Tag Archives: Pakistan

Women Art Education in Pakistan Universities: Based Upon the Interviews of Faculty Members (Published)

Art education has brought in significant changes in the field of art in Pakistan. However, there has been limited research concerning the extent to which women reached their goals in the art industry after graduation. Fifteen female teachers from three universities in Pakistan were used as the sample. The semi-structured interview was conducted to collect data in which the qualitative analysis of the interview protocols resulted in a codebook. Results from the study show that the teaching profession is the most preferable profession which suits Pakistan’s social, traditional, and religious values. Over recent years, the rising of many institutions that also offer art education has triggered the need for the services of an art teacher.

Keywords: Female, Pakistan, Teachers, University, art education

Politics and Terrorism: Case Study of Pakistan (Published)

Pakistan is facing a wave of terrorism and political actors and its policy makers are trying to find solutions to effectively execute counter terrorism strategies and bought peace back in Pakistan.  Pakistani politics lacks consistency where its political culture is weak and political systems keeps on changing that effects the working and performance of formal politics and government. This research study intends to find a relationship of formal politics on the terrorism in Pakistan. The case study for the research study is Pakistan but it is reviewed in both Pakistan’s terrorism history and global patterns of terrorism. It also considers the politics of Pakistan through history and patterns of formal politics that includes political culture and political systems in Pakistan. One of the major research objective was to elaborate on the causes and effects of the relationship between politics and terrorism in Pakistan. World have seen four major waves of terrorism, where Pakistan was affected maximum by forth wave of terrorism also known as religious wave of terrorism that came in 1980s. Pakistan have seen two major political systems i.e. dictatorship and democracy, where in authoritarian regimes political culture diminished and decisions and policies were made without political involvement from elected members. Democratic regimes promote political activism and inclusive culture, which in turn enable government to understand needs of people and execute policies in better manner. Evolving democracy have flourished national and grass root level politics due to which they have taken comprehensive measures to eliminate terrorism in collaboration with military establishment like military courts and counter terrorism operations. Qualitative research, analysis and systematic data analysis shows that Formal politics, active political culture and democratic system can play positive role in elimination terrorism to spread and eliminating it from Pakistan. The result outcomes of this study will benefit all the researchers whose aim is to pursue their research on the relationship of politics and terrorism. It provides policy recommendations for different stakeholders so that they can perform better policy making.

Keywords: Case Study, Pakistan, Politics, Terrorism

The Strategic Purposes of the Post-9/11 US Foreign Aid to Pakistan and Its Impacts (Published)

This paper investigates why donor countries/institutions provide foreign aid to South Asian countries, in particular, US foreign aid to Pakistan, and how foreign aids impacts on internal politics of a recipient country based on donor’s development strategy, and how US foreign aid on counterterrorism policies in Pakistan. This study also focused on examining how US foreign aid policy changed and shifted towards South Asia after 9/11 terrorist attacks on USA, and how South Asia became a primary recipient of US foreign aid. This study explored that foreign aid’s primary focus was military and security-oriented objectives instead of economic development in the recipient country. Additionally, the investigation also revealed that US foreign aid also affected Pakistan’s internal politics as it allocated more support to security-oriented purposes to strengthen military rule in the political economy to reduce the effects of terrorism in Pakistan. However, Pakistan faced greater economic destruction and human losses after joining the US alliance for “War on Terror.”

Keywords: Aid Philosophy, Pakistan, Security and economic aid, Strategic Tool, US, the war on terror

An Appraisal of Kashmir Conflict (Published)

India and Pakistan fought three wars (1948, 1965, and 1971). In May – June1999, once again Kashmir became the focus of World attention when India and Pakistan fought a limited war in Kargil heights located in the valley. Kashmirissue has been discussed many times between India and Pakistan. On 2 July 1972 Shimla accord, signed by Indra Ghandiand Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto. On21 February 1999 the x-Prime minister of Pakistan Nawaz Sharif and Atal Behari Vajpayeesinged Lahore declaration .In July 2001 General Pervaz Musharaf visited India and attended Agra summit. When GeneralPervaz Musharaf took over the control of Pakistan, he changed the Kashmir policy, after9/11 Kashmir issue turned into anew and critical direction. India says Pakistan involves in terrorism in Jammu and Kashmir and on the other hand Pakistan without of the opinion and says that Kashmiris are fighting for their self-determination.

