Scavenging Birds on Solid Waste Dumps: A Significant Health-threat to City Inhabitants in Limbe, Southwest Region, Cameroon (Published)
Over the past decade, the need for better waste management has become more obvious with the increase in human population growth. Feeding is an essential activity of bird’s life which is indispensable for its survival, however, the demands of food acquisition impose significant challenges to both physiology and behavior of birds. This survey was aimed at examining the activity of wild birds on waste dumps in Limbe city. The data collection process started in the month of March and ended in July. The research area was divided into four zones, north, south, east, and western zone. Four solid-dumps were randomly selected from each zone and were visited twice a week for research data collection. On the dumps, observations were done from 6:00am – 6:00pm, and the activities of all the bird species observed were recorded during the period. The results of this study has shown a significant association between bird species, activity, dump-weight, and the waste proximity to human residence, X2 = 24.205 df=14, P=0.043, X2 =. 43.999 df=35, p<0.05, and r = 0.253, P=0.000 respectively. Also, the study showed that the activity profile of Passer griseus (27%) and Ploceus cucullatus (49%) were higher as compared to Ploceus luteolus (4%), Lanius collaries (5%), Corvus albus 8%), Bubulcus ibis (5%), and Pycnonotus barbatus (2%) respectively. Additionally, the birds’ activity recorded a weak association on dump-weight and dump distance to human homes, X2 = 8.343 df=10, P<0.05, and X2 = 4.851 df=8, P<0.05 respectively. The undulating landscape in Limbe municipality showed a dependency on dump-weight and dump distance from homes, X2 = 128.020 df=10, P=0.000, and r = 0.226, P=0.001 respectively. Also, the dumps with a home-proximity of 1m-20m were the most recorded in flat landscape areas, and most of the waste on these dumps were estimated to have a weight range of 1kg-200kgs (48%), 201kg-400kgs (27%), 401kg-600kgs (16%), and 601kg-800kgs (9%) respectively. Poor waste disposal system has been the main reason behind flood hazards in this sea-shore city, a phenomenon that has witnessed the destruction of both human lives and properties in the past. The city needs a modern waste management system to prevent or reduce the population of birds visiting the dump-sites which would often serve as vectors in cycling pathogens to humans from these dumps.
An Investigation of the Microbiological and Physicochemical Profile of Some Fish Pond Water within the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. (Published)
The microbial profile of some concrete and earthen fish ponds within the Niger delta region were carried out. The result of physico-chemical properties of the water samples showed that alkalinity was significantly higher in concrete ponds (99.7+47.1 to 150+69.7) than (18+6.9 to 24+14.5 mg/L) in earthen ponds. Electrical conductivity varied significantly between the ponds with (200+84.1 to 290+74.9 s/m) in concrete ponds and (18+6.9 to 24+14.5 s/m) in earthen ponds. Sulphate was higher in concrete ponds (0.25+0.36 to 1.53+14.9ng/L) than (0.25+0.36 to 0.4+0.77mg/L) in earthen ponds. The mean total heterotrophic bacteria count was higher in concrete ponds (6.5x105to 7.4×105 cfu/ml) than (6.3×105 to 6.5×105 cfu/ml) in earthen pond. The mean fungal count ranged between (2.11×105 to2.25×105 cfu/ml) in concrete pond and (1.8×105 to 2.4x105cfu/ml) in earthen ponds. The bacteria genera isolated from the ponds were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus sp., Aeromonas sp., Streptococcus sp., Salmonella sp., Vibrio sp, Serratia sp., Shigella sp., Proteus sp., Pseudomonas sp., Klebsiella sp. and Enterobacter species. While the fungal isolates were Aspergillus sp., Penicillum sp., Cladosporium sp., Fusarium sp., and. Mucor sp. The study revealed that the ponds were grossly contaminated with pathogenic microorganisms which poses a risk to human health, thus of significant public health concern.