The Effects of Political Factors on Public Service Motivation: Evidence from the Lebanese Civil Service (Published)
The widespread infusion of pro-market and business management principles into the public sector has impeded the behaviour of civil servants who are motivated by intrinsic motives, not external ones. Besides, the infusion of such principles caused great threats to basic values of the civil service, like equity, fairness, justice, accountability, impartiality, political neutrality, public welfare and other values related to the public sector. From here, public service motivation (PSM) emanates as a reaction against these principles/techniques in the civil service. PSM has been studied in different developed countries; however, it was almost ignored in developing countries, especially Arab states. This study focuses on two significant under theorized areas: the conceptualization of PSM in the Lebanese civil service, and the identification of an external dimension (political factors) and its role in facilitating or obstructing the development of this construct.
On-Field Sports Spectatorship and Patronage: A Sociological X-Ray of Its Determinants for Effective Sports Management in Developing Countries (Published)
The critical and sociological insight on the on-field sports spectatorship and patronage in any society is important in sport studies especially for effective sports management. The on-field sports spectatorship and patronage can be influenced by diverse societal forces or determinants such as spectator’s level of interest, motivation and involvement in sports; type of sports involved; type/level of sports participants; safety and security in and around sports venues; ticket, ticketing and ticket dynamics for sports; finance and income level of sports consumers; publicity and media coverage of sports; crowd control mechanism at sports venues; social influencers and significant others in sports; means and distance to sports venues; purpose of sports meet; level and type of officials and officiating; composition of spectators or sports crowd; sponsors of sports events; stage of the sports competition; level and quality of sports organization; spectators’ past sports experience; establishing social contacts with sports personalities at sports venues; servicescape and sportscape of the sports facility; location of the sports venue; sports history of players, teams or clubs; sports schedule in terms of day and time; sports violence and hooliganism; intrinsic quest for sports entertainment; weather condition; sports culture of the society, and demographic characteristics of sports consumers. It was suggested among others that Ministry of Sports and sports organizations should boost the sports interest of spectators, motivate and sensitize them on the need for on-field sports spectatorship and to patronize sports. Sports organizers should consider the type of sports programme to package for spectators.
The study was an assessment of the internet as a tool for tourism marketing in Cross River State. The study sought to determine the significant relationship between website and tourism product awareness; and also evaluate the extent social media marketing affect the level of patronage of tourism products in Cross River State. The area of study was Cross River State, while the study frame were tourism stakeholders, tourism managers/staff and both local and international tourists found in the twelve (12) tourism destinations selected for this study. The sample size of the study was 120 and primary data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. The instrument was content-validated, while the Cronbach Alpha coefficient was used to confirm the reliability. Data analysis was done electronically by the use of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21. Among the findings were that the website marketing did not have any significant relationship on the level of awareness of tourism products in Cross River State. Also, social media marketing did not significantly affect the level of patronage of tourism products in Cross River State. It is then recommended that the website and other internet tools should be efficiently handled preferably by experts to generate and maintain interest and level of patronage of Cross River State’s tourism products.
PRODUCT PACKAGING AS A PREDICTIVE FACTOR OF CONSUMER PATRONAGE OF TOOTHPASTE IN ADO-EKITI, NIGERIA (Published)
The study examined the effect of packaging on the patronage of toothpaste among consumers in Ado-Ekiti metropolis, Nigeria. A total of 320 questionnaires were administered to respondents who were customers to eight most popular supermarkets through purposive sampling technique. Pearson-moment correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between packaging information and patronage of toothpaste. Multiple regression was used to determine the influence of packaging attributes on patronage of toothpaste. The result revealed that among packaging information available on toothpaste products, expiry date, NAFDAC number and nutritional composition had the strongest relationship with patronage. The packaging attributes with highest influence were quantity, quality, and colour. The study recommended that manufacturers should place on their products only relevant information that will influence purchase decision. Furthermore, as families are growing, companies should be innovative to produce family size toothpaste tubes that will be cost saving for the consumers.