Tag Archives: Participation

English Language Teachers Attitudes about Their Contribution in Curriculum Process in the Saudi Education System (Published)

In Saudi Arabia curriculum designing and development is always performed by the educational authority the Ministry of Education. Unfortunately, teachers’ voices are completely ignored, although they are the principle role-players in the educational process. Teachers, on their part, have practical knowledge based on their daily work with the students. This knowledge is useful because teachers can assess whither the new ideas will work in the classroom. In the current study the researcher investigated the teachers’ viewpoints on their participation in the curriculum design process. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect data from the samples. The results showed that teachers have positive attitudes about their participation in the curriculum designing process

Keywords: Curriculum Design, Participation, Syllabus, Teachers

Determinants of Community Participation in Planning HIV and AIDS Interventions under National Multisectoral Strategic Framework in Mtwara Region, Tanzania (Published)

This paper is based on a research which was conducted in Mtwara Region, Tanzania, to assess determinants of community participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions under the National Multisectoral Strategic Framework (NMSF) on HIV and AIDS. The findings indicated that 69.0% of the respondents were not aware of NMSF interventions; 77.0% had unfavourable attitude towards the interventions; and 81.8% did not participate in planning the interventions. Furthermore, using ordinal logistic regression, it was found that community awareness of (p ≤ 0.001) and attitude towards HIV and AIDS interventions (p ≤ 0.005), access to planning information (p ≤ 0.001), education level (p ≤ 0.05), and community satisfaction with involvement in planning (p ≤ 0.001) had significant impacts on the chances of participating highly in planning the interventions. The results substantiate a need for decentralisation in order to address obstacles which constrain participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions.

Keywords: Aids, Community, HIV, NMSF, Participation, Planning

Participation of Women Farmers in Rice Production in Bende Local Government Area, Abia State (Published)

This study examined the level of participation of women farmers in rice production in Bende L.G.A, Abia State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from 90 respondents and summarized using frequency distribution, percentages and logistic regression. The respondents were young, energetic and enterprising with large household sizes and majority were married small-scaled farmers, with much experience in rice production. The farmers had access to credit and each farmer made a profit of N30,508.03. This indicates that rice production was profitable in the study area. The clustered mean (cx) of 3.687 indicates that majority of the respondents participate in rice production. Household size, access to credit, output, total cost and membership of cooperatives were significant variables influencing the participation of women farmers in rice production. Inadequate land, inadequate finance, shortage of farm inputs, low level of infrastructure and climate change were the major problems facing women in rice production. Government should provide access to improved and disease resistant varieties of rice. Women should be allowed to own land in the Nigeria society.

Keywords: Participation, Rice production, Technologies and Bende L.G.A., Women Farmers

A Review of Private Sectors’ Involvement in Urban Housing Provision in Nigeria (Published)

The subject of housing has generated much discussion and interest in the developing countries especially in Nigeria. In most developing countries today, the provision of shelter is grossly inadequate despite several decades of direct government intervention in the shelter sector. Private Estate developers have also contributed in developing housing estates to relieve the great pressure on housing problem .All with the focus of providing adequate and affordable shelter for all (the masses/urban poor). Adequate and affordable housing and infrastructure is in short supply in Nigeria while marginal success have been achieved from Governments’ various approaches at accelerating housing provision. It has been observed that the phenomenal rise in population, spontaneous increase in size of most Nigerian cities have hitherto led to acute shortage of decent and affordable dwellings. The practice of some private sectors involves acquiring land and developing large estates where the houses are offered for sale as “ready-to-move-in units”. Several previous studies have focused on the role of government agencies (public sectors) in housing provision but adequate attention has not been given to the role of private sector in housing provision. This paper examines private sector participation in urban housing provision in Nigeria. This paper also aimed to contribute to the discourse on housing paradigm shift from public sector provision to private sector market-driven housing delivery in Nigeria. It is recommended that Government housing policy need to be proactive.

Keywords: Nigeria, Participation, Private Sectors, Urban Housing Provision


Most business managers have seen change becoming a regular aspect of organizational life and they must constantly monitor and respond to these changes appropriately. The overriding goal is to optimize the output of the people involved in this process and reduce the risk of failure in achieving the desired change. Change management is usually seen from an organizational context and refers to the process of developing a planned approach to change in an organization. Business environment has become much more turbulent, uncertain and demanding change is inevitable in an organisation. Business operates in a dynamic environment and organisation that fails to recognise the inevitability of change is doomed to fail. This paper is designed to examine the nexus of change management on organisational performance and survival in Nigerian universities using University of Ilorin as a case study. Both primary and secondary sources of data constitute the main source of data gathering. Random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample size. Regression analysis was used to analyse the data obtained and the testing of one hypothesis formulated. The results obtained reveal a strong negative relationship between changes introduced through Computer Based Test in the University.This research recommends that before embarking on any change, the university should attempt to maintain useful customs and informal relationship, build trust, encourage participation, provide information in advance, make only necessary changes, guarantee against loss, provide counselling, allow for negotiation between the University Management and the staff and students.

