From the Present to the Past: Redemptive Authority of History in Octavia Butler’s Kindred (Published)
The present paper aims to validate the idea that history is a foundational site of redemption. Through anachronistic traumatic journeys that take place in the present, Octavia Butler’s Kindred establishes symbolic and critical connections between past and present. Using magical realism, a counter hegemonic style, the novel blurs binary oppositions, such as past and present, dominant and dominated, questioning notions of hierarchy and dominance, and above all subverting the official reality of slavery. In re-enacting slavery, this historical narrative constructs a linkage across time and race, and conceives the relevance of the racial past. Drawing on the postmodern slave narrative framework, we trace the process whereby the main character submits to the position of slave and at the same time incorporates in the historical narrative representation her sense of self – her subjectification. This experiential position facilitates the construction of a counter hegemonic knowledge that undermines the master narrative of slavery.
Citation: Koffi Eugene N’guessan (2022) From the Present to the Past: Redemptive Authority of History in Octavia Butler’s Kindred, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.10, No.1, pp.16-30
This paper explored the context, distinctive nature of Japanese and Cambodian education systems history, and establishment by preliminary document studies. It briefly described education reforms and trends towards twenty-first-century education globally. The paper reviewed the evolution and modernization of education in the past, present, and future of both countries. It presented the historical education systems and reforms from one regime to another involving the fundamental education laws, education administration, and school management policies before, during, after world war II, and current education management systems in Japan. The paper also stated the education systems and schooling in Cambodia started at Buddhist monastic (wat) as schools, the education structures and reforms before and after World War II, zero education during Pol Pot regime, and development education with precisely education strategic plan by the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports (MoEYS) at present. The paper addressed the education trends toward education globally by 2030 of both countries. This study would be a significant academic source for educators and other researchers. The paper recommended further study on i) the impacts of education reforms and ii) the relationship between current education implementation and its trend of both countries.