Tag Archives: Participation

Professional Development and Empowerment of Primary School Teachers (Published)

The rapid changes in the socio-economic environment and the consequent pressures for educational reforms make it more than necessary to empower teachers who need to redefine their teaching strategies to meet students’ differentiated needs. Related studies suggest that teachers need to feel empowered to be effective and empower students. Therefore, the empowerment of teachers is at the center of the processes for quality improvement and school upgrade. The purpose of this study is to capture the views of primary education teachers on the opportunities for professional empowerment provided in their school environment. A total of 124 primary education teachers in Ilia Prefecture who participated in the quantitative sample survey completed an electronic questionnaire based on the Teacher Empowerment Scale. The presentation and analysis of the findings show that participants in all dimensions of empowerment have moderate to high degree of agreement. Specifically, the highest average dimension is that of decision-making, while the lowest average is that of professional development.

Keywords: Decision Making, Empowerment, Participation, Professional Development, Teachers

Citizens’ Participation in the Decentralization Process in Ghana (Published)

Participation in decision-making is the root of democratization, as democratization is widely believed to be rooted in decentralization. As such, citizens’ participation in the decentralization process will bring governance closer to the people. The focus of the study was to explore the views and understandings of citizens about Ghana’s decentralization process. The researcher used the case study design for the study. Both questionnaire and interview protocol were used for data gathering. One hundred and six people in the area were conveniently sampled to become respondents in the study. For the method of data analysis, the researcher used tables and percentages.  The study found out that nearly 25% of the citizens have no or very little understanding of the decentralization process. Even though majority of the citizens took part in local elections, the citizens were not part of the decision making process, planning of developmental projects and paying taxes/levies to the district assembly. The non-performance of Unit Committee Members were found to be the cause of citizens’ non-participation in the decentralization programme even though there were other factors that generally affected the programme in the North Tongu District. The study recommended that the need for some more education in the Decentralization Process for all citizens.          

Keywords: Citizen, Decentralization, Ghana, Participation, Stakeholders

Community Participation as a Tool for the Promotion of Sustainable Community Development (Published)

The paper examined community participation as a tool for the promotion of sustainable community development. The paper explored the concept of community participation and sustainable community development.  The paper identified areas of community participation in sustainable community development to include community needs assessment, community development planning, community mobilization among others. The highlights of the benefits that accrue from community participation in sustainable community development are community empowerment, promotion of meaningful change, community participation as a mechanism to address community problems and provision of learning opportunities. The highlights of the recommendations based on the issues discussed are: There is an obvious need to strengthen the level of awareness creation in people for community participation in sustainable community development, relevant stakeholders in community development projects should embark on sustainable mobilization for effective community participation in community development among others.

Keywords: Community, Community and Development, Participation, Promotion, Sustainable, Tool

News Presentation in Class as an Activity to Teach Integrated Skills in EFL in Africa (Published)

To make their learners achieve good competency in second or foreign language, teachers need to be careful in the choice of techniques, approaches and activities they use. Unfortunately, many teachers and course books separate the four macro skills in their teaching approach. The language which should be seen as a whole is taught in a segregated way, i. e. with whole lessons / sessions on listening, speaking, reading or writing skills. Language, whose prime objective is communication, is thus compartmentalised and leads to poor users. A good reader, listener or writer of a language is not necessarily a competent user of it in real communication situations. This paper proposes the presentation of news in class as an activity to integrate the four macro skills in teaching English as a Foreign Language. It is an exercise which involves the active participation of the whole class, considerably reduces the teacher talking time while increasing that of the learners.

Keywords: Integrated Skills, Listening, News, Participation, Reading, Speaking, writing

Assessment of Women’s Participation in Self-Help Groups in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State: Implications for Community Education (Published)

This paper assessed women’s participation in self-help groups in Nsukka Local Government Area.  Five objectives and Five research questions were developed to aid the study.  It adopted descriptive survey research design with a sample of 160 members of women self-help groups drawn from five communities.  The key instrument used for data collection was questionnaire which covered the objectives of the study while interview and personal observation were used to complement the questionnaire. Data collected were presented in tables and analysed using percentage and mean scores.  The findings show that women in Nsukka participate to a high level in self-help groups.  The benefits of the self-help groups include among others, to socialize, attract loan, save money, give moral and financial support to members and solve problems through collective efforts.  The study also reveals that women face challenges like illiteracy, poverty, conflicts and others which need relevant community education programmes to address. The paper therefore recommends among others that community members should support women self-help groups to enable them contribute to community development and that adult educators should strengthen women’s capacity through community education to address the challenges that hinder their participation in self-help groups.