Keywords: Change Management, Computer Based Test, Counselling, Negotiation., Participation, Transformation


In response to gender gap and hardship due to heavy production and domestic tasks of women smallholder farmers in developing countries, this study was conducted under the auspices of the Gates Foundation with an original goal of formulating labour saving strategies and innovations for the rural women in Vietnam. The first five steps of a systems-based Evolutionary Learning Laboratory (ELLab) framework together with other management tools were employed in the first phase of the project during April 2013 to April 2014. The project has identified actual challenges and needs of the target group using appropriate systems approaches, including a flexible use of stakeholder analysis and engagement, and a log-frame approach for evaluation. Interestingly, saving labour was not identified as the highest priority for the women and was ranked second after the need for increasing their income. The outcomes of the study served as feedback and a rationale for reframing the project goal and objectives to address the ‘real issues’, ‘real needs’ and thus appropriate intervention strategies to address the identified challenges of the women farmers in the research area. Process steps of issue identification, rethinking and reframing of the project approach, goals and objectives are discussed and analyzed to prove the value and validity of the unique ELLab processes as an appropriate framework to deal with complex problems in the context of interconnected economic, environmental, social and cultural factors. The findings have not only brought about practical solutions for the women, but also formulated context-based recommendations for funding agencies and local governments.

Keywords: Collaboration, Decision processes, Labour, Participation, Stakeholders, Women smallholder farmers.


Food security demands that citizens participate actively in food production. How to persuade people to participate in food production programmes is the task for agricultural messages. The “Imo Food Basket Programme” in Nigeria was used to determine why messages were ineffective in persuading long-lasting participation in food production. A sample of 325 was drawn purposively from the population of the five zonal farm clusters in the state. The triangulation method used both observation and survey to obtain data, while the Likert scale and simple percentage were used to analyze them. It was found that a message which does not satisfy its audience expectation cannot persuade intended action. It was also found that the agricultural message set the food production agenda but was ineffective in determining how recipients responded to it. Finally, it was observed that some other motives stimulated participation in food production, other-than the presented message. It becomes advisable that agricultural messages must specify accruable benefits in food production participation if it expects to achieve the desired objective. Interest can only be substantiated where disposition controls action.

Keywords: Agricultural Message, Food Production, Influence, Participation


This study assessed the level of participation and benefits of the National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) among rural women farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) is a five year nationwide Programme for Food Security launched in 2001 in Nigeria with the objective to increase and stabilize food production rapidly and sustainably through the wide spread dissemination of improved technologies and management practices in areas with high potential, and to create an economic and social environment conducive to food production as well as reaching some 30,000 farming families in each selected areas (FGN, 2006) Primary data were collected through field survey with well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results obtained indicated that radio was the major source of information to majority (28.3%) of the rural women participants. More so, majority (84.40%) of the women were not involved in planning NPFS programmes. Further analysis showed that majority (56.7%) of the rural women farmers merely participated in decision making process at information receiving level. Borehole facilities (39.4%) and community seed production (36.1%) were the major components benefited by majority of the women. It was concluded that the objectives of NPFS has not been effectively realized among the rural women due to their low level of participation in programme planning and implementation. Involvement of stakeholders in planning process ensures successful implementation of programmes since their felt needs are factored in during the process.

Keywords: Benefits, Ebonyi State, National Programme for Food Security, Nigeria, Participation, Rural Women


Over the years, indigenous contractors in Nigeria have recorded a low level of participation and have often been sidelined in large scale construction activities. This has been attributed to, amongst a number of factors, mismanagement of funds and working capital which makes them prone to bankruptcy, with poor project execution and abandonment the likely outcome. The paper thus focused on studying the extent of participation of indigenous contractors in Nigerian construction projects, identifying and examining the most severe factors that hinder effective and efficient working capital management and affect the level or amount of working capital requirement of indigenous contractors. Literature studies, field survey and oral interviews were carried out to determine the major challenges faced by contractors in managing working capital and the extent of indigenous participation in public projects respectively, while a questionnaires were distributed to a selected sample of contractors in Imo state to obtain the severity weight of each factor. Findings revealed that evidently, the common challenges facing Nigerian indigenous contractors in Nigeria in the area of working capital management are low awareness of the need for working capital management, one-man business setbacks, under-capitalization, poor funding and cash flow problems, high cost of construction finance, economic recession, reckless spending and diversion of funds, poor project planning and control. Factors affecting the level of working capital requirements comprises: inflation, delays in interim payments, taxation at source and deduction of retention funds. Indigenous contractors also recorded a low level of participation on major public contracts. Results of the severity ranking exercise indicated that the problems of the one-man business set up is the most severe of the factors hindering proper working capital management, while deduction of retention fund and inflation respectively, ranked highest in factors affecting the level or amount of the contractors’ working capital requirement. It was thus recommended that in order to enable indigenous contractors realize construction projects within pre-planned cost, time and quality, reduce the incidences of project abandonment and improve their overall participation, there is need for concerted efforts on the part of the contractors to take appropriate steps in maximizing their awareness on the gains of proper working management and minimize incidences that will lead to cost escalation of his working capital requirement and on the part of the Government, a focused, political will to devise policies and create the enabling environment for improving indigenous content in the construction industry

Keywords: Challenges, Indigenous Contractors, Management, Nigeria, Participation, Working capital.

Factors Influencing Participation in Rice Development Projects: The Case of Smallholder Rice Farmers in Northern Ghana (Published)

Participation in rice development project is an important platform for joint learning and technology transfer. The present study quantifies the factors influencing participation in rice development projects among smallholder rice farmers in Northern Ghana. A total of 400 rice farmers selected through multi-stage sampling technique were interviewed. The result shows a significant variation in the demographic and institutional characteristics among the farmers by participation in rice development projects. Participation in rice development projects in Northern Ghana is influenced by age of the household head, marital status, access to off-farm income, market price of rice, knowledge of rice varieties and access to credit and the interactive term education and farm size. The packaging of agricultural technologies by research institutions and agricultural development organizations should focus on making them more receptive to farmers through effective training and demonstrations in order to boost participation, adoption, production and farmers income.

Keywords: Northern Ghana, Participation, Probit, Rice Development Project, Smallholder