Evaluation on the Effect of Cost Effective Cow Dung (in Bio-Fertlizers Form) on the Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea Mays) Production in the Niger Delta Area (Bayelsa State) of Nigeria (Published)
Citation: Azawei Alamene and JohnnyBrown Alapuba Nancy (2022) Evaluation on the Effect of Cost Effective Cow Dung (in Bio-Fertlizers Form) on the Growth and Yield of Maize (Zea Mays) Production in the Niger Delta Area (Bayelsa State) of Nigeria, European Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Research, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 1-24
Evaluation on the effect of cost effective cow dung in bio-fertilizer form on growth and yield of Maize (Zea mays) production in the Niger Delta Area, was conducted, in 2017 cropping season of Bayelsa State, at the Niger Delta University Teaching and Research Farm, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria, located within latitude 50N and longitude 6.050E of the equator. Treatments adopted for the experiment was cow dung in bio-fertilizer form, which was applied with different rates 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 t/ha, and replicated 5 times, experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The least significant difference (LSD) was used to compare the means at 5% level of significance. Parameters assessed were growth and yield components of maize which included plant height, leaf area, cob length and girth, average number of kernels per cob, weight of 1000 kernels and yield in t/ha. Parameters, generally, increased significantly with an increase in the rate of application of cow dung on the experimental plots. The result obtained from the yield (t/ha) showed that, there was no significant differences between the application rates of 20, 15, 10 and 5 t/ha of cow dung, whereas only at 20 t/ha differed significantly when compared to the untreated (Control), but 20t/ha, had more yield than the rest rates of application. However, twenty (20 t/ha) application rate of cow dung bio-fertilizer produced the highest yield with a mean value of 6.45 t/ha when compared to the control (0 t/ha) which had the least mean yield value of 4.05 t/ha. Furthermore, the control had the lowest mean values in all the growth and yield parameters tested throughout the period of assessment, whereas application rate of 20t/ha produced the highest mean values and differed significantly from the rest application rates of cow dung in all of the growth parameters of maize of production. Therefore, 20t/ha of cow dung was recommended for small scale farmers in the study area and other parts of the Bayelsa State and the Global World which had similar soil characteristics and environmental conditions, that are found in the arable area of land for maize production. In fact, this research work has created positive awareness to the people of Niger Delta Area on the danger of inorganic fertilizer application in our soils, because they are hazardous to the ecosystem that affected the biodiversity of some beneficiary soil microbes, because the type of maize farmers in the area which had little or no adequate knowledge on the negative chemical residual impact of inorganic fertilizer, to our crops and the soil microbes, which affected the biodiversity of some beneficiary soil microbes, hence the evaluation on this research project work to create the awareness on the importance of cow dung bio-fertilizer that are readily available in our environment at the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria.
Design, Construction and Testing of Manual and Motorized Meat Slicing/Drying Machine: A Review (Published)
A manually and motorized meat slicing/drying machine would be in high demand in Africa as a single unit. This research review was done to improve the existing work on meat mincing machine. The slicing/dryng operation is based on the principle of shearing of meat tissues by the use of cutting zone of the machine. The device would be designed based on locally available raw materials, ease of operation and low cost. The fabricated parts comprise the following components: hopper, shaft, shaft housing, perforated plate, blade, ring screw, knife, bearing housing, receiver, stand and crank handle. From the analysis carried out on the study, it was discovered that many people are consuming unhygienic meat in Africa most especially Nigeria. Due to this, more research work most carried out to address the current method used by the meat sellers.
The impact of gas flaring on Ebocha-Egbema environment in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria was investigated. Mbutu Mbaise which has no oil-drilling or gas flaring site, was selected as the control environment. Concentrations of air quality indices: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulphur dioxide (SO2), methane (CH4) and particulates were determined. Air quality measurements in Ebocha were made, at least, 500 meters from the flaring site. Values of important indices of soil physico-chemical parameters: pH, nitrate (NO3), sulphate (SO4) and percentage carbon were determined for the two environments. Water samples from the two environments were analysed for their physico-chemical parameters. Results obtained revealedthat the mean values for air quality indices, soil and water physico-chemical parameters for Ebocha were substantially higher than those for Mbutu Mbaise except pH values obtained for soil and water, indicating that gas flaring exerts adverse ecological effect on the air, soil and water environments in Ebocha.
Well Water Quality Assessment Using Water Quality Index in Warri Metropolis, Delta State, Nigeria (Published)
Well water samples from sixteen locations were collected and analysed within Warri metropolis to ascertain their quality using water quality index (WQI). The WQI was determined based on thirteen physico-chemical parameters. All the physico-chemical parameters of the well waters analysed were within standard regulatory limits. The water quality rating and water quality index (WQI) of the sixteen locations range from 23.61 (Ovwian) to 32.95 (Ugbomro) indicating the water quality to be of good quality. Most of the well water sampled are used for drinking purposes and as a result are provided with casing on the side called “rings” while the top is usually provided with a cover and are locked to prevent stray objects and other unwated materials from entering the well. This provides a good protection and prevention mechanisn for all the well waters. Overall the results indicate that the different well waters samples analysed from Warri Metropolis are safe for human consumptions therefore may not need further treatment.
A GENERALIZED METHOD FOR ESTIMATING PARAMETERS AND MODEL OF BEST FIT IN LOG-LINEAR MODELS. (Published)
In this article, we proposed generalized method and developed algorithms for estimation of parameters and best model fit of log linear model for dimensional contingency tables. For purpose of this work, the method was used to provide estimates of parameters of log –linear model for four- dimensional contingency table. Parameters of higher dimensional tables can in like manner be estimated. In estimating these parameters and best model fit, computer programs in R were developed for the implementation of the algorithms. The iterative proportional fitting was used to estimate the parameters and goodness of fits of models of the log linear model. A real life data was used for illustration and the result obtained showed the best model fit for four dimensional contingency table is [BSG, BGA]. This showed that the best model fit must have sufficient evidence to fit the data without loss of information and must have the highest p-value and least likelihood ratio estimate.
Effect of Timber Resource Processing on the Edibe-Edibe Creek in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
This study examines the quality of water and the variation in the physical and chemical properties of water in the Edibe-edibe Creek. It also looked at the microbial characteristics of the Creek. The data for the study were derived from direct field observation, sampling measure in situ measure and laboratory analysis. The phypico-chemical parameters as well as the bacteriological parameters were analysed the laboratory using various instruments. The result of the analysis revealed that: except for electrical conductivity, PH and iron, all other parameters were on the increase from station one to two. However, nitrate had the same values in both, Station one and two. The biological analysis also revealed that the parameters had an increase value from station one to two. Generally, it was discovered that the water in this Creek is not good for domestic purposes because of the availability of nitrate and the acidic nature of the water.