Keywords: Community Education., Participation, Self-help

Effect of Gender Factor on Teacher Trainee Students’ Attitudes towards the Study of Science in the Colleges of Education-Ghana (Published)

Students’ participation and performance in Science depend on the kind of attitude students’ show towards science. This kind of attitude exhibit by students’ is caused by some factors. This paper therefore seeks to investigate the effect of gender as a factor on teacher trainee students’ attitude towards the study of science and make recommendations for college authorities. The instrument used was a structured questionnaire which consisted of a four-point Likert scale items. Data for the study was obtained by administering 140 questionnaires to 140 students’ from five (5) public Colleges of Education. The respondents were sampled using stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. Twenty-Eight (28) respondents from each of the colleges were selected to make up the total number of 140 respondents. All the questionnaires were fully answered and returned. The data obtained was analysed using frequency counts and percentages.

Keywords: Gender, Participation, Performance, attitude

Strategies for the Engagement of Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations in Landscape Governance (Published)

Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations (ENGOs) are most often considered as key actors in territorial development. However, the strategies applied by these institutions to effectively engage in landscape planning have been less studied. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of how two ENGOs are attempting to influence landscape scale governance in Luxembourg. The results disclose that because ENGOs are not often incorporated at the preliminary stages of policy planning, they retaliate by using two main methods of engagement; self-mobilisation and legal actions. These approaches have been blamed for slowing down regional projects. Nonetheless, they are argued for promoting effective participation in sustainable landscape development.

Keywords: ENGOs, Landscape Governance, Luxembourg, Participation, Strategies.

Sociocultural Factors as Predictor of Immunization Participation among Rural Mothers of Waterside in Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

Active Immunization Coverage in the rural community of Ogun Waterside have been perceived to be bedeviled by several factors ranging from geographical to demographic issues limiting accessibility to health care. The study looked into those factors that prevented and distorted complete uptake of Immunization in the rural location of waterside. The study was conducted in eight wards of the Local Government Area. Descriptive survey research design with qualitative method was adopted. SFIIPQ: R = 0.78, CFPIPQ R = 0.810, AUPIPQ: R = 0.93 and MMFPIPQ: R = 0.88 were the instrument used to glean data. The study revealed that cultural factors of living style, health seeking behavior and values are 59.0% of the total variation (R2 = 0.587, P < 0.05). Also, the social variables of peer influence, parenting style, socioeconomic status, level of education and sex of the child accounted for 55.0% of the total variation (R2 =0.550, P <0.05). Mothers reported that sometimes, vaccines are not available in the right quantity. Conclusively, immunizations in the local community of waterside is fairly good as reported but require more education, supply of adequate vaccines and provision of active cold chain facilities.

Keywords: Immunization, Participation, rural mothers, vaccines, waterside

Sociocultural Factors as Predictors of Immunization Participation among Rural Mothers of Waterside in Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

Active Immunization Coverage in the rural community of Ogun Waterside have been perceived to be bedeviled by several factors ranging from geographical to demographic issues limiting accessibility to health care. The study looked into those factors that prevented and distorted complete uptake of Immunization in the rural location of waterside. The study was conducted in eight wards of the Local Government Area. Descriptive survey research design with qualitative method was adopted. SFIIPQ: R = 0.78, CFPIPQ R = 0.810, AUPIPQ: R = 0.93 and MMFPIPQ: R = 0.88 were the instrument used to glean data. The study revealed that cultural factors of living style, health seeking behavior and values are 59.0% of the total variation (R2 = 0.587, P < 0.05). Also, the social variables of peer influence, parenting style, socioeconomic status, level of education and sex of the child accounted for 55.0% of the total variation (R2 =0.550, P <0.05). Mothers reported that sometimes, vaccines are not available in the right quantity. Conclusively, immunizations in the local community of waterside is fairly good as reported but require more education, supply of adequate vaccines and provision of active cold chain facilities.

