Tag Archives: Participation

Determinants of Women’s Participation in Micro and Small Scale Enterprises in Ethiopia: A Review (Published)

Ethiopia has prioritized on MSE development for economic growth, employment generation and building an industrial economy. In 1997 the government has designed a National MSEs development and promotion strategy which facilitates and paves the ground for the growth and development of the sector. The strategy was revised in 2010/11 with renewed interests and more ambitious targets on employment and number of entrepreneurs and transition to medium size level. The objective of the review was identified the most determinants of women participation in MSE. In order to increase participation of women in different types of micro and small-scale enterprises, the relevant intervention area would be to increase access of information, infrastructure, and resources and develop awareness on how to begin small and medium business. Considering the role that participation in MSE plays in improving the living conditions of participants, it is advisable for, accumulate asset for build new investment, unemployed people and for those who receive meager wage to engage in MSE.

Keywords: Asset holding, Income, Micro and small scale enterprises, Participation, Women, saving

Inclusive Education: Developments in Sub-Saharan Africa (Published)

The engagement of countries within Sub-Saharan Africa in various measures to raise and equalise enrolment of boys and girls in schools demonstrates their commitment to include. However, developments reflect the challenges some national education systems in the region encounter to practice inclusive education. Educators within the region appear to be grappling with the notion of inclusivity and that is having effects on the provisioning of education that is indeed for all primary age children in local community schools within the context. The insistence to preserve existing local cultures and emphasis on competence based curriculum constrains efforts of practitioners to ensure the mainstreaming of presence, participation and achievement of all pupils at school. Some pupils consequently leave school without positive outcomes. Inclusive education as an approach to reposition education for all implies the adoption of curriculum of differentiation to be able to reach out to all pupils, including those who feel dissatisfied with existing school practices as well as those who seem distant in the context.

Keywords: Achievement, Inclusion, Participation, Pupil, presence, sub-Saharan Africa

Patronizing Agricultural Cooperatives: The Journey towards Zero Hunger Attainment in South-South States, Nigeria (Published)

The study focused on farmers patronizing agricultural cooperative societies as a journey towards zero hunger attainment in South-South States, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select a sample size of 144. A validated questionnaire was used to obtain data from respondents. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed to analyze the data obtained. Results showed that the average age, farming experience, household size, farm size and annual farm income were 46 years, 11 years, 6 persons, 3 Ha and N282,638.89 respectively. The level of participation of the respondents activities in their groups was highest in payment of monthly dues and other necessary contributions (mean = 3.60) and the most benefit derived was increased human capacity development in farming (mean = 3.48). In addition, most (59.03%) of the cooperators indicated their high level of satisfaction with the groups they belong. Regression results showed that respondents derived significant (p<0.05) benefits from their belonging to cooperative groups. It was concluded that farmers were satisfied by patronizing cooperative societies as a strategy to attain zero hunger amongst households. The study recommends that there should be awareness creation for new entrants to join cooperative societies so as to accomplish zero hunger.

Keywords: Benefits, Cooperative Societies, Farmers, Participation, Satisfaction, zero hunger

Implications of Employee Participation in Decision Making for the Performance of Local Government Administration in Nigeria: A survey of selected local governments in Enugu state (Published)

The paper is on the Implications of employee participation in decision making for the performance of local government administration in Nigeria. Three local governments in Enugu state were selected for the study. The paper is an empirical research using survey design approach with a population of 1972 drawn from Enugu East (526), Enugu North (746), and Enugu South (649) local government areas. A sample size of 331 employees was used. The instruments used for data generation was structured questionnaire and frequencies and percentages were used for analysis. The findings of the study include that employees’ participation significantly increases the quality of service delivery, reduces work error, increases job satisfaction, enhances better policy implementation, and better directs employees’ efforts towards organizational goals. Challenges facing employees’ participation include assumed poor knowledge and skill of employees; lack of trust of employees by top management that limit their participatory space; management unwillingness to share information with junior staff; and the traditional top-down decision making approach to management.

