies perspective (Published)
Conflict, insurgency, terrorism and crime had become the prominent super war agents, waging dynamic war against Nigerian territorial integrity and economic boom. This study sought to examine how peace and social stability through cultural values in Nigeria from the social studies perspective. To achieve this, two research questions were raised to guide the study. The descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. Data used for the study were generated through a questionnaire titled “Promoting Peace and Social Stability through Cultural Values Questionnaire” which was administered to 70 Social Studies Educators purposively selected from the study area. Their responses to the questionnaire were coded to identify recurrent themes and patterns and were tested using the simple percentages, means and statistical frequency. The result of the analysis showed that in respect to the first research question, a mean percentage ‘Yes’ responses 74.69% and ‘No’ responses of 25.31% Where as in respect to research question two a mean percentage ‘yes’ response of 78% against the mean percentage ‘no’ response of 22% was obtained. The implication of this is that cultural values significantly influence the promotion of peace and social stability in Nigeria. , it was therefore concluded that the peace and stability of the Nigerian society can be promoted if cultural values are revived, promoted, taught and applied in the country and recommended that administrative leadership of Nigeria should be broaden to include traditional leaders and priests in the governance of the Nation.
This paper explains the meaning of the following concepts: Peace, Violence and War, Global Security and Peace Education. It states that education despite being an instrument per excellence for achieving positive national and global goals, have been used by some nations to perpetuate hate instead of using it to instil a culture of peace. Peace education is therefore the only type of education required in creating a culture of peace in the minds of youths and as such should be used to achieve global security. The paper also suggested five ways global security could be achieved through peace education which are; raising global citizens, building a culture of peace, creating economic development and eradicating poverty, acquiring conflict resolution skills, and raising friends of the earth and environmental peace builders. The paper concludes by with some implications of the understanding of peace, violence and war, which include the need to ensure justice, welfare and access to education for all as necessary actions to ensure peace and global security.
The ultimate goal of Humanism is human flourishing; making life better for all humans, and as the most conscious species, also promoting concern for the welfare of other sentient beings and the planet as a whole. The focus is on doing good and living well in the here and now, and leaving the world a better place for those who come after. This paper aims at presenting Humanism and its policies if well applied as a way of not only curbing violence, terrorism, genocide and all forms of social ills associated with our contemporary and global world of today, but also a way to bring about the much needed peace, harmony and progress in this era that has been battered by these ills.
Integrating Arab and Jewish Students in Colleges in Israel: Ohalo College as a Case Study (Published)
The present article attempts to check the possibility of integrating Arab and Jewish students in colleges in the state, the current integration at Ohalo College is used as a case study. Participants comprised thirty Jewish and Arab, male and female students at Ohalo College in Katzrin, Israel. The current study investigated whether such integration can promote peace between Jews and Arabs. Aspiration for peace is a significant value of life in Israel, and it appears in various contexts and in political discussions. Peace promotes tolerance, prevents violence, and creates dialogue among the parties. Education for peace, which is expressed in integrating Jewish and Arab students, increases the value of higher education in general and the value of education for the Arab community, in particular, due to the inferior status Arabs in the state.The current study discusses the existing types of integration besides the integration possibilities in various academic institutions along with the hardships and obstacles that prevent Arab students from integrating as equals in the Jewish community.
Effect of Behavioural Modification Therapy on Attitude of Youths towards Peace Building in Maiduguri Metropolis, Borno State, Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated the effect of Behavioural Modification Therapy on youth’ attitude towards peace building in Maiduguri metropolis, Borno State-Nigeria. Three null hypotheses were raised and tested using t-test and one-way ANOVA. Quasi-experimental design was adopted where participants were exposed to Behavioural Modification Therapy for a period of four weeks training. Twenty youths with poor attitude towards peace building were selected for the study in Maiduguri metropolis.Attitude of youths, towards peace building questionnaires (AYTPBQ) was used for the study. Its Cronbach Alpha reliability obtained was .891. The results revealed that there were no significant age, gender and religious differences on attitude of youths towards peace building in Maiduguri metropolis. Effect of Behavioural Modification Therapy on the attitude of youths towards building were found to be significant. That is Behavioural Modification Therapy brought about significant change in youth’s attitude toward peace building. Based on the findings, it was concluded that Behavioural Modification Therapy would change youth’s attitude towards peace building. It was recommended that counsellors should engage youths in counselling to change their attitude, violence, thereby reducing their participation in violent activities. That is, youths involvement with violent groups will be minimized when there is effective counselling.
Nomadic Education in Nigeria: Using English to Foster Communal Peace and Enhance the Education of the Herdsmen (Published)
The importance of nomadic education cannot be over-emphasized. The neglect of any segment of the population as experience has shown in the Niger Delta Region of the country is a potential time bomb. If they contribute significantly to the nation’s economy, only time can fuel discontent and ignite their agitation. Education is the birth right of any Nigerian child and this right has been enshrined in the nation’s constitution. This paper address the importance of the nomadic education in the country, their contributions to the nation’s economy, the importance of English language in the promotion of mutual understanding, reduction of communal clashes between nomads and their host communities and the enhancement of the National Policy on Nomadic Education.
POVERTY ALLEVIATION PROGRAMMES AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO PEACE AND CONFLICT RESOLUTION IN NORTHERN NIGERIA (Published)
The study analyses the Poverty Alleviation Programmes as an alternative to Peace and Conflict Resolution in Northern Nigeria; it links the frequency of Conflicts (insecurity) in the region the incidence of absolute and abject poverty. The study predominantly utilized secondary data. In the final analyses, it is shown that conflicts in the region are traceable to poverty. The study concludes that, peace, stability and security is the foundation for achieving the socio-economic development; therefore, preventing conflict, resolving conflict and for peace to be built, poverty has to be alleviated or eradicate the poverty tension that breeds ground for conflict, which requires a genuine commitment for poverty alleviation programmes and involvement of constituents people at every level–design, implementation and monitoring of poverty reduction programs
Warfare was the most dominant theme of nineteenth century Yoruba history. During the period, Yorubaland was engulfed by bloody conflicts ranging from small and short wars to complex and protracted civil wars. Eastern Yorubaland was one of the major theaters of this “season of Anomie”. Aside the large scale destruction of lives and property, which is common in such situations, the wars bore significant social, economic and political consequences for the land and people. The disaster only terminated towards the end of the century as a result of the intervention by British colonial officials via a combination of diplomacy and military force. This paper is a historical documentation of the background, trajectory and aftermath of warfare and diplomacy between Efon Alaaye and her neighbours during the 19th century. The study seeks to interrogate the significant factors of causation, course and consequences of conflict in the area during the period under consideration. Data for the work comprise of primary sources such as oral evidence, archival materials etc, and secondary sources like books, journal articles, and so on.