Keywords: Immunization, Participation, rural mothers, vaccines, waterside

Appraisal of Local Government Participation in the Administration of Primary Education in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State (Published)

The study investigated the extent of Local Government participation in the administration of primary Education in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State. One research question and one null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. A 36-item researchers structured questionnaire was developed and administered to 986 respondents. The sample of the study was 986 participants comprising of five (5) education secretaries, 282 head teachers and 699 teachers. The population of the study were studied as the sample size which was obtained through simple random sampling technique. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. A mean score of 2.50 was adopted as the cut-off-point or acceptable level for the items. The t-test statistic was employed in testing the three null hypotheses formulated for the study at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis of the findings showed that the respondents are of the view that the local government councils in Nsukka education Zone do not participate meaningfully in the administration and funding of primary education. Based on the findings the study recommended that the three tiers of government should combine to fund primary education to avoid it being abandoned by a particular tier, among others

Keywords: Administration, Local Government, Participation, Primary Education

Imperative For Special Needs People (Snp) Participation in Tourism Activities in Osogbo Metropolis Osun State, Nigeria (Published)

Participation in tourism activities by Special Needs People (SNP) has both economic and social benefits. Tourism activities are pleasurable activities which can improve physical and mental health of the participants. This study attempts to investigate the imperative for special needs people (SNP) participation in tourism activities in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Sixty (60) respondents were purposively selected out of which fifty-seven (57) questionnaires were returned which represents 95%. Data were collected using structured interview schedule from schools for the handicapped in Osogbo metropolis. Statistical tools such as frequency counts, percentages and Chi-square were used for analysing the data. Hypotheses were tested and the calculated X² (11.68) is greater than tabulated X² (5.99). Chi square indicates that there is a significant relationship between benefits to be derived from participating in tourism activities by special needs people (SNP) in Osogbo metropolis. A major conclusion of this study is that tourism activities are imperative for special needs people in Osogbo metropolis provided adequate and related tourism activities information is made available. The study concluded there is a need to include special needs people (SNP) in tourism activities especially in the study area. The study recommended that government should establish holiday centres in the study area to encourage special needs people participation in tourism activities.

Keywords: Imperative, Osogbo Metropolis, Participation, Special Needs People (SNP), Tourism Activities

Determinants of Community Participation in Planning HIV and Aids Interventions under National Multisectoral Strategic Framework in Mtwara Region, Tanzania (Published)

This paper is based on a research which was conducted in Mtwara Region, Tanzania, to assess determinants of community participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions under the National Multisectoral Strategic Framework (NMSF) on HIV and AIDS. The findings indicated that 69.0% of the respondents were not aware of NMSF interventions; 77.0% had unfavourable attitude towards the interventions; and 81.8% did not participate in planning the interventions. Furthermore, using ordinal logistic regression, it was found that community awareness of (p ≤ 0.001) and attitude towards HIV and AIDS interventions (p ≤ 0.005), access to planning information (p ≤ 0.001), education level (p ≤ 0.05), and community satisfaction with involvement in planning (p ≤ 0.001) had significant impacts on the chances of participating highly in planning the interventions. The results substantiate a need for decentralisation in order to address obstacles which constrain participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions.

Keywords: Community, HIV and AIDS, NMSF, Participation, Planning

English Language Teachers Attitudes about Their Contribution in Curriculum Process in the Saudi Education System (Published)

In Saudi Arabia curriculum designing and development is always performed by the educational authority the Ministry of Education. Unfortunately, teachers’ voices are completely ignored, although they are the principle role-players in the educational process. Teachers, on their part, have practical knowledge based on their daily work with the students. This knowledge is useful because teachers can assess whither the new ideas will work in the classroom. In the current study the researcher investigated the teachers’ viewpoints on their participation in the curriculum design process. A researcher-made questionnaire was used to collect data from the samples. The results showed that teachers have positive attitudes about their participation in the curriculum designing process

Keywords: Curriculum Design, Participation, Syllabus, Teachers

Determinants of Community Participation in Planning HIV and AIDS Interventions under National Multisectoral Strategic Framework in Mtwara Region, Tanzania (Published)