Keywords: Decision Making, Employees, Implementation, Local government Administration, Participation, Performance

Small Christian Communities: Membership and Participation in Tenden Sub-Parish, Kapcherop in Eldoret Diocese, Kenya (Published)

In the present-day Church, Small Christian Communities embody the reality of a religious and social life founded on concern for others as seen from the original Jerusalem Community. The study examined the characteristics of Small Christian Communities in Tenden Sub-Parish, Kapcherop, Eldoret Diocese, Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive approach. It relied on purposive and stratified sampling to sample 12 key informants, comprising priests, Deacons, Seminarians, and SCC leaders. The study employed questionnaires and interviews to collect data. Secondary data was generated from various libraries. The findings of the study showed that majority of those who attended SCCs were aged 36-45 years. Women still formed the majority of attendees. Fewer men than women attended SCC meetings. Men who attended SCCs were selective of activities in which to participate. Most of the SCCs, though recently established, were relatively active in pastoral activities. Despite the many challenges they experience, SCCs still play an important role in elevating members spiritually and materially. Therefore, based on the study findings, there is need to encourage younger members of the Church to attend SCCs for spiritual nourishment. Moreover, professionals and other educated laypersons should also be encouraged to participate in SCCs. They can bring their skills and competences to enhance the management and effectiveness of SCCs. This paper provides insight on the current state of SCCs to help church leaders in enhancing the efficiency of these communities and lay participation in SCCs.

Keywords: Membership, Participation, parish, small Christian communities

Communal Participation and Good Governance in Nigeria (Published)

Communal participation has been a collective and progressive impetus for societal development since medieval era while popular representation is one of the indispensable pillars of good governance in modern times. The study examined the impact of communal participation on good governance in Bomadi and Patani local government areas of Delta State, Nigeria. The study investigated the practise of communal participation in the communities and wards, the extent of participation in local government affairs and the leadership style that encourages participation or representation of community members in the local government councils. Data were generated from both primary and secondary sources. Samples of 200 respondents were interviewed through the administration of questionnaire designed according to 5-point Likert scale of strongly agreed (SA) to strongly disagree (SDA). Demographic data were collected and analysed by tables of frequency and percentage. The measures of central tendency such as the mean and standard deviation were employed to analyse the three objectives adopting mean of 2.50 as agree (A) or acceptable criterion at (0.05) level of significance. Findings revealed that there was appreciable level of communal participation and representation in the two local government areas. The study recommended that, a more pragmatic involvement of community leaders in decision making, projects initiation, planning and execution be adequately demonstrated. This should be carried out through regular town hall meetings with community leaders and mass media sensitization to enhance good governance at the grassroots level.

Keywords: Development, Good Governance, Leadership, Participation, communal

Women Participation in Politics and National Development (Published)

The contribution of women to the socio-economic and political development of any modern democratic state is essential and indispensable. This paper examines the extent of women participation in politics and national development in Nigeria. The study adopted secondary data as sources of information. The constraints of women participation inpolitics pose as hindrance to national developmentin Nigeria. It is discernible from this study that cultural, environmental, educational and gender factors are major barriers to active women participation inpolitics. It is part of the objectives of this work to realize active women participation in National political life for a sustainable National development.Government at all levels should embark on enlightenment campaign to sensitize the public on the need for more women to embrace and pursue education as this is a catalyst for active women participation inpolitics. It is also recommended that coercive legislations should be made at all levels against every form of discrimination against women.

Keywords: Development, National Development, Participation, Politics, Women

Female Students’ Participation in Mathematics Education at the University Level in Ghana (Published)

For more than three decades now, a great body of research studies have been conducted to address the issue of gender disparities in mathematics education across the globe as a result of the minimal participation of females in mathematics education in higher levels of education. The primary purpose of this study, however, was to investigate female students’ participation in mathematics education at the university level. It considered 99 female students’ studying mathematics education from the University of Cape Coast and the University of Education, Winneba. The study used descriptive survey design to analyse both qualitative and quantitative data gathered from respondents. The study revealed among other things that the trend of enrolment of female students’ in mathematics education is on the decline. Also, the study revealed that enjoyment derived from studying mathematics education, career opportunities in mathematics education, desire to study mathematics education, interest in mathematics education, were some of the reasons why female students participate in mathematics education. The assertion that mathematics is a male domain subject was not a perception of female mathematics education students who participated in this study. Conclusions, implications and recommendations are further discussed in the work.