Keywords: Foreign Policy, Kashmir, Pakistan

The Role of Institutional Trust and Political Accountability in Pakistan: An Empirical Study (Published)

A substantial literature have attributed that weak political accountability and failure in governmental performance is basis of declining political trust in Asian countries. Thus Pakistan as an Asian country and emerging democracy also facing both challenges of political accountability and governmental performance. Examining political trust in Pakistan data triangulation is used. It is gathered by interviews (n=20) and from previous literature. However, data is thematically analyzed, that is expedient technique for multiethnic country like Pakistan. Therefore, it is find out that weak political accountability and lower government performance have robust trust eroding effects in Pakistan.Thus the overall results are categorical about people lacking trust over political accountability institutions.

Keywords: Government Performance, Institutional Trust, Pakistan, Political Accountability

The Role of Social Media towards Political Accountability in Pakistan: A Literature Review (Published)

Democracy is globally accepted form of government, especially when the technological development going to make this world a global village. Scholars think about the ideas of global democratic government, wherein short fall of democracy is ill-fated. However, political accountability is the essential characteristics of democracy and it cannot flourish without it. This paper adopts a qualitative approach by using qualitative content analysis and observation over social networking sites (SNS), in which democracy, accountability, and freedom of expression will extensively use. The extensive literature review indicates that social media facilitates the freedom of expression, provides opportunities of direct political participation, improves the electoral process and increase political accountability in authoritarian countries and emerging democracies. However, an emerging democracy like Pakistan, where social media trend is up surging and accountability condition is destitute. It is highly justified to investigate the role of social media towards political accountability.

Keywords: Democracy, Freedom Of Expression, Pakistan, Political Accountability, Social media

Organizational Politics and Turnover Intention: A Study from Private Colleges of Pakistan (Published)

The organizational politics is not a new phenomenon. Due to cultural differences it may be in different shapes but it is existing in every organization. In Pakistan the educational employee also engage himself in politics especially in private colleges. Likewise, others, the organizational politics is a cause of employee turnover intention. This study aims to know the relationship of organizational politics and its three antecedent’s (favoritism, pay and promotion and scarcity of resources) on employee turnover intention in private colleges. The Multan city was choosing to collect the data from respondents. A quantitative method was used in this study. To test the hypotheses regression analysis was used. The result of this study revealed that favoritism, pay and promotion and scarcity of resources antecedents of organizational politics create a politics tendency in employees and that will result in employee turnover intention. 

Keywords: Organizational Politics, Pakistan, Political Perception, Private Colleges, Turnover Intention

Impact of Liquidity Risk on Firm Specific Factors: A Case of Islamic Banks of Pakistan (Published)

The major objective of the study is to develop a model and to test the relationship among liquidity risk and firm performance through its facets.  The main facets of firm performance in the study are i-e profitability, firm size, leverage, share prices and earnings on assets. The present study mainly attempts to analyses qualitative, quantitative & contextual relationship of liquidity risk in Pakistan. Moreover, liquidity risk is less investigated in Pakistan and mainly regarding Islamic banking sector with respect to current data. Therefore, study is mainly investigated on the fourth pillar of significance i-e contextual significance. While, Islamic banking sector of Pakistan is investigated in current study. And the data is acquired from state bank of Pakistan database and through annual reports of the banks. Though, the study has supported past investigations results. Hence, the study has revealed key findings that will be fruitful for theorists, educationists and research scholars as well.

