Tag Archives: Pakistan


Customer satisfaction and brand loyalty have been addressed as marketing goals for many companies. Marketing professionals consider loyalty to be a multidimensional phenomenon. Despite the findings of many researches that satisfaction has a significant favorable impact on brand loyalty and a true re-purchase behavior of same brand leads to long term business profits. Therefore, this study investigated the impact of customer satisfaction on brand loyalty for durable goods. The author used primary data in this study and for this purpose a survey has been conducted through a structured questionnaire. The view of 300 middle class households or business people were recorded. Our study results show that the customer satisfaction has significant factor that affect brand loyalty.

Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Pakistan, brand loyalty, home appliances


Every citizen is legally bound to pay tax to the government to enable to meet its expenditures to discharge its obligations regarding defense, education, public health, law and justice, infrastructure etc. In most of the countries, tax revenue is a major source of government income. Taxes also play a very important role in the economic development of a country. Tax evasion is concerned with all unlawful activities which are adopted by the taxpayers in order to escape from the payment of tax. The objective of this study is to probe the determinants (causes) of tax evasion in Pakistan from both tax payers and tax collectors point of view. In order to record the views of both tax payers and tax collectors the author has collected data from 150 respondents through two separate structured questionnaires. The data collected through this method has been analyzed through different statistical techniques such as arithmetic mean, percentages, standard deviation, t-tests, ANOVA etc. The results highlight six main cause of tax collection: unproductive expenditures / misuse of funds, anti-tax culture, corrupt tax administration, multiple & higher tax rates, complex tax system and amnesties and incentives for tax evaders. The author has also made certain recommendations to combat tax evasion problem and submitted suggestions to improve tax collection in order to ensure financial independence of Pakistan.

Keywords: Determinants, Pakistan, Tax Collector’s point of view, Tax Evasion, Taxpayer


This article is focussed on the role of post-colonial bureaucracy in a former princely state Khairpur (Pakistan). It is argued that the bureaucracy treated people in a similar way the colonial bureaucracy dealt with people of British India. This paper also argues that the post-colonial bureaucracy has played largely a political role since the inception of Pakistan in 1947. During the One-Unit Scheme (1955-1970) it became a tool to monopolise power, dominate people and control the resources in a similar way the colonial bureaucracy did it in British India. Thus, the post-colonial bureaucracy failed to appreciate the formation of new public space and the emergence of rural change as an outcome of technological change in agriculture.

Keywords: Civil Bureaucracy, Colonial Rule, Ethnicity, Khairpur, Pakistan, Politicisation, Reforms, Sindh, social change

A Comparative Study on Performance Evaluation of Pakistani Mutual Funds (Published)

This paper evaluate and compare the performance of different categories of Pakistani mutual funds, during seven year from 2004 to 2011.Mutual funds’ performance were analyzed using various evaluation techniques; Sharpe, Treyno, Jensen’s alpha, Sortino, Information/Appraisal ratio, Fama overall performance and performance attribution analysis. The findings suggest that performance of the mutual funds measured with first five methods, does not satisfy investors’ expectations based on the risk and return, mutual funds significantly under-perform the market. Those mutual funds analyzed with the last two methods, are not offering complete diversification thus managers fell short of matching expectations consistent with the actual risk level of portfolio, they have also not made active decision involving both in allocation of assets and in selection of individual security. This study facilitates the managers and investors in taking effective investment decisions by measuring the performance of funds they can allocate resources more efficiently in future.

Keywords: Investor, Mutual funds, Pakistan, Performance, Return, Risk

Factors influencing job satisfaction of employees in telecom sector of Pakistan (Review Completed - Accepted)

The telecom industry plays an important role in the underpinning of a country’s economy. This study is aimed at getting a clearer view of the level of satisfaction of the employees in various telecom companies. The main concerns are the relative importance and need of different job satisfaction factors and how they contribute to the overall satisfaction of the employees. Another field of focus is the impact of different things, such as experience, age and sex on job satisfaction. The results deduced represent employee relations, salary, fringe supervision, and efficiency as the most important factors influencing job satisfaction. It was seen that job satisfaction was good in telecommunication companies This paper was utilized in understanding the importance of the environment in which the employees work, pay, fairness, promotion, job security, supervisors, and co-worker relationships and their effect on job satisfaction. All telecom companies Ufone, Zong, Telenor, Warid telecom, Pakistan Telecommunication and Mobilink were visited to collected data. Data was quantitatively collected through close-ended questionnaires with a sample size of 200 telecom sector employees. Data was analyzed through correlation and multiple regression using SPSS software and results were significant. The overall job satisfaction of the employees in the telecom sector is at the positive level. Hence, this research was mainly undertaken to investigate on the significance of factors such as working conditions, pay and promotion, job security, fairness, relationship with co-workers and supervisors in affecting the job satisfaction. This paper presents a comprehensive diagnosis of job satisfaction indices of telecom sector, the factors causing the dissatisfaction & suggestions to improve them.

Keywords: Employees, Job Dissatisfaction, Job Satisfaction, Pakistan, Telecom Sector

Factors affecting teachers’ motivation in Pakistani public universities (Review Completed - Accepted)

The instructive foundations particularly, universities assume a critical part in the underpinning of nation building. This study is pointed at getting a clearer perspective of the level of teachers’ motivation at Pakistani public universities. The principle concerns are the relative imperativeness and need of diverse motivational components and how they give to the general teachers’ motivational level. The outcomes concluded speak for representative relations, pay, border benefits, self-confidence, workload, class environment and stress as the most significant components impacting the teachers’ motivational level. This paper was used in comprehension the essence of the earth in which the teachers’ function, pay, stress, announcement, nature, self-assurance, and associate relationships and their impact on motivational level. Diverse Pakistani public universities were gone by to gather essential information. Information was quantitatively gathered through close-ended surveys with a sample size of 200 Pakistani public university teachers. Information was examined through relationship and different relapse utilizing SPSS programming and outcomes were noteworthy. The general work fulfillment of the representatives in the public universities is at the positive level. Henceforth, this examination study shows that pay & promotion are the most paramount element affecting teachers’ motivation at Pakistani public universities. It was for the most part undertaken to explore on the importance of components, for example class environment, stress, workload, self-confidence and association with coworkers in influencing the employment fulfillment. This paper presents an extensive judgment of teachers’ motivational lists of Pakistani public universities, the components making the disappointment & proposals enhance them.

Keywords: Motivation, Pakistan, Public Universities, Teachers

The Theme of Partition in Khuswant Singh’s Novel Train to Pakistan (Published)

The Partition of India was the process of dividing the sub-continent along sectarian lines, which took place in 1947 as India gained its independence from British Empire. The northern part predominantly Muslim, became nation of Pakistan and the southern predominantly Hindu became the Republic of India, the partition however devastated both India and Pakistan as the process claimed many lives in riots, rapes, murders and looting. The two countries began their independence with ruined economies and lands without an established, experienced system of government, not only this, but also about 15 million people were displaced from their homes. The Partition of India was an important event not only in the history of the Indian subcontinent but in world history. Its chief reason was the communal thinking of both Hindus and Muslins; but the circumstances under which it occurred made it one of the saddest events of the history of India. No doubt, the Hindus and the Muslims were living together since long but they failed to inculcate the feelings of harmony and unity among themselves. The fanatic leaders of both communities played a prominent role in stoking the fire of communalism. The partition was exceptionally brutal and large in scale and unleashed misery and loss of lives and property as millions of refugees fled either Pakistan or India.

Keywords: Pakistan, Partition, Theme, Train