Keywords: Mathematics Education, Participation, Perception, female students, university level

Constraints to Participation in Youth Empowerment Scheme of Oyo State, Nigeria (Published)

The study ascertained the constraints to participation in the Youth Empowerment Scheme of Oyo State. Data for the study were obtained from ninety youth participants in the Scheme using multi-stage sampling procedure. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequencies, percentages, means and ranks. Results indicate that the average age of participants in the Scheme was 29 years and 56% of the respondents were females; 51% of them were married; and 91.6% were functionally literate. Findings also show that the most common benefits from the Youth Empowerment Scheme were: instilling honour and integrity in the participants, improving the participants’ literacy rate, reducing participants’ economic dependency and enhancing participants’ abilities to support others financially. Received monthly stipend lower being lower than Government-approved amount, transportation problems and insufficient information on the Scheme’s objectives were the main constraints to youth participation in the Scheme. The relevant governmental and non-governmental agencies in Oyo State should endeavor to provide timely and relevant information on the Scheme to enhance increased participation of youth in the Scheme. Also, monthly stipends given to participants of the Scheme should be increased to attract more youth to the Scheme.

Keywords: Constraints, Oyo State, Participation, Scheme, Youth

Professional Development and Empowerment of Primary School Teachers (Published)

The rapid changes in the socio-economic environment and the consequent pressures for educational reforms make it more than necessary to empower teachers who need to redefine their teaching strategies to meet students’ differentiated needs. Related studies suggest that teachers need to feel empowered to be effective and empower students. Therefore, the empowerment of teachers is at the center of the processes for quality improvement and school upgrade. The purpose of this study is to capture the views of primary education teachers on the opportunities for professional empowerment provided in their school environment. A total of 124 primary education teachers in Ilia Prefecture who participated in the quantitative sample survey completed an electronic questionnaire based on the Teacher Empowerment Scale. The presentation and analysis of the findings show that participants in all dimensions of empowerment have moderate to high degree of agreement. Specifically, the highest average dimension is that of decision-making, while the lowest average is that of professional development.

Keywords: Decision Making, Empowerment, Participation, Professional Development, Teachers

Citizens’ Participation in the Decentralization Process in Ghana (Published)

Participation in decision-making is the root of democratization, as democratization is widely believed to be rooted in decentralization. As such, citizens’ participation in the decentralization process will bring governance closer to the people. The focus of the study was to explore the views and understandings of citizens about Ghana’s decentralization process. The researcher used the case study design for the study. Both questionnaire and interview protocol were used for data gathering. One hundred and six people in the area were conveniently sampled to become respondents in the study. For the method of data analysis, the researcher used tables and percentages.  The study found out that nearly 25% of the citizens have no or very little understanding of the decentralization process. Even though majority of the citizens took part in local elections, the citizens were not part of the decision making process, planning of developmental projects and paying taxes/levies to the district assembly. The non-performance of Unit Committee Members were found to be the cause of citizens’ non-participation in the decentralization programme even though there were other factors that generally affected the programme in the North Tongu District. The study recommended that the need for some more education in the Decentralization Process for all citizens.          

Keywords: Citizen, Decentralization, Ghana, Participation, Stakeholders

Community Participation as a Tool for the Promotion of Sustainable Community Development (Published)

The paper examined community participation as a tool for the promotion of sustainable community development. The paper explored the concept of community participation and sustainable community development.  The paper identified areas of community participation in sustainable community development to include community needs assessment, community development planning, community mobilization among others. The highlights of the benefits that accrue from community participation in sustainable community development are community empowerment, promotion of meaningful change, community participation as a mechanism to address community problems and provision of learning opportunities. The highlights of the recommendations based on the issues discussed are: There is an obvious need to strengthen the level of awareness creation in people for community participation in sustainable community development, relevant stakeholders in community development projects should embark on sustainable mobilization for effective community participation in community development among others.