This paper is based on a research which was conducted in Mtwara Region, Tanzania, to assess determinants of community participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions under the National Multisectoral Strategic Framework (NMSF) on HIV and AIDS. The findings indicated that 69.0% of the respondents were not aware of NMSF interventions; 77.0% had unfavourable attitude towards the interventions; and 81.8% did not participate in planning the interventions. Furthermore, using ordinal logistic regression, it was found that community awareness of (p ≤ 0.001) and attitude towards HIV and AIDS interventions (p ≤ 0.005), access to planning information (p ≤ 0.001), education level (p ≤ 0.05), and community satisfaction with involvement in planning (p ≤ 0.001) had significant impacts on the chances of participating highly in planning the interventions. The results substantiate a need for decentralisation in order to address obstacles which constrain participation in planning HIV and AIDS interventions.

Keywords: Aids, Community, HIV, NMSF, Participation, Planning

Participation of Women Farmers in Rice Production in Bende Local Government Area, Abia State (Published)

This study examined the level of participation of women farmers in rice production in Bende L.G.A, Abia State, Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from 90 respondents and summarized using frequency distribution, percentages and logistic regression. The respondents were young, energetic and enterprising with large household sizes and majority were married small-scaled farmers, with much experience in rice production. The farmers had access to credit and each farmer made a profit of N30,508.03. This indicates that rice production was profitable in the study area. The clustered mean (cx) of 3.687 indicates that majority of the respondents participate in rice production. Household size, access to credit, output, total cost and membership of cooperatives were significant variables influencing the participation of women farmers in rice production. Inadequate land, inadequate finance, shortage of farm inputs, low level of infrastructure and climate change were the major problems facing women in rice production. Government should provide access to improved and disease resistant varieties of rice. Women should be allowed to own land in the Nigeria society.

Keywords: Participation, Rice production, Technologies and Bende L.G.A., Women Farmers

A Review of Private Sectors’ Involvement in Urban Housing Provision in Nigeria (Published)

The subject of housing has generated much discussion and interest in the developing countries especially in Nigeria. In most developing countries today, the provision of shelter is grossly inadequate despite several decades of direct government intervention in the shelter sector. Private Estate developers have also contributed in developing housing estates to relieve the great pressure on housing problem .All with the focus of providing adequate and affordable shelter for all (the masses/urban poor). Adequate and affordable housing and infrastructure is in short supply in Nigeria while marginal success have been achieved from Governments’ various approaches at accelerating housing provision. It has been observed that the phenomenal rise in population, spontaneous increase in size of most Nigerian cities have hitherto led to acute shortage of decent and affordable dwellings. The practice of some private sectors involves acquiring land and developing large estates where the houses are offered for sale as “ready-to-move-in units”. Several previous studies have focused on the role of government agencies (public sectors) in housing provision but adequate attention has not been given to the role of private sector in housing provision. This paper examines private sector participation in urban housing provision in Nigeria. This paper also aimed to contribute to the discourse on housing paradigm shift from public sector provision to private sector market-driven housing delivery in Nigeria. It is recommended that Government housing policy need to be proactive.

Keywords: Nigeria, Participation, Private Sectors, Urban Housing Provision

NEXUS OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND SURVIVAL IN NIGERIAN UNIVERSITIES (A CASE STUDY OF UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN) (Published)

Most business managers have seen change becoming a regular aspect of organizational life and they must constantly monitor and respond to these changes appropriately. The overriding goal is to optimize the output of the people involved in this process and reduce the risk of failure in achieving the desired change. Change management is usually seen from an organizational context and refers to the process of developing a planned approach to change in an organization. Business environment has become much more turbulent, uncertain and demanding change is inevitable in an organisation. Business operates in a dynamic environment and organisation that fails to recognise the inevitability of change is doomed to fail. This paper is designed to examine the nexus of change management on organisational performance and survival in Nigerian universities using University of Ilorin as a case study. Both primary and secondary sources of data constitute the main source of data gathering. Random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample size. Regression analysis was used to analyse the data obtained and the testing of one hypothesis formulated. The results obtained reveal a strong negative relationship between changes introduced through Computer Based Test in the University.This research recommends that before embarking on any change, the university should attempt to maintain useful customs and informal relationship, build trust, encourage participation, provide information in advance, make only necessary changes, guarantee against loss, provide counselling, allow for negotiation between the University Management and the staff and students.