Keywords: Contextual study, Islamic banking, Leverage, Liquidity risk, Pakistan, Profitability, Return on Assets, bank size

Training Need Assessment of Rural Women Regarding Crop Production Practices (Published)

In the rural areas of Pakistan, farmers mostly use their family labor including women for production of crop. Rural women are very active in diverse agricultural activities (i.e. pre-harvest, post-harvest). Women from poor households engage in a variety of income-generating and expenditure-saving activities. They are twice as likely as men to be involved in agriculture related activities. Pakistani rural women lagging behind as compared to other developed country women due to many reasons like lack of training programme about new techniques of crop production, lack of resources, little support by agricultural extension services etc. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess the training needs of the rural women in crop production Karor Lal Eson, District Layyah, which will be helpful for extension organizations to develop their future strategies for rural women. A sample of 120 female respondents was selected randomly from Tehsil Karor Lal Eson, District Layyah through multistage random sampling technique. The results of the study revealed that a large majority (70.8%) of the respondents were illiterate. A simple majority (50.8%) of the respondent spent 2 to 4 hours in land preparation and sowing practices. While about one-fifth (19.2%) of the respondents spent 2 to 4 hours in broad casting of seed/fertilizer. However, in crop production activities including broadcasting of seed/fertilize (mean= 3.35), plant protection (mean= 3.52), thinning (mean= 2.84) and grading of seeds (mean= 2.81) they were less competent and need to educate and train about these tasks.

Keywords: Crop, Pakistan, Production Practices, Rural Women, Training

The Role of Human Resource Professionals (HRP) In Promoting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR): A Case Study of Pakistan State Oil (PSO) (Published)

The current research investigates the role of Human Resource professionals (HRP) in promoting Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in the public sector of Pakistan. Pakistan is part of the developing nations and is facing serious socio-economic, environmental, and political problems; partly because Pakistan has remained under the influence of British colonial rule.  The long British colonial rule left serious administrative issues throughout the Indian subcontinent. This paper has identified a number of obstacles to integrating HRM and CSR that companies in Pakistan is facing. These obstacles are cultural, legal framework of corporate structure, rules and regulations regarding employee’s rights, which are a part of the CSR landscape. Corporate social responsibility is getting more popular in the HRM literature, where HR managers’ role is of greater significance for achieving CSR objectives. The authors develop a conceptual framework, which can help in strengthening and promoting links between HR and CSR resulting in achieving organizational, social, and financial objectives. In light of the findings, policy implications and recommendations are discussed in last section of the paper.

Keywords: CSR, HR Professionals, HR and CSR Nexus, HRM, Pakistan, Public Companies, The Role of HRD

Cash – Cash flow sensitivity of Pakistani Manufacturing firms (Published)

We investigated  the model cash-cash flow sensitivity by proceeding the 165 Pakistani manufacturing firms data that published by the authentic government body state bank of Pakistan and these firms are listed in Karachi stock exchange. The observation period started from 2007 to 2010. This study disclose that Pakistani manufacturing firms try to escalate the cash holding level that beyond the firm cash flow level there should be two aspects of more holding first they hold for precautionary and second investment motives.

Keywords: Cash, Cash flow sensitivity, Manufacturing Firms, Pakistan

Capital Structure Impact on Financial Performance of Sharia and Non-Sharia Complaint Companies of Pakistan Stock Exchange (Published)

For a firm to be profitable, it is necessary to create an optimal capital structure that contribute towards desired performance level. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between capital structure and financial performance of firms specifically with respect to shariah complaint and non shariah complaint companies. The analysis was conducted on panel data of 8 companies (3 shariah complaint and 5 non shariah complaint) listed under technology and communication sector of Pakistan Stock Exchange under the period 2009-2015.  Financial Performance was the dependent variable measured by ROA and ROE while capital structure was independent variable measured by indicators, LTDR, STDR, SGR, NDTS and INSHOL. Multiple linear regression and correlation were used as statistical tools to run the model. On the basis key findings we concluded in Pakistan Shariah and non shariah companies have different pattrens of capital structure. We further concluded that capital structure effect the performance of firm in case of non-shariah but do not significantly affect performance of shariah complaint.