Keywords: Community, Community and Development, Participation, Promotion, Sustainable, Tool

News Presentation in Class as an Activity to Teach Integrated Skills in EFL in Africa (Published)

To make their learners achieve good competency in second or foreign language, teachers need to be careful in the choice of techniques, approaches and activities they use. Unfortunately, many teachers and course books separate the four macro skills in their teaching approach. The language which should be seen as a whole is taught in a segregated way, i. e. with whole lessons / sessions on listening, speaking, reading or writing skills. Language, whose prime objective is communication, is thus compartmentalised and leads to poor users. A good reader, listener or writer of a language is not necessarily a competent user of it in real communication situations. This paper proposes the presentation of news in class as an activity to integrate the four macro skills in teaching English as a Foreign Language. It is an exercise which involves the active participation of the whole class, considerably reduces the teacher talking time while increasing that of the learners.

Keywords: Integrated Skills, Listening, News, Participation, Reading, Speaking, writing

Assessment of Women’s Participation in Self-Help Groups in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State: Implications for Community Education (Published)

This paper assessed women’s participation in self-help groups in Nsukka Local Government Area.  Five objectives and Five research questions were developed to aid the study.  It adopted descriptive survey research design with a sample of 160 members of women self-help groups drawn from five communities.  The key instrument used for data collection was questionnaire which covered the objectives of the study while interview and personal observation were used to complement the questionnaire. Data collected were presented in tables and analysed using percentage and mean scores.  The findings show that women in Nsukka participate to a high level in self-help groups.  The benefits of the self-help groups include among others, to socialize, attract loan, save money, give moral and financial support to members and solve problems through collective efforts.  The study also reveals that women face challenges like illiteracy, poverty, conflicts and others which need relevant community education programmes to address. The paper therefore recommends among others that community members should support women self-help groups to enable them contribute to community development and that adult educators should strengthen women’s capacity through community education to address the challenges that hinder their participation in self-help groups.

Keywords: Community Education., Participation, Self-help

Effect of Gender Factor on Teacher Trainee Students’ Attitudes towards the Study of Science in the Colleges of Education-Ghana (Published)

Students’ participation and performance in Science depend on the kind of attitude students’ show towards science. This kind of attitude exhibit by students’ is caused by some factors. This paper therefore seeks to investigate the effect of gender as a factor on teacher trainee students’ attitude towards the study of science and make recommendations for college authorities. The instrument used was a structured questionnaire which consisted of a four-point Likert scale items. Data for the study was obtained by administering 140 questionnaires to 140 students’ from five (5) public Colleges of Education. The respondents were sampled using stratified random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. Twenty-Eight (28) respondents from each of the colleges were selected to make up the total number of 140 respondents. All the questionnaires were fully answered and returned. The data obtained was analysed using frequency counts and percentages.

Keywords: Gender, Participation, Performance, attitude

Strategies for the Engagement of Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations in Landscape Governance (Published)

Environmental Non-Governmental Organisations (ENGOs) are most often considered as key actors in territorial development. However, the strategies applied by these institutions to effectively engage in landscape planning have been less studied. This paper provides an in-depth analysis of how two ENGOs are attempting to influence landscape scale governance in Luxembourg. The results disclose that because ENGOs are not often incorporated at the preliminary stages of policy planning, they retaliate by using two main methods of engagement; self-mobilisation and legal actions. These approaches have been blamed for slowing down regional projects. Nonetheless, they are argued for promoting effective participation in sustainable landscape development.

Keywords: ENGOs, Landscape Governance, Luxembourg, Participation, Strategies.

Sociocultural Factors as Predictor of Immunization Participation among Rural Mothers of Waterside in Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

Active Immunization Coverage in the rural community of Ogun Waterside have been perceived to be bedeviled by several factors ranging from geographical to demographic issues limiting accessibility to health care. The study looked into those factors that prevented and distorted complete uptake of Immunization in the rural location of waterside. The study was conducted in eight wards of the Local Government Area. Descriptive survey research design with qualitative method was adopted. SFIIPQ: R = 0.78, CFPIPQ R = 0.810, AUPIPQ: R = 0.93 and MMFPIPQ: R = 0.88 were the instrument used to glean data. The study revealed that cultural factors of living style, health seeking behavior and values are 59.0% of the total variation (R2 = 0.587, P < 0.05). Also, the social variables of peer influence, parenting style, socioeconomic status, level of education and sex of the child accounted for 55.0% of the total variation (R2 =0.550, P <0.05). Mothers reported that sometimes, vaccines are not available in the right quantity. Conclusively, immunizations in the local community of waterside is fairly good as reported but require more education, supply of adequate vaccines and provision of active cold chain facilities.

