Characterization of Bacteriocin-Like Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria (Lab) Isolated From the Crude and Traditionally Fermented Fish Meat (Guedj) In Senegal (Published)
Nineteen (19) strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from meat of fresh and fermented fish, (Machoiron, Capitain and Sompatte) isolated on modified MRS agar (0.1% glucose) supplemented with polymyxin B (100 U/ml) and cycloheximide (50 g/ml) were preselected based on their antimicrobial potential demonstrated against Escherichia coli (O 157) and Listeria monocytogene (CWBI-B710), morphological and biochemical characteristics. The averages of LAB were between 3.8 104 to 7.4 105 CFU/ml for Machoiron, 4 103 to 6.2 105 CFU/ml for Captain and 3.1 104 to 8.2 105 CFU/ml for Sompatte. The phenotypes of the isolated bacteria helped identifying the following species: Lactobacillus (Lb) plantarum, Lb brevis, Lb curvatus, Lb fermetum, Lactococus(Lc) lactis spp lactis 1, Lc. lactislactis, Lc plantarum, Lc subsplactis, Enterococcus (Ec) sp, Ec. Faecium, Leuconostocs mesenteroides and Pediococcus pentasaceus. In addition, 21.05% of the strains have found to display an antagonistic activity against pathogenic bacteria strains.
Assessment of Some Selected Automated Teller Machines in Kaduna Metropolis for Pathogenic Bacteria Contamination (Published)
Selected Automated Teller Machines in Kaduna Metropolis were assessed for pathogenic bacteria contamination. Pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia were isolated using standard methods. Kano Road and Ahmadu Bello Way had the highest number of isolates as well as sample size because of the concentration of the banks around these roads and the influx of people within and around this area who do business on a daily basis. K. pneumoniae had the largest percentage of isolates with 46 (23.0%), followed by S. dysenteriae with 37 (18.50%). S. aureus, S. tyhimurium, and P. aeruginosa had 33 (16.50%), 32 (16.0%) and 29 (14.5%) respectively while E. coli had the smallest percentage of isolates with 22 (11.0%). The correlation coefficient (r) of 0.60 obtained showed that there is a strong relationship between the isolated pathogenic bacteria and the Automated Teller Machines.
Anti-Bacterial and Phytochemical Potential of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Extracts on Some Wound and Enteric Pathogenic Bacteria (Published)
Majority of Africans today depend either totally or partially on medicinal plants for the healing of their ailments which was used by their ancestors. This form of treatment, which is referred to as ethno medicine is sometimes the only kind of health care available to the rural populations. As part of the efforts to ascertain the healing capability credited to Moringa oleifera by the general public and some traditional practitioners, this work aimed at determining the antibacterial potentials and phyto-chemical constituents of M. oleifera was embarked on. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh and dried leaf of Moringa oleifera (FMLE, FMLDW and DMLE, DMLDW) were obtained using a standard method (1). The antibacterial efficacy of aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh and dried leaves of Moringa oleifera was tested against Staphylococcus aureus , Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi, isolated from wound and feaces respectively, to ascertain its effectiveness in the treatment of wound infection and typhoid fever using Agar diffusion by punch method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and phyto-chemistry of the extracts were also evaluated. The mean values of zones of inhibition obtained were statistically analyzed using ANOVA. The least significant difference was determined according to LSD test at P ≤ 0.05. Results obtained showed that FMLE at 500mg/ml has the highest zone of inhibition of 22.00b against S. aureus, E. coli and lowest 15.00b against S.typhi, compared with DMLE with the highest zone of inhibition of 20.00b against S. pyogenes and lowest of 10.00b against S. aureus. FMLDW presented the highest inhibitory activity 28.00b against S. pyogenes and no activity against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa while DMLDW recorded 20.00b P. earuginosa and 10.00b against S. pyogenes. Both the aqueous and the ethanol extracts of Moringa oleifera leave exhibited appreciable level of inhibition against the test bacteria, but the aqueous extracts were not as effective as the ethanolic extracts. Phyto-chemical analysis of aqueous and ethanol extracts of fresh and dried leaf of Moringa oleifera revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponin, flavonoids and tannins. The findings from this work could be of interest and suggest the need for further investigations in terms of toxicological studies and purification of active components with a view to using the plant in novel drug development.