Keywords: Capital Structure, Financial Performance, Non- Sharia complaint, Pakistan, Return on Asset, Return on Equity, Sharia complaint, Technology and Communication

Evolution and Growth of Pakistani-Owned Smes in the Area of Bedfordshire London (Published)

This paper was aimed to investigate those factors which had played an important role in strategic evolution and growth of Pakistani-owned SMEs in the area of Bedfordshire London. The objective was to discover some facts and figures about business experiences of these firms and make the finding a source of learning and development for other similar enterprises in the UK. The target population (sampling frame) was comprised over 42 firms qualifying criterion of SMEs. While applying purposive (judgement) sampling approach, a representative sample of 7 firms (out of 42 firms) with 18 respondents performing at managerial level was selected to conduct in-depth interviews. A case-based empirical investigation conducted around selected group of companies revealed that a number of factors including families and friends, qualification and experience, well thought-out business decisions, clarity of goals and objectives and dual socialization of entrepreneurs while living and working in Pakistan and the UK had played an important role in strategic evolution and growth of these companies. Analysis of the data confirms the vital importance of these factors in laying a sound foundation of these businesses to evolve and flourish in the UK’s highly competitive business environment. The findings of the study are expected to provide some practical lessons to newly built Pakistani-owned enterprises in the UK in developing and strengthening their businesses to survive, grow and succeed in the market.

Keywords: Dual socialization, EMBs, Education, Experience, Pakistan, SMEs, UK

Bank Profitability, Inflation and Cost Efficiency: A Case of Pakistani Banks (Published)

The study investigates the impact of internal and external factor and macro-economic variables on profitability on commercial banks of Pakistan. Dependent data analysis confirms that the bank size, capitalization, labor productivity, concentration and inflation were significant impact on the bank profitability in Pakistan

Keywords: Bank, Cost Efficiency, Inflation, Pakistan, Profitability Analysis


The Health sector in the Pakistan is facing many problems to provide the Health facilities to the masses spread over the country. The most challenging problem is the shortage of Doctor’s as compared to the population. Most of the professional Doctor’s prefers to serve in the abroad instead to serve in Pakistan. There are the many determinants of turnover in the Health Department. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors such as Pay, Promotion, Job Safety and Security, Nature of the Work that effect the job satisfaction level and that are the cause of turnover of employee’s in the Autonomous Medical Health Institutions in the Pakistan. The factors of job satisfaction are such as Pay, Promotion, Job Safety and Security, Nature of the Work. The sample of the research is consist of 200 doctors, nurses, administrative and accounts staff working in Autonomous Medical Health institutions in the Punjab. Out of total 270 Questionnaires distributed in the Autonomous Medical Institutions of the Punjab 200 were received back and used for analysis. For data analysis/results the SPSS 20.0 is used.

Keywords: Doctors, Job Satisfaction, Medical Institutions, Pakistan, Turnover


The aim of this mixed method research is to find out positive changes in learning and behaviour of the rural students of the nursery class in the government schools at Tehsil Jaranwala district Faisalabad province Punjab Pakistan, by the use of motivational expressions within the context of behavioral perspective of Skinner’s (1957) model of reinforcement. The research makes hypothesis that the ELT teachers in government schools at primary level in Pakistan use such techniques and strategies that do not motivate the students in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the young learners especially in rural context are less interested to learn English because teachers do not motivate the students in the class. The researcher took a nursery class for 37 days and tried to motivate the students to learn English and establish their interest in studies through different motivational expressions. Moreover, a survey questionnaire, consisting of 13 close ended questions and 07 open-ended questions was distributed among 28 male and female teachers of different schools to know their views and comments regarding motivation and use of motivational expressions. The results were presented quantitatively in the form of tables, graphs, frequencies and percentages. The findings of the research results show that more than 75 % teachers agree to the view that there should be motivation in the learners and the use of different motivational strategies, for example motivational expressions, enhance the students’ interest in learning. Moreover, the classroom teaching and the questionnaire results show that students become more motivated towards learning English language when they are positively reinforced in the class. The results can be used as key for seeing the reasons behind the failure of the students at schools as well their misconduct in the society and can be a key to make improvements in both the areas.