Keywords: Immunization, Participation, rural mothers, vaccines, waterside

Sociocultural Factors as Predictors of Immunization Participation among Rural Mothers of Waterside in Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)

Active Immunization Coverage in the rural community of Ogun Waterside have been perceived to be bedeviled by several factors ranging from geographical to demographic issues limiting accessibility to health care. The study looked into those factors that prevented and distorted complete uptake of Immunization in the rural location of waterside. The study was conducted in eight wards of the Local Government Area. Descriptive survey research design with qualitative method was adopted. SFIIPQ: R = 0.78, CFPIPQ R = 0.810, AUPIPQ: R = 0.93 and MMFPIPQ: R = 0.88 were the instrument used to glean data. The study revealed that cultural factors of living style, health seeking behavior and values are 59.0% of the total variation (R2 = 0.587, P < 0.05). Also, the social variables of peer influence, parenting style, socioeconomic status, level of education and sex of the child accounted for 55.0% of the total variation (R2 =0.550, P <0.05). Mothers reported that sometimes, vaccines are not available in the right quantity. Conclusively, immunizations in the local community of waterside is fairly good as reported but require more education, supply of adequate vaccines and provision of active cold chain facilities.

Keywords: Immunization, Participation, rural mothers, vaccines, waterside

Appraisal of Local Government Participation in the Administration of Primary Education in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State (Published)

The study investigated the extent of Local Government participation in the administration of primary Education in Nsukka Education Zone of Enugu State. One research question and one null hypothesis were formulated to guide the study. A 36-item researchers structured questionnaire was developed and administered to 986 respondents. The sample of the study was 986 participants comprising of five (5) education secretaries, 282 head teachers and 699 teachers. The population of the study were studied as the sample size which was obtained through simple random sampling technique. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. The data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation. A mean score of 2.50 was adopted as the cut-off-point or acceptable level for the items. The t-test statistic was employed in testing the three null hypotheses formulated for the study at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the analysis of the findings showed that the respondents are of the view that the local government councils in Nsukka education Zone do not participate meaningfully in the administration and funding of primary education. Based on the findings the study recommended that the three tiers of government should combine to fund primary education to avoid it being abandoned by a particular tier, among others

Keywords: Administration, Local Government, Participation, Primary Education

Imperative For Special Needs People (Snp) Participation in Tourism Activities in Osogbo Metropolis Osun State, Nigeria (Published)

Participation in tourism activities by Special Needs People (SNP) has both economic and social benefits. Tourism activities are pleasurable activities which can improve physical and mental health of the participants. This study attempts to investigate the imperative for special needs people (SNP) participation in tourism activities in Osogbo metropolis, Osun State, Nigeria. Sixty (60) respondents were purposively selected out of which fifty-seven (57) questionnaires were returned which represents 95%. Data were collected using structured interview schedule from schools for the handicapped in Osogbo metropolis. Statistical tools such as frequency counts, percentages and Chi-square were used for analysing the data. Hypotheses were tested and the calculated X² (11.68) is greater than tabulated X² (5.99). Chi square indicates that there is a significant relationship between benefits to be derived from participating in tourism activities by special needs people (SNP) in Osogbo metropolis. A major conclusion of this study is that tourism activities are imperative for special needs people in Osogbo metropolis provided adequate and related tourism activities information is made available. The study concluded there is a need to include special needs people (SNP) in tourism activities especially in the study area. The study recommended that government should establish holiday centres in the study area to encourage special needs people participation in tourism activities.

Keywords: Imperative, Osogbo Metropolis, Participation, Special Needs People (SNP), Tourism Activities