Keywords: Change Management, Computer Based Test, Counselling, Negotiation., Participation, Transformation

DEFINING THE REAL NEEDS OF WOMEN SMALLHOLDER FARMERS IN VIETNAM: THE IMPORTANCE OF GRASSROOTS PARTICIPATION AND MULTI-STAKEHOLDER COLLABORATION (Published)

In response to gender gap and hardship due to heavy production and domestic tasks of women smallholder farmers in developing countries, this study was conducted under the auspices of the Gates Foundation with an original goal of formulating labour saving strategies and innovations for the rural women in Vietnam. The first five steps of a systems-based Evolutionary Learning Laboratory (ELLab) framework together with other management tools were employed in the first phase of the project during April 2013 to April 2014. The project has identified actual challenges and needs of the target group using appropriate systems approaches, including a flexible use of stakeholder analysis and engagement, and a log-frame approach for evaluation. Interestingly, saving labour was not identified as the highest priority for the women and was ranked second after the need for increasing their income. The outcomes of the study served as feedback and a rationale for reframing the project goal and objectives to address the ‘real issues’, ‘real needs’ and thus appropriate intervention strategies to address the identified challenges of the women farmers in the research area. Process steps of issue identification, rethinking and reframing of the project approach, goals and objectives are discussed and analyzed to prove the value and validity of the unique ELLab processes as an appropriate framework to deal with complex problems in the context of interconnected economic, environmental, social and cultural factors. The findings have not only brought about practical solutions for the women, but also formulated context-based recommendations for funding agencies and local governments.

Keywords: Collaboration, Decision processes, Labour, Participation, Stakeholders, Women smallholder farmers.

AGRICULTURAL MESSAGE INFLUENCE ON FOOD PRODUCTION PARTICIPATION IN NIGERIA (Published)

Food security demands that citizens participate actively in food production. How to persuade people to participate in food production programmes is the task for agricultural messages. The “Imo Food Basket Programme” in Nigeria was used to determine why messages were ineffective in persuading long-lasting participation in food production. A sample of 325 was drawn purposively from the population of the five zonal farm clusters in the state. The triangulation method used both observation and survey to obtain data, while the Likert scale and simple percentage were used to analyze them. It was found that a message which does not satisfy its audience expectation cannot persuade intended action. It was also found that the agricultural message set the food production agenda but was ineffective in determining how recipients responded to it. Finally, it was observed that some other motives stimulated participation in food production, other-than the presented message. It becomes advisable that agricultural messages must specify accruable benefits in food production participation if it expects to achieve the desired objective. Interest can only be substantiated where disposition controls action.

Keywords: Agricultural Message, Food Production, Influence, Participation

LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION AND BENEFITS OF THE NATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR FOOD SECURITY (NPFS) AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA (Published)

This study assessed the level of participation and benefits of the National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) among rural women farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) is a five year nationwide Programme for Food Security launched in 2001 in Nigeria with the objective to increase and stabilize food production rapidly and sustainably through the wide spread dissemination of improved technologies and management practices in areas with high potential, and to create an economic and social environment conducive to food production as well as reaching some 30,000 farming families in each selected areas (FGN, 2006) Primary data were collected through field survey with well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results obtained indicated that radio was the major source of information to majority (28.3%) of the rural women participants. More so, majority (84.40%) of the women were not involved in planning NPFS programmes. Further analysis showed that majority (56.7%) of the rural women farmers merely participated in decision making process at information receiving level. Borehole facilities (39.4%) and community seed production (36.1%) were the major components benefited by majority of the women. It was concluded that the objectives of NPFS has not been effectively realized among the rural women due to their low level of participation in programme planning and implementation. Involvement of stakeholders in planning process ensures successful implementation of programmes since their felt needs are factored in during the process.

Keywords: Benefits, Ebonyi State, National Programme for Food Security, Nigeria, Participation, Rural Women