Keywords: English as a second language (ESL), English language teaching (ELT), Motivation, Pakistan, Rural, Students, behaviourism, reinforcement


The aim of this study is to examine good changes in learning and behaviour in the students at primary level by the use of motivational expressions within the context of behavioral perspective of Skinner’s model of reinforcement. Results can be used as key for seeing the reason behind the misconduct and failure of the students at schools as well in society. For non-native learners of English language most difficult task is to concentrate on learning in the class. The learner is less motivated to learn because he/she has no motivation at all particularly when the learner is at the early age. It is also felt that the teacher’s method and teaching style to teach English at primary level are lacking motivation in the learners. This research make hypothesis that Pakistani young learner especially in rural context is less motivated to learn English because teachers do not motivate students in the class. The finding of the research shows that children become more motivated towards learning English language when they are positively reinforced.

Keywords: English as a second language (ESL), English language teaching (ELT), Motivation, Pakistan, behaviourism, reinforcement


Employee loyalty can be defined as employees being committed to the success of the organization and believing that working for this organization is their best option. The aim of the study was to find the impact of organizational commitment on employee loyalty in Pakistani organizations. This study also finds out the relationship between financial benefit, manger attitude and organizational commitment. At last, the factors affecting employee loyalty was also determined. To achieve the aim of the study questionnaire survey was used. The results show that there is a positive and significant impact of organizational commitment on employee loyalty in Pakistani organizations.

Keywords: Employee loyalty, Organizational Commitment, Pakistan, financial benefit, manager attitude


Islamic banking as well as financial institutions should be able to anticipate the needs of the marketplace and also rotate available Islamic financial services prior to conventional products to make sure continual progress and also competitiveness regarding Islamic banking and also financial options. Nonetheless, Islamic bank as well as financial products tended to replicate the typical versions, causing these products dropping worth as well as leading to some distress inside their meaning. Hence, a conceptual research study will be conducted for the growth & development of Islamic financial product from Shariah perspective. Even so, this specific research aims to handle the actual Shariah aspect of Islamic financial product development in addition to focus on the problems developing in the process according to secondary sources. The actual output of this research ought to bring about the actual progression associated with process of Islamic financial product development, in particular in the Shariah aspect, as it is the majority of imperative tool for that Islamic banking institutions in order to meet the increasing concern about profitability, liquidity, asset value, risk management, along with product acceptability. The study aspires to talk about the Fiqh muamalat self-discipline that may offer enough places with regard to creating Islamic products or service development, a place by which Islamic financial institutions should emphasize their means.

Keywords: Islamic banking, Islamic finance, Pakistan, Product development, Shariah analysis


This study aims to examine the impact of promotional approach, attractive display of product, in store environment, price reduction on impulse buying behavior. The paper uses primary data. The source of the data is questionnaire which is filled by the respondent. Target population of the research study is those people who are coming for shopping in malls, retail stores in Pakistan. There is positive relationship between dependent variable with independent variable. Null hypothesis is accepted and alternative is rejected. The study only focuses on the quantitative research. The research study focused only for impulsive buying for clothing but many other things can be considered.

Keywords: Attractive Display Of Product, Impulse Buying Behavior, In-Store Environment, Pakistan, Price Reduction, Promotional Approach